Table 3Prospective cohort studies (general population) on the effects of EPA and DHA consumption on mortality phenotypes

Author, Year, Country (Reference)Sample sizeMales (%)Age mean (range), [y]Dietary assessmentEPA, DHA intake (g/d)1Duration (y)Outcome (ascertainment)AdjustmentsQuality assessment
ABCDEFGHI
Studies reporting on cardiac or cardiovascular death
Pietinen et al, 1997, Finland(21)21930100NR (50-69)FFQ0.46.1Coronary death from central population register, death certificatesDEM, SES,
ANTHRO,
HEALTH,
LIFE,
NUTRIENT,
ENERGY,
OTHER
YYYYYYYYY
De Goede et al, 2010,Netherlands(56)213424542 (20-65)FFQ0.111.3CHD death from registryDEM,
ENERGY,
LIFE,
SES,
NUTRIENT
YYYYYYYYY
Yuan et al, 2001, China(22)1824410056 (45-64)FFQ0.112Acute MI death from death certificatesDEM,
SES,
ANTHRO,
HEALTH,
LIFE,
ENERGY
YYYYYYYYY
Kamphuis et al, 2006, Netherlands(24)2574100NR( 70-90)Dietary history method0.110CVD death from general practitioners, hospital registriesDEM,
SES,
ANTHRO,
HEALTH,
LIFE,
ENERGY
YNNNYYYNRY
Studies reporting on cardiac, cardiovascular or sudden cardiac death
Iso et al, 2006, Japan (27)3326248NR (40-59)FFQ0.910Sudden cardiac death (ND)DEM,
SES,
ANTHRO,
HEALTH,
LIFE,
NUTRIENT,
ENERGY
YYYYYYYYY
Albert et al, 1998, United States (25)20551100NR (40-84)FFQ0.311Sudden death from medical records, reports from next of kinDEM,
ANTHRO,
HEALTH,
LIFE,
NUTRIENT,
OTHER
YYYYYYYYY
Studies reporting on all-cause deaths
Folsom et al. 2004, United States (29)41835054 (55-69)FFQ0.114All-cause deaths from questionnaires, death records, national death indexDEM,
SES,
ANTHRO,
HEALTH,
LIFE,
NUTRIENT,
ENERGY
YYNYYYYYY
Nagata et al, 2002, Japan (30)290804655 (35-NR)FFQ0.87All-cause deaths (ND)DEM,
ANTHRO,
HEALTH,
LIFE,
ENERGY
YYNYYYYYY
Studies that do not report sufficient data for meta-regression
Dolecek et al., 1992, United States (23)6250100(35-57)Multiple 24-hrdietary recall0.0410.5All-cause and CHD mortality (National Death Index, death certificates)DEM,
HEALTH,
LIFE
YYYNRYYYYN
Kaushik et al, 2008, Australia (28)26835649FFQND10CHD deathDEM,
SES,
ANTHRO,
HEALTH,
LIFE,
ENE
YYYNNNRYYY

Abbreviations: FA = Fatty acids; FFQ = Food frequency questionnaire; US = United States; BMI = Body mass index; CHD = Coronary heart disease; HDL= High density lipoprotein; DEM = Demographics; SES = Socio-economic status; ANTHRO = Anthropometric data; HEALTH = health or disease conditions; LIFE = lifestyle variables such as smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity; NUTRIENT = other nutrient intakes; NR, Not reported

For quality assessment: A, unbiased cohort selection; B, large sample size (>10000), C, adequate description of participants, D: validated dietary assessment method, E: Quantification of the type and amount of long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes, F: adequate method to ascertain clinical outcome, G: long follow-up period (at least 5 years), H: completeness of data throughout follow-up (at least for 80 percent of participants), I: Multivariate analyses adjusted for energy or nutritional variables

1

Mean or median intake of EPA and DHA

From: Results

Cover of Effects of Eicosapentanoic Acid and Docosahexanoic Acid on Mortality Across Diverse Settings: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials and Prospective Cohorts
Effects of Eicosapentanoic Acid and Docosahexanoic Acid on Mortality Across Diverse Settings: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials and Prospective Cohorts: Nutritional Research Series, Vol. 4.
Technical Reviews, No. 17.4.
Trikalinos TA, Lee J, Moorthy D, et al.

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