The Forum on Emerging Infections was created by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1996 in response to a request from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of the Forum is to provide structured opportunities for leaders from government, academia, and industry to regularly meet and examine issues of shared concern regarding research, prevention, detection, and management of emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases in humans, plants, and animals. In pursuing this task, the Forum provides a venue to foster the exchange of information and ideas, identify areas in need of greater attention, clarify policy issues by enhancing knowledge and identifying points of agreement, and inform decision makers about science and policy issues. The Forum seeks to illuminate issues rather than resolve them. For this reason, it does not provide advice or recommendations on any specific policy initiative pending before any agency or organization. Its value derives instead from the diversity of its membership and from the contributions that individual members make throughout the activities of the Forum. In September 2003, the Forum changed its name to the Forum on Microbial Threats.

The Forum on Microbial Threats and the IOM wish to express their warmest appreciation to the individuals and organizations who gave their valuable time to provide information and advice to the Forum through their participation in the planning and execution of this workshop. A full list of presenters, and their biographical information, may be found in Appendixes B and F, respectively.

The Forum gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the members of the planning committee1: James J. Collins (Boston University), Stephen A. Johnston (Arizona State University), George Poste (Arizona State University), and P. Frederick Sparling (University of North Carolina).

The Forum is indebted to the IOM staff who tirelessly contributed throughout the planning and execution of the workshop and the production of this workshop summary report. On behalf of the Forum, we gratefully acknowledge these efforts led by Dr. Eileen Choffnes, director of the Forum; Dr. LeighAnne Olsen, program officer; Katherine McClure, senior program associate; Rebekah Hutton, research associate; Collin Weinberger, research associate; and Robert Gasior and Pamela Bertelson, senior program assistants, for dedicating much effort and time to developing this workshop’s agenda and for their thoughtful and insightful approach and skill in planning for the workshop and in translating the workshop’s proceedings and discussion into this workshop summary report. We would also like to thank the following IOM staff and consultants for their valuable contributions to this activity: Jill Grady, Laura Harbold, Leslie Pray, Heather Phillips, and Vilija Teel.

Finally, the Forum wishes to recognize the sponsors that supported this activity. Financial support for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NIH, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, CDC, Food and Drug Administration, and the Fogarty International Center; U.S. Department of Defense, Department of the Army: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Medical Research and Materiel Command, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; U.S. Agency for International Development; American Society for Microbiology; sanofi pasteur; Burroughs Wellcome Fund; Pfizer, Inc.; GlaxoSmithKline; Infectious Diseases Society of America; and the Merck Company Foundation. The views presented in this workshop summary report are those of the workshop participants and rapporteurs and are not necessarily those of the Forum on Microbial Threats or its sponsors.



Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.