Table 26Evidence summary table for trials of applied relaxation

Applied relaxation versus waitlist controlApplied relaxation versus non-directive therapy
No. trials
(total participants)
3 RCTs
(127)
1 RCT
(43)
Study ID
BORKOVEC1993
Follow-up
  1. 24 months (not extractable)
  2. 6, 12 and 24 months (not extractable)
  3. 6 and 12 months
6 and 12 months
Benefits
Anxiety (self-rated)SMD = −0.49 (−0.86, −0.13)
K = 3, N = 121
Quality: high
SMD = −0.48 (−1.14, 0.19)
K = 1, N = 36
Quality: low
Anxiety (self-rated) at follow-upAt 6 months:
SMD = −0.32 (−1.01, 0.36)
K = 1, N = 33

At 12 months:
SMD = −0.08 (−0.76, 0.60)
K = 1, N = 33
Anxiety (clinician-rated)SMD = −1.00 (−1.38, −0.62)
K = 3, N = 124
Quality: high
SMD = −0.82 (−1.51, −0.14)
K = 1, N = 36
Quality: low
Anxiety (clinician-rated) at follow-upAt 6 months:
SMD = −0.65 (−1.35, 0.06)
K = 1, N = 33

At 12 months:
SMD = −0.20 (−0.89, 0.48)
K = 1, N = 33
Depression (self-rated)SMD = −0.54 (−0.98, −0.10)
K = 2, N = 82
Quality: high
SMD = −0.36 (−1.02, 0.29)
K = 1, N = 36
Quality: low
Depression (self-rated) at follow-upAt 6 months:
SMD = −0.26 (−0.94, 0.43)
K = 1, N = 33

At 12 months:
SMD = 0.04 (−0.64, 0.72)
K = 1, N = 33
Depression (clinician- rated)SMD = −0.47 (−1.14, 0.20)
K = 2, N = 104
Quality: low
WorrySMD = −0.70 (−1.10, −0.31)
K = 2, N = 104
Quality: high
SMD = −0.61 (−1.28, 0.06)
K = 1, N = 36
Quality: low
Worry at follow-upAt 6 months:
SMD = 0.04 (−0.64, 0.72)
K = 1, N = 33

At 12 months:
SMD = −0.08 (−0.77, 0.60)
K = 1, N = 33
Non-responseRR = 0.39 (0.21, 0.72)
K = 1, N = 36
Quality: moderate
RR = 0.54 (0.32, 0.91)
K = 1, N = 43
Quality: moderate
Non-response at follow-upAt 12 months:
RR = 0.8 (0.48, 1.33)
K = 1, N = 43
Harm
Discontinuation due to any reasonRR = 2.20 (0.37, 13.19)
K = 3, N = 141
Quality: low
RR = 2.17 (0.47, 10.00)
K = 1, N = 43
Quality: low

From: 7, HIGH-INTENSITY PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS

Cover of Generalised Anxiety Disorder in Adults
Generalised Anxiety Disorder in Adults: Management in Primary, Secondary and Community Care.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 113.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).
Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society; 2011.
Copyright © 2011, The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

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