A map of the world illustrating selected dispersal events of fungal pathogens.

FIGURE WO-6Selected dispersal events of fungal pathogens

Red and blue arrows indicate invasions of new territories (first year recorded in brackets). Red arrows indicate dispersal that probably occurred by direct movements of airborne spores (I, II, III, and IV). Blue arrows indicate pathogens that were probably transported to the new territory in infected plant material or by people and spread thereafter as airborne spores (V, VI, VII, and VIII). Orange circles indicate the worldwide spread of black Sigatoka disease of banana; the first outbreak on each continent is marked (IX). Green arrows indicate periodic migrations of airborne spores in extinction-recolonization cycles (X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV).

SOURCE: From J. K. M. Brown and M. S. Hovmøller. 2002. Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science 29(5581):537–541, reprinted with permission from AAAS. Background map provided courtesy of Christopher Lukinbeal, University of Arizona.

From: Workshop Overview

Cover of Fungal Diseases
Fungal Diseases: An Emerging Threat to Human, Animal, and Plant Health: Workshop Summary.
Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.
Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.

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