Table 10Protocols that did not report information on triggers for intervention in chronological order of starting enrollment year

Center, Country
[Pubmed ID]
Enrollment years
Term usedAge (yr)PSA (ng/mL)Gleason score# biopsy cores /% coresImagingStageBehavioral indication (other than patients’ choice or preference)
Kagawa Medical Univ., Japan153
EM;WW“elevated PSA”≤61–2 positive cores per 6 sextant cores; ≤50% involvement of any positive core
Kitasato Univ. Hospital, Japan154
WW6 sextant biopsy“clinically localized prostate cancer”
Univ. of North Carolina, US155
Princess Margaret Hospital, Canada156
AS<10<6≤3 positive biopsy cores (<50% of a core involved at initial diagnostic biopsy); fist-time biopsies consisted of 6 cores before 2001 and 11 cores after 2001.T1c-T2a
BCCA, Canada157
WWPatient wish (37%), reduced life expectancy due to medical problem (19%), physician recommendation (42%); relative contraindication to RT (2%)
Kansas City VA, US158
ASa<20<6<20% positive biopsy≤ T2

WW = watchful waiting; EM = expectant management; NR = not reported; DT = doubling time; mo = month(s); PAP = prostate acid phosphatase; PSA = prostate specific antigen; TRUS = transrectal ultrasound; CT = computerized tomography; PSA = prostate-specific antigen; TNM = tumor-node-metastasis system; US = ultrasound; yr = year(s); BCCA = British Columbia Cancer Agency


AS criteria were created explicitly for the analyses only, this is not a prospective AS cohort.

From: Results

Cover of An Evidence Review of Active Surveillance in Men With Localized Prostate Cancer
An Evidence Review of Active Surveillance in Men With Localized Prostate Cancer.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 204.
Ip S, Dahabreh IJ, Chung M, et al.

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