Chapter 23Journals on the Internet

Journals are a particular type of periodical. These same rules and examples can be used for magazines and other types of periodicals.

A. Journal Articles on the Internet

B. Journal Titles on the Internet

See also:

Chapter 1B Parts of Journal Articles

Chapter 11A Forthcoming Journal Articles

Chapter 16 Journals in Audiovisual Formats

Chapter 19 Journals on CD-ROM, DVD, Disk

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Journal Articles on the Internet

The general format for a reference to an article from a journal published on the Internet, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an article from a journal published on the Internet.

Examples of Citations to Journal Articles on the Internet

Many online journals are identical to their print versions. Increasingly, however, journals are written directly for the Internet to enable hyperlinking, to include complex graphics, and to run multimedia such as film clips and sound.

An Internet journal may be static, fixed in time and unchanged since publication, or may be updated or otherwise revised over time. Some Internet journal producers permit or otherwise welcome comments or expert opinion from readers and incorporate these comments into the text. Major revisions may be announced, but more minor additions and changes such as adding comments, correcting typographical errors, or updating hypertext links, may not be noted.

Although Internet journals differ radically in physical form from print journals, the basic rules for citing them do not differ markedly. There is still an author or organization with responsibility for the article, an article title, a journal title, a date of publication, and the location of the item (page numbers or the equivalent). Anyone citing an Internet document should try to locate all of these elements. Simply adding a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), Digital Object Identifier (DOI), or another electronic address to a title is not sufficient. Internet sites disappear with great frequency, and users of a citation must be given some other identifying information if they are to locate articles.

What has changed most with Internet journals, particularly those without print counterparts, is volume and issue information. Some publishers omit volume and issue numbers, substituting an article numbering scheme or using the date the item was placed on the Internet as an identifier. See examples 28 and 29. Many publishers also employ an article numbering scheme in place of pagination. See example 36.

Cite an Internet journal article as you would a print article, but with these major exceptions:

  • Use the word "Internet" in square brackets as the Type of Medium after the journal title.
  • Include any date of update/revision and a date of citation in square brackets following the date of publication. Use the dates for the individual journal article being cited, not the dates of the journal issue as a whole unless no dates can be found for the individual item.
  • When the location (pagination) of the article is not provided, as often occurs, calculate the length of the article using the best means possible, e.g., in terms of print pages, screens, paragraphs, or bytes. If an article is not linear, and has many hyperlinks, it will be impossible to determine the length.
  • Provide the URL or other electronic address of the article.

It is important to cite the version you saw. If you viewed an article on the Internet, do not cite it as if it were a print one. However, it may be useful to begin a citation to an Internet article by first locating all of the information needed to cite it as if it were a print article, then adding the Internet-specific items. For example:

  • Print information
  • Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jul 4;145(1):62-9.
  • Added Internet information (in bold)
  • Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2007 Jan 4];145(1):62-9. Available from: http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/145/1/62.pdf

If a journal on the Internet lacks a formal title page or table of contents, look for citation information on the opening screens, the bottom or closing screens, links from the sidebar, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser).

Every effort is made in this chapter to provide a comprehensive list of examples for journal articles on the Internet to illustrate the rules below. If needed, consult Chapter 1A Journal Articles for more information on the individual components of a citation.

This chapter includes citation rules for entire journal articles on the Internet. For citing parts of these articles, combine the guidelines presented in this chapter with those in Chapter 1B Parts of Journal Articles. See also example 43 below.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Journal Articles on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Journal Articles on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Article Title (R) | Article Type (O) | Journal Title (R) | Edition (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear on the title page or opening screens
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period

See exceptions for Author in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®.

Specific Rules for Author

Box Icon

Box 1

Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens within surnames. Estelle Palmer-Canton   becomes   Palmer-Canton E Ahmed El-Assmy   becomes   El-Assmy (more...)

Box Icon

Box 2

Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit   becomes   Al Bassit L Jiddeke M. van de Kamp   becomes   van de Kamp JM Gerard de Pouvourville    (more...)

Box Icon

Box 3

Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Disregard hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot   becomes   Lagrot JL Use only the first letter of given (more...)

Box Icon

Box 4

Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors that follow a personal name, such as M.D. James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   Reed JA Katherine Schmidt, (more...)

Box Icon

Box 5

Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent T. DeVita, Jr.   becomes   DeVita (more...)

Box Icon

Box 6

Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

Box Icon

Box 7

Organizations as author. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may be an author. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society   becomes   American (more...)

Box Icon

Box 8

No author can be found. If no person or organization can be found as the author but editors or translators are given, begin the reference with the names of the editors or translators. Follow the same rules used for author names, but end the list of names (more...)

Box Icon

Box 9

Options for author names. The following formats are not NLM practice for citing authors, but are acceptable options: Full first names of authors may be given. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; (more...)

Author Affiliation for Journal Articles on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place parentheses around the affiliation, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

See exceptions for Author Affiliation in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

Box Icon

Box 10

Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for (more...)

Box Icon

Box 11

E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the publication Do not end an e-mail address with a period Place the e-mail address within (more...)

Box Icon

Box 12

Organizational names not in English. Give the affiliation of all authors or only the first author Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian province (see Appendix (more...)

Box Icon

Box 13

Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

Article Title for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Article Title

  • Enter the title of an article as it appears on the title page or opening screens
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Translate non-English titles into English; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or an Article Type follows it

See exceptions for Article Title in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Article Title

Box Icon

Box 14

Article titles not in English. Translate article titles not in English Place all translated titles in square brackets Indicate the language after the availability statement (URL), followed by a period Example: Terraza Nunez R, Vargas Lorenzo I, Vazquez (more...)

Box Icon

Box 15

Translated article titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most article titles end in a period. When a translation of an article title is provided, place it in square brackets, with the closing period outside the right bracket. Kanoh T. [IgD (more...)

Box Icon

Box 16

Article titles in more than one language. If an article is in English and other languages: Give the English language version of the article title List all languages of publication, separated by commas, after the availability statement (URL) End the list (more...)

Box Icon

Box 17

Article titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Capitalize the first word of an article title unless the title begins with a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character that might lose its meaning (more...)

Box Icon

Box 18

Article titles with headers. Journal articles sometimes contain a header (such as news, case report, or clinical study) at the top of the page or screen to indicate a section of the issue. Do not include a header as part of the article title unless the (more...)

Box Icon

Box 19

No article title can be found. Occasionally a publication does not appear to have any title; the article or other short document simply begins with the text. In this circumstance, create a title from the first few words of the text and place it in square (more...)

Article Type for Journal Articles on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Article Type

  • An article type alerts the user that the reference is to an abstract of an article or a letter to the editor, not a full article. Content designator is another phrase for this.
  • Place [abstract] or [letter] after the article title
  • Other article types are also available though used less often, such as book review, editorial, or interview
  • Follow the bracketed article type with a period, placed outside the closing bracket

See exceptions for Article Type in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Article Type

Box Icon

Box 20

Articles titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most journal article titles end in a period. Place [letter] or [abstract] inside the period. Increased cardiac Connexin45 results in uncoupling and spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias in mice (more...)

Box Icon

Box 21

Article titles not in English. Most journal article titles end in a period. When a translation of a journal article title is used as the title, place it in square brackets. Put (letter) or (abstract) inside the brackets. [Study of nasal permeability (more...)

Journal Title for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Journal Title

  • Enter a journal title in the original language
  • Abbreviate significant words in a journal title (see Abbreviation rules for journal titles below) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions
  • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations
  • End the journal title with a space
Box Icon

Box 22

Abbreviation rules for journal titles. Abbreviate and capitalize significant words in a journal title and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions. For example: of, the, at, in, and, L'. The Journal of Bacteriology    (more...)

See exceptions for Journal Title (Journal Title Abbreviation) in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Journal Title

Box Icon

Box 23

Single word journal titles. Do not abbreviate journal titles that consist of a single word, regardless of language Ophthalmology   remains   Ophthalmology Alergie   remains   Alergie (more...)

Box Icon

Box 24

Non-English journal titles. For a non-English journal title in the roman alphabet (French, German, Spanish, Italian, etc.): Provide the title in the original language Abbreviate it according to the Abbreviation rules for journal titles Capitalize all (more...)

Box Icon

Box 25

Journal titles appearing in more than one language. Use the title in the first language found, in order of preference: on the title page or opening screen of the issue, the homepage for the journal, the first page of the article. Use the title in the (more...)

Box Icon

Box 26

Journals appearing in different editions. If a journal is published in more than one edition, include the edition information after the title Abbreviate and capitalize all significant words in the edition information and omit other words, such as articles, (more...)

Box Icon

Box 27

Options for journal titles. The following formats are not NLM practice for citing journal titles, but are acceptable options: Periods may be placed after each abbreviated word in the title J Health Commun [Internet].   may become (more...)

Edition for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate each significant word (see Abbreviation rules for editions below) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions
  • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations
  • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (Br Ed)
  • End the edition statement with a space

See exceptions for Edition in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Edition

Box Icon

Box 29

Non-English words for editions. For non-English edition statements in the roman alphabet (French, German, Spanish, Italian, etc.): Give edition information in the original language Abbreviate and capitalize all significant words and omit the other words, (more...)

Content Type for Journal Articles on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • A content type describes the format of the Internet item being cited
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "serial on the"
  • End content type with space

Type of Medium for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place Internet in square brackets
  • End with a period
  • See Chapter 16A for journal articles in audiovisual formats and Chapter 19A for articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

See exceptions for Type of Medium in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

Box Icon

Box 30

Both an edition and a type of medium. If a journal has both an edition and a type of medium, follow the title with the edition, then the type of medium Place a period outside the closing bracket for the medium Example: Bertino E, Milani S, Fabris C, (more...)

Box Icon

Box 31

Both a content type and a type of medium. If a content type is used, place it before the type of medium and inside the square brackets for the medium Nomura K, Nakao M, Sato M, Yano E. Regular prescriptions for benzodiazepines: a cross-sectional study (more...)

Date of Publication for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include the year, month, and day of publication in that order, such as 2004 May 5
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers, such as MM to 2000
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a semicolon unless there is no volume or issue (see No volume or issue follows the date below), then use a colon
Box Icon

Box 36

No volume or issue follows the date. If a journal uses only an article numbering scheme instead of a volume and issue, treat the number as location (pagination) and follow the instructions under Article numbers used for location Aoki TT, Grecu EO, Arcangeli (more...)

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

Box Icon

Box 32

Further divisions to a date other than volume or issue. A journal may publish a supplement, part, or special number to a date of publication rather than to a specific volume or issue. Capitalize and abbreviate the words used for such divisions, but do (more...)

Box Icon

Box 33

Multiple years, months, or days of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last year of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 If months (more...)

Box Icon

Box 34

Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them to the first three letters Capitalize them For example: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

Box Icon

Box 35

Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Separate multiple seasons by a hyphen, such as Fall-Winter Translate (more...)

Box Icon

Box 37

Options for dates. Is not NLM practice, but the following are acceptable options: The month and day of the month or the season may be omitted if the journal is continuously paginated throughout the volume. However, the month and day of the month or the (more...)

Date of Update/Revision for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Journal articles may be updated or revised after initial publication
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated or modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

Box Icon

Box 38

Locating the date of update/revision. Articles on the Internet are often updated or revised after publication. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modified, revised, reviewed: At the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first screen or (more...)

Box Icon

Box 39

Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

Box Icon

Box 40

Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

Box Icon

Box 41

Both a date of update and a date of revision. Various words are used to show that the content of an article has been changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Use the wording supplied with the article Give all words for update/revision (more...)

Date of Citation for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Give the date the article was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a Date of Update/Revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no Date of Update/Revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a semicolon placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

Box Icon

Box 42

Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation. Various words are used to show that the content of an article has been changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Begin with the date(s) of update/revision in the format year (more...)

Volume Number for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Volume Number

  • Omit "volume", "vol.", and similar wording preceding the number
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert LX or Sixtieth to 60.
  • Separate multiple volumes by a hyphen, such as 5-6 or 42-43
  • Do not follow a volume number with any punctuation unless there is no issue number or other subdivision to the volume, then follow with a colon

Specific Rules for Volume Number

Box Icon

Box 43

Further divisions to a volume other than issue. A volume will occasionally have a subdivision such as a supplement, part, or special number. Abbreviate the names for such subdivisions: Supplement = Suppl Part = Pt Special Number = Spec No Translate (more...)

Box Icon

Box 44

Non-English names for volume. To help locate volumes, see the following list of non-English words and abbreviations for volume in a variety of languages: aarg.   aargang   année   anno   año   årg.   årgang   band   bd.   bind (more...)

Box Icon

Box 45

No volume number present. A volume number usually follows the date of publication. Occasionally a journal publishes a series of issues without volumes, publishes a supplement, part, or special number to a date of publication rather than to a volume or (more...)

Issue Number for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Issue Number

  • Omit "number", "no.", and other wording preceding the number
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example, convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Separate multiple issues by a hyphen, such as 2-3
  • Place issue information in parentheses
  • End issue information with a colon unless further divisions, such as a supplement or part, exist (see Further divisions to an issue below)
Box Icon

Box 46

Further divisions to an issue. An issue will occasionally have a subdivision such as a supplement, part, or special number. Capitalize and abbreviate them: Supplement = Suppl Part = Pt Special Number = Spec No Translate names for supplements, parts, (more...)

Specific Rules for Issue Number

Box Icon

Box 47

Non-English names for issue. To help locate issues in languages other than English, see the following list of words and abbreviations used for issue (usually variations on the word number): čís.   číslo   fasc.   fascicle   fascicule   fasciculus   heft   knižka (more...)

Box Icon

Box 48

No volume number present. If there are issues only, no volume numbers, follow the dates of publication and citation with a semicolon and the issue number, placed in parentheses Suber P. Providing open access to past research articles, starting with the (more...)

Box Icon

Box 49

No issue number present. If no issue number is found, follow the volume number with a colon and the location (pagination) Wolfe L. America's fidelity crisis: politics, hypocrisy and family values. Electron J Hum Sex [Internet]. 2006 Oct 25 [cited 2007 (more...)

Box Icon

Box 50

Options for issues. It is not NLM practice, but an issue number may be omitted if the journal is continuously paginated throughout the volume. Note, however, that many libraries such as the NLM require issue numbers for retrieval from their collections (more...)

Location (Pagination) for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

For articles with standard page numbers such as those in PDF:

  • Give the page numbers on which the article appears
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 123-125 becomes 123-5, but 124A-126A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number, such as S10-8
  • End pagination information with a period

For articles without page numbers:

  • Calculate the extent of the article by the best means possible, i.e., number of screens, paragraphs, or bytes (see No numbers appear on the pages of the article below)
  • Precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 15 screens]
  • If the article is printed out, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 10 p.]
  • End pagination information with a period
  • See Chapter 19A for articles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk
Box Icon

Box 54

No numbers appear on the pages of the article. If all of the pages of an article in PDF (Portable Document Format) have no page numbers: Count the total numbers of pages of the text Follow the count total by "p." Place the number and " p." in square (more...)

See exceptions for Location (Pagination or Notes) in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE®/PubMed®

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

Box Icon

Box 51

Roman numerals used as page numbers. Keep roman numerals expressing location (pagination) Use upper or lower case, whichever appears in the publication Examples: Meyer G, Foster N, Christrup S, Eisenberg J. Setting a research agenda for medical errors (more...)

Box Icon

Box 52

Discontinuous page numbers. If the pagination is discontinuous, as often occurs when an article is interrupted by advertisements, separate the groupings of page numbers by a comma and a space :345-6, 348-9, 352. :15, 17, 19-21. Give up to three groupings (more...)

Box Icon

Box 53

Text such as a discussion, quiz, or author reply to a letter follows the article. Begin with the location (pagination) of the article Follow it by a semicolon and a space Add the name of the additional material and its pagination Examples: :145-54; discussion (more...)

Box Icon

Box 56

Articles that are videocasts or podcasts. If the entire article (not just a portion of one) is available as a videocast or podcast: Enter the word Videocast or Podcast followed by a colon and a space Give extent as the number of minutes needed to view/listen (more...)

Availability for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

Box Icon

Box 57

Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break within a URL

Box Icon

Box 58

URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always be used to retrieve the article, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions for (more...)

Box Icon

Box 59

Multiple URLs. If more than one URL can be used to locate an article: Give the URL you used in locating the article As an option, give all known URLs, separated by a space, a semicolon, and a space Example: Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4962t/y4962t01.htm#bm1..1.3.1 (more...)

Examples for Availability

Language for Journal Articles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

See exceptions for Language in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE® /PubMed®

Specific Rules for Language

Box Icon

Box 60

Articles appearing in more than one language. If an article is written in English as well as other languages: Give the English language version of the article title List all languages of publication, separated by commas, after the availability statement (more...)

Notes for Journal Articles on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a term for any further information given after the citation
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

See exceptions for Location (Pagination or Notes) in Appendix F: Notes for Citing MEDLINE®/PubMed®

Specific Rules for Notes

Box Icon

Box 61

DOI. The DOI or Digital Object Identifier was developed by the International DOI Foundation (http://www.doi.org/) to provide for persistent identification of documents across networks. It does this using a naming convention consisting of a prefix that (more...)

Box Icon

Box 62

System requirements. The system requirements describe the software and hardware needed to view an article successfully. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the wording supplied by the publisher; no standardization (more...)

Box Icon

Box 63

Other types of material to include in notes. The notes element may be used to provide any further information useful to the user. For example: If the journal article is accompanied by other material, indicate this following the phrase "Accompanied by: (more...)

Examples of Citations to Journal Articles on the Internet

1. Standard journal article on the Internet

Polgreen PM, Diekema DJ, Vandeberg J, Wiblin RT, Chen YY, David S, Rasmus D, Gerdts N, Ross A, Katz L, Herwaldt LA. Risk factors for groin wound infection after femoral artery catheterization: a case-control study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol [Internet]. 2006 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 5];27(1):34-7. Available from: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ICHE/journal/issues/v27n1/2004069/2004069.web.pdf

Poole KE, Compston JE. Osteoporosis and its management. BMJ [Internet]. 2006 Dec 16 [cited 2007 Jan 4];333(7581):1251-6. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/333/7581/1251?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexactfulltext=
and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=333&firstpage=
1251&resourcetype=HWCIT

Happell B. The influence of education on the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students. Aust Electron J Nurs Educ [Internet]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Jan 8];8(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/nhcp/aejne/vol8-1/refereed/happell_max.html

2. Journal article on the Internet with optional full names for authors

Huh, Jisu; Cude, Brenda J. Is the information "fair and balanced" in direct-to-consumer prescription drug website? J Health Commun [Internet]. 2004 Nov-Dec [cited 2007 Jan 5];9(6):529-40. Available from: http://journals.taylorandfrancis.com/forms/hcm/9_529.pdf

3. Journal article on the Internet with many authors (give all)

Terauchi Y, Takamoto I, Kubota N, Matsui J, Suzuki R, Komeda K, Hara A, Toyoda Y, Miwa I, Aizawa S, Tsutsumi S, Tsubamoto Y, Hashimoto S, Eto K, Nakamura A, Noda M, Tobe K, Aburatani H, Nagai R, Kadowaki T. Glucokinase and IRS-2 are required for compensatory beta cell hyperplasia in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest [Internet]. 2007 Jan 2 [cited 2007 Jan 5];117(1):246-57. Available from: http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/117/1/246 DOI:10.1172/JCI17645

4. Journal article on the Internet with optional limit to the number of authors

to the first three

Terauchi Y, Takamoto I, Kubota N, et al. Glucokinase and IRS-2 are required for compensatory beta cell hyperplasia in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest [Internet]. 2007 Jan 2 [cited 2007 Jan 5];117(1):246-57. Available from: http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/117/1/246

or

Terauchi Y, Takamoto I, Kubota N, and others. Glucokinase and IRS-2 are required for compensatory beta cell hyperplasia in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest [Internet]. 2007 Jan 2 [cited 2007 Jan 5];117(1):246-57. Available from: http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/117/1/246 doi:10.1172/JCI17645

to the first six

Terauchi Y, Takamoto I, Kubota N, Matsui J, Suzuki R, Komeda K, et al. Glucokinase and IRS-2 are required for compensatory beta cell hyperplasia in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest [Internet]. 2007 Jan 2 [cited 2007 Jan 5];117(1):246-57. Available from: http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/117/1/246

or

Terauchi Y, Takamoto I, Kubota N, Matsui J, Suzuki R, Komeda K, and others. Glucokinase and IRS-2 are required for compensatory beta cell hyperplasia in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest [Internet]. 2007 Jan 2 [cited 2007 Jan 5];117(1):246-57. Available from: http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/117/1/246 doi:10.1172/JCI17645

5. Journal article on the Internet with author surnames showing designations of family rank

Jouyban A, Acree WE Jr. In silico prediction of drug solubility in water-ethanol mixtures using Jouyban-Acree model. J Pharm Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 5];9(2):262-9. Available from: http://www.ualberta.ca/~csps/JPPS9_2/Dr_Jouyban/MS_820.htm

Seitz AR, Nanez JE Sr, Holloway S, Tsushima Y, Watanabe T. Two cases requiring external reinforcement in perceptual learning. J Vis [Internet]. 2006 Aug 22 [cited 2007 Jan 9];6(9):966-73. Available from: http://journalofvision.org//6/9/9/.

Lobb WB, Wilkin NE, McCaffrey DJ 3rd, Wilson MC, Bentley JP. The predictive utility of nontraditional test scores for first-year pharmacy student academic performance. Am J Pharm Educ [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 5];70(6):Article 128 [6 p.]. Available from: http://www.ajpe.org/aj7006/aj7006128/aj7006128.pdf

6. Journal article on the Internet with author surnames having a prefix, particle, or preposition (give as found in the article)

Lin SK, McPhee DJ, Muguet FF. Open access publishing policy and efficient editorial procedure. Entropy [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 8];8:131-3. Available from: http://www.mdpi.org/entropy/htm/e8030131.htm

Puri S, O'Brian MR. The hmuQ and hmuD genes from Bradyrhizobium japonicum encode heme-degrading enzymes. J Bacteriol [Internet]. 2006 Sep [cited 2007 Jan 8];188(18):6476-82. Available from: http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/full/188/18/6476?view=long&pmid=16952937

Weisfelt M, van de Beek D, Spanjaard L, de Gans J. Arthritis in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis [Internet]. 2006 Mar 29 [cited 2007 Jan 8];6:Article 64 [5 p.]. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/6/64

Bijvoet AG, Van Hirtum H, Kroos MA, Van de Kamp EH, Schoneveld O, Visser P, Brakenhoff JP, Weggeman M, van Corven EJ, Van der Ploeg AT, Reuser AJ. Human acid [alpha]-glucosidase from rabbit milk has therapeutic effect in mice with glycogen storage disease type II. Hum Mol Genet [Internet]. 1999 Nov [cited 2007 Jan 9];8(12):2145-53. Available from: http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/8/12/2145

Bertino E, Milani S, Fabris C, De Curtis M. Neonatal anthropometric charts: what they are, what they are not. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Ed) [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 9];92(1):F7-10. Available from: http://fn.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/92/1/F7

Najim RA, Al-Waiz MM, Al-Razzuqi RA. Acetylator phenotype in Iraqi patients with atopic dermatitis. Dermatol Online J [Internet]. 2006 Nov [cited 2007 Jan 9];12(7):Article 1 [about 11 screens]. Available from: http://dermatology.cdlib.org/127/original/acetylator/najim.html

7. Journal article on the Internet with compound author surnames

Boutin-Foster C. In spite of good intentions: patients' perspectives on problematic social support interactions. Health Qual Life Outcomes [Internet]. 2005 Sep 5 [cited 2007 Jan 5];3(1):Article 52 [about 12 p.]. Available from: http://www.hqlo.com/content/3/1/52

Ahmad F, Hogg-Johnson S, Skinner HA. Assessing patient attitudes to computerized screening in primary care: psychometric properties of the computerized lifestyle assessment scale. J Med Internet Res [Internet]. 2008 Apr 18 [cited 2008 Nov 17];10(2):e11 [about 14 p.]. Available from: http://www.jmir.org/2008/2/e11/. Free full text article.

Rekha R, Moshahid Alam R, Jaishree P. Designing and validation of genus-specific primers for human gut flora study. Electron J Biotechnol [Internet]. 2006 Oct 15 [cited 2007 Jan 8];9(5):505-11. Available from: http://www.ejbiotechnology.info/content/vol9/issue5/full/2/2.pdf

Terraza Nunez R, Vargas Lorenzo I, Vazquez Navarrete ML. [Coordination among healthcare levels: systematization of tools and measures]. Gac Sanit [Internet]. 2006 Nov-Dec [cited 2007 Jan 9];20(6):485-95. Available from: http://db.doyma.es/cgi-bin/wdbcgi.exe/doyma/mrevista.pubmed_full?inctrl=05ZI0108&rev=138&vol=
20&num=6&pag=485 Spanish.

8. Journal article on the Internet with organization(s) as author

National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa. Use of generic alendronate in the treatment of osteoporosis. S Afr Med J [Internet]. 2006 Aug [cited 2007 Jan 9];96(8):696-7. Available from: http://blues.sabinet.co.za/WebZ/Authorize?sessionid=0:autho=pubmed:password=
pubmed2004&/AdvancedQuery?&format=F&next=images/ejour/m_samj/
m_samj_v96_n8_a12.pdf

American Medical Association; American Nurses Association--American Nurses Foundation; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); Food and Drug Administration (US), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition; Department of Agriculture (US), Food Safety and Inspection Service. Diagnosis and management of foodborne illnesses: a primer for physicians and other health care professionals. MMWR Recomm Rep [Internet]. 2004 Apr 16 [cited 2007 Jan 9];53(RR-4):1-33. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5304a1.htm

9. Journal article on the Internet with a governmental body as author

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. Prevention and control of tuberculosis in correctional and detention facilities: recommendations from CDC. Endorsed by the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, the National Commission on Correctional Health Care, and the American Correctional Association. MMWR Recomm Rep [Internet]. 2006 Jul 7 [cited 2007 Jan 9];55(RR-9):1-44. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5509a1.htm

National Advisory Committee on Immunization (CA). Update on the recommendations for the routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for infants. An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) = Mise a jour des recommandations relatives a l'utilisation courante du vaccin conjugue contre le pneumocoque chez les enfants en bas age. Une Declaration d'un Comite Consultatif (DCC). Can Commun Dis Rep [Internet]. 2006 May 1 [cited 2007 Jan 9];32(ACS-4):1-6. Available from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/06vol32/acs-04/index.html English, French.

10. Journal article on the Internet with no author

Prevention strategies for asthma--secondary prevention. CMAJ [Internet]. 2005 Sep 13 [cited 2007 Jan 5];173(6 Suppl):S25-7. Available from: http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/173/6_suppl/S25

11. Journal article on the Internet with author affiliation

Bratu S (Division of Infectious Diseases, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY. sbratu@aol.com), Landman D, Gupta J, Trehan M, Panwar M, Quale J. A population-based study examining the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in New York City. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob [Internet]. 2006 Nov 30 [cited 2007 Jan 10];5:Article 29 [6 p.]. Available from: http://www.ann-clinmicrob.com/content/pdf/1476-0711-5-29.pdf

Jacobs JL (Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Honolulu, Honolulu, HI. jjacobs@hawaii.edu.), Lee MT (Department of Pediatrics, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Honolulu, Honolulu, HI), Lindberg M (Office of Medical Education, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Honolulu, Honolulu, HI), Kamin C (Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO). Problem-based learning, multimedia, and a paucity of behavioral issue learning. Med Educ Online [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 5]:[5 p.]. Available from: http://www.med-ed-online.org/pdf/l0000006.pdf

12. Journal article on the Internet not in English

Treves R. [Dupuytren's disease]. Reumatismo [Internet]. 2006 Jul-Sep [cited 2007 Jan 10];58(3):239-42. Available from: http://www.reumatismo.org/admin/filesArticoli/58-3-239.pdf Italian.

Terraza Nunez R, Vargas Lorenzo I, Vazquez Navarrete ML. [Coordination among healthcare levels: systematization of tools and measures]. Gac Sanit [Internet]. 2006 Nov-Dec [cited 2007 Jan 9];20(6):485-95. Available from: http://db.doyma.es/cgi-bin/wdbcgi.exe/doyma/mrevista.pubmed_full?inctrl=05ZI0108&rev=138&vol=
20&num=6&pag=485 Spanish.

Kanoh T. [IgD (kappa) myeloma with unusual manifestations: an exceptional form]. Tohoku J Exp Med [Internet]. 1987 Aug [cited 2007 Jan 10];152(4):347-50. Available from: http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/jnlpdf.php?cdjournal=tjem1920&cdvol=152&noissue=
4&startpage=347&lang=en&from=jnlabstract German.

with optional original language included

Treves R. La malattia di Dupuytren [Dupuytren's disease]. Reumatismo [Internet]. 2006 Jul-Sep [cited 2007 Jan 10];58(3):239-42. Available from: http://www.reumatismo.org/admin/filesArticoli/58-3-239.pdf Italian.

Terraza Nunez R, Vargas Lorenzo I, Vazquez Navarrete ML. La coordinacion entre niveles asistenciales: una sistematizacion de sus instrumentos y medidas [Coordination among healthcare levels: systematization of tools and measures]. Gac Sanit [Internet]. 2006 Nov-Dec [cited 2007 Jan 9];20(6):485-95. Available from: http://db.doyma.es/cgi-bin/wdbcgi.exe/doyma/mrevista.pubmed_full?inctrl=05ZI0108&rev=138&vol=20
&num=6&pag=485 Spanish.

Kanoh T. IgD (Kappa)-Myelom mit Ungewohnlichen Manifestationen: Eine Sonderform [IgD (kappa) myeloma with unusual manifestations: an exceptional form]. Tohoku J Exp Med [Internet]. 1987 Aug [cited 2007 Jan 10];152(4):347-50. Available from: http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/jnlpdf.php?cdjournal=tjem1920&cdvol=152&noissue=4
&startpage=347&lang=en&from=jnlabstract German.

13. Journal article on the Internet with equal text in two or more languages

National Advisory Committee on Immunization (CA). Update on the recommendations for the routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for infants. An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) = Mise a jour des recommandations relatives a l'utilisation courante du vaccin conjugue contre le pneumocoque chez les enfants en bas age. Une Declaration d'un Comite Consultatif (DCC). Can Commun Dis Rep [Internet]. 2006 May 1 [cited 2007 Jan 9];32(ACS-4):1-6. Available from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/06vol32/acs-04/index.html English, French.

SIAARTI Study Group for Safety in Anesthesia and Intensive Care. Raccomandazioni per il trasporto inter ed intra ospedaliero del paziente critico = Recommendations on the transport of critically ill patient. Minerva Anestesiol [Internet]. 2006 Oct [cited 2007 Jan 9];72(10):XXXVII-LVII. Available from: http://www.minervamedica.it/index2.t?show=R02Y2006N10A0768F Italian, English.

14. Journal article on the Internet with Greek letters or other special characters in the title

Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available

Doukas J, Wrasidlo W, Noronha G, Dneprovskaia E, Fine R, Weis S, Hood J, Demaria A, Soll R, Cheresh D. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ/δ inhibition limits infarct size after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A [Internet]. 2006 Dec 26 [cited 2007 Jan 9];103(52):19866-71. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/103/52/19866

or

Doukas J, Wrasidlo W, Noronha G, Dneprovskaia E, Fine R, Weis S, Hood J, Demaria A, Soll R, Cheresh D. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma/delta inhibition limits infarct size after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A [Internet]. 2006 Dec 26 [cited 2007 Jan 9];103(52):19866-71. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/103/52/19866

Guan M, Chen Y. Aberrant expression of ΔNp73 in benign and malignant tumours of the prostate: correlation with Gleason score. J Clin Pathol [Internet]. 2005 Nov [cited 2007 Jan 9];58(11):1175-9. Available from: http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/58/11/1175

or

Guan M, Chen Y. Aberrant expression of DeltaNp73 in benign and malignant tumours of the prostate: correlation with Gleason score. J Clin Pathol [Internet]. 2005 Nov [cited 2007 Jan 9];58(11):1175-9. Available from: http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/58/11/1175

Superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed in parentheses if fonts not available

Langer R, Von Rahden BH, Nahrig J, Von Weyhern C, Reiter R, Feith M, Stein HJ, Siewert JR, Hofler H, Sarbia M. Prognostic significance of expression patterns of c-erbB-2, p53, p16INK4A, p27KIP1, cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor in oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a tissue microarray study. J Clin Pathol [Internet]. 2006 Jun [cited 2007 Jan 9];59(6):631-4. Available from: http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/59/6/631

or

Langer R, Von Rahden BH, Nahrig J, Von Weyhern C, Reiter R, Feith M, Stein HJ, Siewert JR, Hofler H, Sarbia M. Prognostic significance of expression patterns of c-erbB-2, p53, p16(INK4A), p27(KIP1), cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor in oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a tissue microarray study. J Clin Pathol [Internet]. 2006 Jun [cited 2007 Jan 9];59(6):631-4. Available from: http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/59/6/631

15. Journal article on the Internet with optional article type

Davidson A. Preventing adverse drug events [letter]. CMAJ [Internet]. 2007 Jan 2 [cited 2007 Jan 9];176(1):67-8. Available from: http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/176/1/67-a

Flegel K. Biographies of healers [book review]. CMAJ [Internet]. 2007 Jul 3 [cited 2008 Feb 19];177(1):70. Available from: http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/177/1/70

16. Journal article on the Internet with optional full journal title

Yeung PK, Feng JD, Fice D. Exercise hemodynamic and neurohormone responses as sensitive biomarkers for diltiazem in rats. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 10];9(2):245-51. Available from: http://www.ualberta.ca/~csps/JPPS9_2/Dr_Yeung/MS_562.htm

17. Journal article on the Internet with journal title having an edition

Pattison MA, Webster TJ, Haberstroh KM. Select bladder smooth muscle cell functions were enhanced on three-dimensional, nano-structured poly(ether urethane) scaffolds. J Biomater Sci (Polym Ed) [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 8];17(11):1317-32. Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/vsp/bsp/2006/00000017/
00000011/art00008?token=0053155c75b2c2f653b2a2d3a7c4e7247704f7e
41225f406a532c6b67547d3f46627051fb9a634cc1dd

Bertino E, Milani S, Fabris C, De Curtis M. Neonatal anthropometric charts: what they are, what they are not. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Ed) [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 9];92(1):F7-10. Available from: http://fn.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/92/1/F7

18. Journal article on the Internet with optional content type

Nomura K, Nakao M, Sato M, Yano E. Regular prescriptions for benzodiazepines: a cross-sectional study of outpatients at a university hospital. Intern Med [serial on the Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 10];45(22):1279-83. Available from: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/internalmedicine/45/22/1279/_pdf

19. Journal article on the Internet with month(s)/day(s) included in date of publication

Oseni S, Misztal I, Tsuruta S, Rekaya R. Genetic components of days open under heat stress. J Dairy Sci [Internet]. 2004 Sep [cited 2007 Jan 9];87(9):3022-8. Available from: http://jds.fass.org/cgi/content/full/87/9/3022

Finall AI, McIntosh SA, Thompson WD. Subcutaneous inflammation mimicking metastatic malignancy induced by injection of mistletoe extract. BMJ [Internet]. 2006 Dec 23 [cited 2007 Jan 9];333(7582):1293-4. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/333/7582/1293

Huh J, Cude BJ. Is the information "fair and balanced" in direct-to-consumer prescription drug website? J Health Commun [Internet]. 2004 Nov-Dec [cited 2007 Jan 5];9(6):529-40. Available from: http://journals.taylorandfrancis.com/forms/hcm/9_529.pdf

20. Journal article on the Internet with season(s) included in date of publication

Withers R, Casson R, Shrimplin A. Narrowcasting to faculty and students: creating an efficient "research by subject" page. Electron J Acad Spec Librariansh [Internet]. 2005 Winter [cited 2005 Dec 28];6(3):[about 11 p.]. Available from: http://southernlibrarianship.icaap.org/content/v06n03/withers_r01.htm

Ipp M, Cohen E, Goldbach M, Macarthur C. Pain response to M-M-R vaccination in 4-6 year old children. Can J Clin Pharmacol [Internet]. 2006 Fall [cited 2007 Jan 9];13(3):e296-9. Available from: http://www.cjcp.ca/pdf/CJCP06-022_e296-e299F.pdf

21. Journal article on the Internet updated/revised after publication

Bernhardt JM, Felter EM. Online pediatric information seeking among mothers of young children: results from a qualitative study using focus groups. J Med Internet Res [Internet]. 2004 Mar 1 [updated 2006 Dec 10; cited 2007 Jan 5];6(1):e7 [about 13 p.]. Available from: http://www.jmir.org/2004/1/e7/.

Burke KJ, Paton D. Well-being in protective services personnel: organisational influences. Australas J Disaster Trauma Stud [Internet]. 2006 [changed 2006 Sep 26; cited 2007 Jan 8];2006(2):[about 17 p.]. Available from: http://www.massey.ac.nz/%7Etrauma/issues/2006-2/burke.htm

Le L, Lee E, Schulten K, Truong TN. Molecular modeling of swine influenza A/H1N1, Spanish H1N1, and avian H5N1 flu N1 neuraminidases bound to Tamiflu and Relenza. Version 4. PLoS Curr [Internet]. 2009 Aug 27 [revised 2011 Mar 14; cited 2011 Jun 8];3:RRN1015. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2762416/?tool=pubmed PubMed PMID: 20029609; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2762416.

22. Journal article on the Internet with date having a supplement

Gaal P. Benefits and entitlements in the Hungarian health care system. Eur J Health Econ [Internet]. 2005 Dec [cited 2007 Jan 10];Suppl:37-45. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=16267656

23. Journal article on the Internet with standard volume and issue

Garg RK, Tandon S. Smoking habits of adolescents and the role of dentists. J Contemp Dent Pract [Internet]. 2006 May 1 [cited 2007 Jan 9];7(2):120-9. Available from: http://www.thejcdp.com/issue026/pdfs_web/garg.pdf

24. Journal article on the Internet with volume having a subdivision other than an issue

Pyysalo S, Salakoski T, Aubin S, Nazarenko A. Lexical adaptation of link grammar to the biomedical sublanguage: a comparative evaluation of three approaches. BMC Bioinformatics [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 9];7 Suppl 3:Article S2 [9 p.]. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1764446&blobtype=pdf

Duong CA, Sepulveda CA, Graham JB, Dickson KA. Mitochondrial proton leak rates in the slow, oxidative myotomal muscle and liver of the endothermic shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) and the ectothermic blue shark (Prionace glauca) and leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata). J Exp Biol [Internet]. 2006 Jul [cited 2007 Jan 9];209(Pt 14):2678-85. Available from: http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/209/14/2678

Wilcox LS. Health education from 1775 to 2005. Prev Chronic Dis [Internet]. 2005 Nov [cited 2007 Jan 5];2 Spec No:[about 5 screens]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2005/nov/05_0134.htm

25. Journal article on the Internet with volume but no issue or other subdivision

Wolfe L. America's fidelity crisis: politics, hypocrisy and family values. Electron J Hum Sex [Internet]. 2006 Oct 25 [cited 2007 Jan 5];9:[about 8 p.]. Available from: http://www.ejhs.org/volume9/Wolfe.htm

26. Journal article on the Internet with issue but no volume

Suber P. Providing open access to past research articles, starting with the most important. SPARC Open Access Newsl [Internet]. 2004 Jun 2 [cited 2007 Jan 10];(74):[about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/06-02-04.htm#unbind

27. Journal article on the Internet with issue having a subdivision

Hsueh YS, Lee SY, Huang YT. Effects of global budgeting on the distribution of dentists and use of dental care in Taiwan. Health Serv Res [Internet]. 2004 Dec [cited 2007 Jan 9];39(6 Pt 2):2135-53. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=15544648

Prevention strategies for asthma--secondary prevention. CMAJ [Internet]. 2005 Sep 13 [cited 2007 Jan 5];173(6 Suppl):S25-7. Available from: http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/173/6_suppl/S25

Brain tumor registry of Japan. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) [Internet]. 1992 [cited 2007 Jan 9];32(7 Spec No):381-547. Available from: http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/english/jnltoc_en.php?cdjournal=nmc1959&cdvol=32&noissue=7

28. Journal article on the Internet without standard volume or issue, but with article number

Cunningham PJ, May JH. Medicaid patients increasingly concentrated among physicians. Tracking Reports [Internet]. 2006 Aug [cited 2007 Mar 20]:Report 16 [5 p.]. Available from: http://www.hschange.com/CONTENT/866/866.pdf

Aoki TT, Grecu EO, Arcangeli MA, Meisenheimer R. Effect of intensive insulin therapy on abnormal circadian blood pressure pattern in patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Online J Curr Clin Trials [Internet]. 1995 Dec 15 [cited 2007 Jan 4]:Doc No 199 [about 10 screens]. Available from: http://www.oclc.org/firstsearch/. Subscription required to view.

29. Journal article on the Internet without standard volume, issue, or article number

Jacobs JL, Lee MT, Lindberg M, Kamin C. Problem-based learning, multimedia, and a paucity of behavioral issue learning. Med Educ Online [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 5]:[5 p.]. Available from: http://www.med-ed-online.org/pdf/l0000006.pdf

O'Neill M, Dupere S. Health promotion: the next generations. Rev Health Promot Educ Online [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 10]:[10 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.rhpeo.org/reviews/2005/10/index.htm

30. Journal article on the Internet with location expressed as standard page numbers

Blair SN, Haskell WL. Objectively measured physical activity and mortality in older adults. JAMA [Internet]. 2006 Jul 12 [cited 2007 Jan 9];296(2):216-8. Available from: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/296/2/216

31. Journal article on the Internet with a letter included in the page numbers

with letter before the numbers

Prevention strategies for asthma--secondary prevention. CMAJ [Internet]. 2005 Sep 13 [cited 2007 Jan 5];173(6 Suppl):S25-7. Available from: http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/173/6_suppl/S25

Bertino E, Milani S, Fabris C, De Curtis M. Neonatal anthropometric charts: what they are, what they are not. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Ed) [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 9];92(1):F7-10. Available from: http://fn.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/92/1/F7

with letter after the numbers

Goodacre R. Metabolomics of a superorganism. J Nutr [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 9];137(1):259S-266S. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/137/1/259S

32. Journal article on the Internet with roman numerals for page numbers

Meyer G, Foster N, Christrup S, Eisenberg J. Setting a research agenda for medical errors and patient safety. Health Serv Res [Internet]. 2001 Apr [cited 2007 Jan 9];36(1 Pt 1):x-xx. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1089210&blobtype=pdf

SIAARTI Study Group for Safety in Anesthesia and Intensive Care. Raccomandazioni per il trasporto inter ed intra ospedaliero del paziente critico = Recommendations on the transport of critically ill patient. Minerva Anestesiol [Internet]. 2006 Oct [cited 2007 Jan 9];72(10):XXXVII-LVII. Available from: http://www.minervamedica.it/index2.t?show=R02Y2006N10A0768F Italian, English.

33. Journal article on the Internet with location/extent expressed as estimated number of screens

Wilcox LS. Health education from 1775 to 2005. Prev Chronic Dis [Internet]. 2005 Nov [cited 2007 Jan 5];2 Spec No:[about 5 screens]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2005/nov/05_0134.htm

Bagheri A, Ferdosi A, Bottros A, Hunter D. Unilateral superior rectus aplasia without craniofacial anomaly. Digit J Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 5];11(5):[about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.djo.harvard.edu/site.php?url=/physicians/oa/883

34. Journal article on the Internet with location/extent expressed as estimated number of pages

Withers R, Casson R, Shrimplin A. Narrowcasting to faculty and students: creating an efficient "research by subject" page. Electron J Acad Spec Librariansh [Internet]. 2005 Winter [cited 2005 Dec 28];6(3):[about 11 p.]. Available from: http://southernlibrarianship.icaap.org/content/v06n03/withers_r01.htm

Delwiche A. Agenda-setting, opinion leadership, and the world of Web logs. First Monday [Internet] 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 10];10(12):[about 17 p.]. Available from: http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_12/delwiche/index.html

35. Journal article on the Internet with location/extent expressed as paragraphs

Steinberg K. Wellness in every stage of life: a new paradigm for public health programs. Prev Chronic Dis [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 10];4(1):[12 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2007/jan/06_0120.htm

Maher-Brisen P. Letter to the editor on "Nurse Safety: Have We Addressed the Risks?" Online J Issues Nurs [Internet]. 2006 Mar 27 [cited 2007 Jan 10];11(2):Letter 1 [4 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/letters/t22e6.htm

36. Journal article on the Internet with location/extent expressed as an article number

Boutin-Foster C. In spite of good intentions: patients' perspectives on problematic social support interactions. Health Qual Life Outcomes [Internet]. 2005 Sep 5 [cited 2007 Jan 5];3(1):Article 52 [about 12 screens]. Available from: http://www.hqlo.com/content/3/1/52

Cipriano Silva M, Ludwick R. Is the doctor of nursing practice ethical? Online J Issues Nurs [Internet]. 2006 Mar 20 [cited 2007 Jan 10];11(2):Ethics 1 [about 8 p.]. Available from: http://nursingworld.org/ojin/ethicol/ethics_17.htm

Zozulya S, Echeverri F, Nguyen T. The human olfactory receptor repertoire. Genome Biol [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2007 Jan 5];2(6):research0018.1-0018.12 [about 21 p.]. Available from: http://genomebiology.com/2001/2/6/research/0018/.

Bernhardt JM, Felter EM. Online pediatric information seeking among mothers of young children: results from a qualitative study using focus groups. J Med Internet Res [Internet]. 2004 Mar 1 [updated 2006 Dec 10; cited 2007 Jan 5];6(1):e7 [about 13 p.]. Available from: http://www.jmir.org/2004/1/e7/.

Ahmad F, Hogg-Johnson S, Skinner HA. Assessing patient attitudes to computerized screening in primary care: psychometric properties of the computerized lifestyle assessment scale. J Med Internet Res [Internet]. 2008 Apr 18 [cited 2008 Nov 17];10(2):e11 [about 14 p.]. Available from: http://www.jmir.org/2008/2/e11/. Free full text article.

Lobb WB, Wilkin NE, McCaffrey DJ 3rd, Wilson MC, Bentley JP. The predictive utility of nontraditional test scores for first-year pharmacy student academic performance. Am J Pharm Educ [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 5];70(6):Article 128 [6 p.]. Available from: http://www.ajpe.org/aj7006/aj7006128/aj7006128.pdf

Pasanen K, Parkkari J, Pasanen M, Hiilloskorpi H, Mäkinen T, Järvinen M, Kannus P. Neuromuscular training and the risk of leg injuries in female floorball players: cluster randomised controlled study. BMJ [Internet]. 2008 Jul 1 [cited 2008 Nov 17];337:a295 [7 p.]. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/337/jul01_2/a295 Free full text article. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.a295

37. Journal article on the Internet that is a podcast

Tilson J. Commentary on Perry SB, et al., Predicting caregiver assistance required for sit-to-stand following rehabilitation for acute stroke. J Neurol Phys Ther [Internet]. 2006 Mar [cited 2007 Jan 8];30(1):[Podcast: about 3 min.]. Available from: http://www.scienceaudio.net/jnpt/jnpt.html

38. Journal article on the Internet with indication that a discussion or other text follows it

Splawinski J, Fox R, Hall H, Fisher CG, Dvorak M. Imaging for spinal surgery. Can J Surg [Internet]. 2006 Oct [cited 2007 Jan 10];49(5):311-2; discussion 313. Available from: http://www.cma.ca/multimedia/staticContent/HTML/N0/l2/cjs/vol-49/issue-5/pdf/pg311.pdf

Kritsaneepaiboon S, Jaruratanasirikul S, Dissaneevate S. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (112). Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia (PLH). Singapore Med J [Internet]. 2006 Nov [cited 2007 Jan 10];47(11):987-92; quiz 993. Available from: http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4711/4711me1.pdf

Vos E. Multitherapy for diabetes. CMAJ [Internet]. 2006 Nov 7 [cited 2007 Jan 10];175(10):1246-7; author reply 1247. Available from: http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/175/10/1246-a

39. Journal article on the Internet with DOI provided

Harrison JJ, Ceri H, Yerly J, Stremick CA, Hu Y, Martinuzzi R, Turner RJ. The use of microscopy and three-dimensional visualization to evaluate the structure of microbial biofilms cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device. Biol Proc Online [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 8];8(1):194-215. Available from: http://www.biologicalprocedures.com/bpo/arts/1/127/m127.pdf DOI: 10.1251/bpo127

Puri S, O'Brian MR. The hmuQ and hmuD genes from Bradyrhizobium japonicum encode heme-degrading enzymes. J Bacteriol [Internet]. 2006 Sep [cited 2007 Jan 8];188(18):6476-82. Available from: http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/full/188/18/6476?view=long&pmid=16952937 DOI: 10.1128/JB.00737-06

Pasanen K, Parkkari J, Pasanen M, Hiilloskorpi H, Mäkinen T, Järvinen M, Kannus P. Neuromuscular training and the risk of leg injuries in female floorball players: cluster randomised controlled study. BMJ [Internet]. 2008 Jul 1 [cited 2008 Nov 17];337:a295 [7 p.]. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/337/jul01_2/a295 Free full text article. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.a295

40. Journal article on the Internet with system requirements

Crum LA, Bailey MR, Guan J, Hilmo PR, Kargl SG, Matula TJ, Sapozhnikov OA. Monitoring bubble growth in supersaturated blood and tissue ex vivo and the relevance to marine mammal bioeffects. Acoust Res Lett Online [Internet]. 2005 Jul [cited 2007 Jan 10];6(3):214-20. Available from: http://scitation.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=ARLOFJ000006000003000214000001&idtype=cvips Accompanied by: 2 videos. System Requirements: Browser must be able to handle javascript and other advanced features; Adobe Acrobat and QuickTime required.

41. Journal article on the Internet accompanied by other material

Wolfe L. America's fidelity crisis: politics, hypocrisy and family values. Electron J Hum Sex [Internet]. 2006 Oct 25 [cited 2007 Jan 5];9:[about 8 p.]. Available from: http://www.ejhs.org/volume9/Wolfe.htm Accompanied by: PowerPoint slides.

Grohmann DG, Hathaway BA. 1-Nitro-3-[(phenylsulfonyl)methyl]benzene. Molbank [Internet]. 2006 Sep [cited 2007 Jan 5];2006:M500 [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.mdpi.org/molbank/molbank2006/m500.htm Accompanied by: MOL file available from: http://www.mdpi.org/molbank/molbank2006.htm#new

Crum LA, Bailey MR, Guan J, Hilmo PR, Kargl SG, Matula TJ, Sapozhnikov OA. Monitoring bubble growth in supersaturated blood and tissue ex vivo and the relevance to marine mammal bioeffects. Acoust Res Lett Online [Internet]. 2005 Jul [cited 2007 Jan 10];6(3):214-20. Available from: http://scitation.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=ARLOFJ000006000003000214000001&idtype=cvips Accompanied by: 2 videos.

42. Journal article on the Internet with note

Shope JT. Influences on youthful driving behavior and their potential for guiding interventions to reduce crashes. Inj Prev [Internet]. 2006 Jun [cited 2007 Jan 9];12 Suppl 1:i9-14. Available from: http://ip.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/12/suppl_1/i9 Review.

Pyysalo S, Salakoski T, Aubin S, Nazarenko A. Lexical adaptation of link grammar to the biomedical sublanguage: a comparative evaluation of three approaches. BMC Bioinformatics [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 9];7 Suppl 3:Article S2 [9 p.]. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1764446&blobtype=pdf From a paper presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Semantic Mining in Biomedicine (SMBM), Jena, Germany, April 2006.

Heppner HJ, Bauer JM, Sieber CC, Bertsch T. Laboratory aspects relating to the detection and prevention of frailty. Int J Prev Med [Internet]. 2010 Summer [cited 2011 Jul 1];1(3):149-57. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3075524/?tool=pubmed PubMed PMID: 21566784; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3075524. Authorship note: Heppner HJ and Bauer JM contributed equally.

Flegel K. Biographies of healers [book review]. CMAJ [Internet]. 2007 Jul 3 [cited 2008 Feb 19];177(1):70. Available from: http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/177/1/70 Review of: Bynum WF, Bynum H, editors. Dictionary of Medical Biography. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press; c2007.

Prystowsky EN. A conversation about sudden unexpected death (SUDA) in "healthy" adults, adults with known heart disease, athletes, adolescents, and infants (SIDS) [interview]. MedGenMed [Internet]. 2007 Dec 19 [cited 2008 Feb 19];9(4):61. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=1831141 Interview by George D. Lundberg.

Chughtai T, Chiavaras MM, Sharkey P, Shulman H, Miller HA. Pericardial rupture with cardiac herniation. Can J Surg [Internet]. 2008 Oct [cited 2008 Nov 18];51(5):E101-2. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=18841214 Free full text article. PMCID: PMC2556525.

Suk J, Lyall C, Tait J. Mapping the future dynamics of disease transmission: risk analysis in the United Kingdom Foresight Programme on the detection and identification of infectious diseases. Euro Surveill [Internet]. 2008 Oct 30 [cited 2008 Nov 17];13(44):[7 p.]. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/images/dynamic/EE/V13N44/art19021.pdf PII: 19021. Cited in: PubMed; PMID 19000560.

Garcia RV, Kraehenmann MA, Bezerra FJ, Mendes CM, Rapp GE. Clinical analysis of the soft tissue integration of non-submerged (ITI) and submerged (3i) implants: a prospective-controlled cohort study. Clin Oral Implants Res [Internet]. 2008 Oct [cited 2008 Nov 17];19(10):991-6. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121409760/PDFSTART Subscription required to view full text. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2007.01345.x Cited in: PubMed; PMID 18828814.

43. Part of a journal article on the Internet

Burke KJ, Paton D. Well-being in protective services personnel: organisational influences. Australas J Disaster Trauma Stud [Internet]. 2006;2006(2):[about 17 p.]. Figure 3, The overall structural model, showing the relative strength of each pathway examined; [cited 2007 Jan 8]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.massey.ac.nz/%7Etrauma/issues/2006-2/burke.htm

Happell B. The Influence of education on the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students. Aust Electron J Nurs Educ [Internet]. 2002 Apr;8(1):[about 12 p.]. Table 2, The relative popularity of nursing career choices (Post-test); [cited 2007 Jan 8]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/nhcp/aejne/vol8-1/refereed/happell_max.html

Petretti C, Savoian M, Montembault E, Glover DM, Prigent C, Giet R. The PITSLRE/CDK11p58 protein kinase promotes centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation. EMBO Rep [Internet]. 2006 Apr;7(4):418-24. Epub 2006 Feb 3. Figure 3, Cyclin-dependent kinase 11 depletion prevents efficient bipolar spindle formation, microtubule nucleation and centrosomal recruitment of Aurora A and Plk1 proteins; [cited 2010 Oct 25]; p. 421. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1456919/pdf/7400639.pdf PubMed PMID: 16462731; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1456919.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Journal Titles on the Internet

The general format for a reference to an entire Internet journal title, including punctuation:

- for a title continuing to be published:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an entire Internet journal title that continues to be published.

- for a title that ceased publication:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an entire Internet journal title that has ceased publication.

Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles on the Internet

If a journal is still being published, as shown in the first example, follow volume and date information with a hyphen and three spaces. If a journal has ceased publication, as in example two, separate the beginning and ending volume and date information with a hyphen surrounded by a space. See also Chapter 1C Entire Journal Titles for additional examples of the specific parts of a citation.

Journal titles on the Internet are often electronic versions of print journal titles or have migrated from videocassette, audiocassette, or CD-ROM form. Increasingly journals are published directly for the Internet to enable hyperlinking, to include complex graphics, and to run multimedia such as film clips and sound. Volume and issue information has changed the most with Internet journals, particularly those without print counterparts. Many publishers omit volume and issue numbers, substituting an article numbering scheme or simply using the date the item was placed on the Internet as an identifier. See examples 29 and 30.

A journal title on the Internet is cited similar to journals in print, but with these major exceptions:

  • Use the word "Internet" in square brackets as the Type of Medium after the journal title.
  • Include a date of citation in square brackets following the beginning date of publication for a open journal and the ending date of a closed one.
  • Provide the URL or other electronic address of the title.

It is important to cite the version you saw. Many journal titles with both print and Internet versions do not carry the same exact content. If you viewed a journal title on the Internet, do not cite it as if it were a print one. However, it may be useful to begin a citation to an Internet journal by first locating all of the information needed to cite it as if it were a print publication, then add the Internet-specific items. For example:

  • Print information
  • Family Practice. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press.
  • Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1984 -   .
  • Added Internet information (in bold)
  • Family Practice [Internet]. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1984 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://fampra.oupjournals.org/.

Journals frequently change titles and publishers over time. When citing a journal, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version.

To cite all volumes for an Internet journal that changed title, provide a separate citation for each title. For example:

  • European Journal of Biochemistry [Internet]. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Science Ltd. Vol. 259, No. 1-2, Jan 1999 - Vol. 271, No. 23-24, Dec 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://content.febsjournal.org/. Print version began in 1967. Continues: Biochemische Zeitschrift. Continued by: FEBS Journal.
  • The FEBS Journal [Internet]. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Publishing, Inc. Vol. 272, No. 1, Jan 2005 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ejb Continues: European Journal of Biochemistry.

Journals that have migrated to the Internet from other formats or that maintain both print and online versions may not change titles, but may only have recent volumes available online. When citing the Internet version, give volume and date information for only those that are online accessible. You may include information on other volumes as a note. For example:

  • American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation [Internet]. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1998 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ajkd.org/issues Print version began with Vol. 1, 1981.

Do not confuse the publisher with the organization that maintains the Web site for the publisher. If wording such as "this site is maintained by XYZ Corporation for ABC Organization" appears, use ABC Organization as the publisher and XYZ Corporation as the distributor. Publisher information is required in a citation; distributor information may be included as a note if desired.

If a journal on the Internet does not have a formal title page or table of contents, look to the opening screens, the bottom or closing screens, links from the sidebar, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser) to locate citation information.

Note that the rules for creating references to journal titles are not the same as the rules for cataloging them. Therefore records found in the NLM LocatorPlus and the NLM Catalog databases will not always agree with the instructions presented here.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Title (R) | Edition (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Volume Number (R) | Issue Number (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Title for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter a journal title in the original language
  • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words
  • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the title
  • Follow the title with a colon and any subtitle that appears
  • Follow a non-English title with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End the journal title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

Box Icon

Box 64

Journal titles not in English. For non-English journal titles in the roman alphabet (French, German, Spanish, Italian, etc.), provide the name in the original language Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin [Internet]. For a journal title in a non-roman (more...)

Box Icon

Box 65

Journals appearing in more than one language. For a journal appearing in two or more equal languages, as often occurs with Canadian journals: Begin with the title in the first language found, in order of preference: on the opening screens, the bottom (more...)

Box Icon

Box 66

Journals appearing in different editions. If a journal is published in more than one edition: Capitalize all significant words in edition information Separate the edition from the title itself by a space and place it in parentheses End all title information (more...)

Edition for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version
  • Do not abbreviate any words or omit any words
  • Use whatever capitalization and punctuation are found in the edition statement
  • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (British Edition)
  • End the edition statement with a space

Specific Rules for Edition

Box Icon

Box 67

Non-English words for editions. For non-English edition statements written in the roman alphabet (French, German, Spanish, Italian, etc.): Give the name in the original language Separate the edition from the title itself by a space and place it in parentheses (more...)

Examples for Edition

Type of Medium for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the word Internet in square brackets following the title (and Edition, if present)
  • End with a period placed outside the closing bracket
  • See Chapter 19B for journal titles on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk; see Chapter 16B for journals in audiovisual formats

Editor for Journal Titles on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Editor

  • Give the name of the current (or last) editor
  • Enter the editor's name in natural order, such as John A. Jones
  • Follow the name with a comma and the word "editor"
  • End editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Editor

Box Icon

Box 68

Names not in English. Give names in languages using the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, Italian, Spanish, German, Swedish, etc.) as they appear in the publication Romanize names in Cyrillic (Russian, Bulgarian, etc.), Greek, (more...)

Place of Publication for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the journal was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

Box Icon

Box 69

Locating the place of publication if there is no standard title page. Some journals on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the place of publication. When there is no title page: Look for the place at the top, bottom, (more...)

Box Icon

Box 70

Non-US cities. Use the anglicized form for the name of a city, such as Rome for Roma and Moscow for Moskva, when possible Follow Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the name of the province (see Appendix E) Montreal (QC): Ottawa (ON): (more...)

Box Icon

Box 71

Multiple places of publication. If a journal changed publishers over the years or if the publisher changed its location, give the place of publication of the current (or last) publisher If more than one place of publication is found for the publisher, (more...)

Box Icon

Box 72

No place of publication can be found. If no place can be found but one can be reasonably inferred, such as Chicago as the place of publication for a journal of the American Medical Association, put the place name in square brackets Nurse-zine [Internet]. (more...)

Publisher for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the journal, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher is given, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a period

Specific Rules for Publisher

Box Icon

Box 73

Determining the publisher if there is no standard title page. Some journals on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the name of the publisher. When there is no title page: Look for the publisher at the top, bottom, (more...)

Box Icon

Box 74

Abbreviated words in publisher names. Abbreviate commonly used words in publisher names, if desired Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for Department Div. for Division Inst. (more...)

Box Icon

Box 75

Non-English publishers. Give publisher names in the roman alphabet (French, Spanish, Italian, etc.) in their original languages Rome: Societa Editrice Universo. Lisbon: Imprensa Medica. Romanize names in Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and character-based (more...)

Box Icon

Box 76

Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher. When citing publishers that are national bodies such as government agencies, if a nationality is not part of the name, place the country in parentheses after the name, using (more...)

Box Icon

Box 77

Multiple publishers. If a journal changed publishers over the years, give the name of the current (or last) publisher If more than one publisher is found for a journal, use the first one given or the one set in the largest type or set in bold An alternative (more...)

Box Icon

Box 78

Joint publication. For journals with joint or co-publishers, use the name provided first as the publisher found, in order of preference: on the opening screens, the bottom or closing screens, links from the sidebar, and the source code Include the name (more...)

Box Icon

Box 79

No publisher can be found. If no publisher can be determined, use [publisher unknown] The International Journal of Forensic Psychology [Internet]. [Australia]: [publisher unknown]. Vol. 1, No. 1, May 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. (more...)

Volume Number for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Volume Number

  • Precede the number with "Vol.", regardless of the particular word for volume used by the journal
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert LX or Sixtieth to 60.
  • Separate multiple volumes by a hyphen. For example: 5-6 or 42-43.
  • Follow volume number(s) with a comma

Specific Rules for Volume Number

Box Icon

Box 80

Non-English names for volume. Use only the English word for volume and abbreviate it to "Vol." To help locate volumes, see the following list for the words and abbreviations used for volume in a variety of languages: aarg.   aargang   année   anno   año   årg.   årgang   band   bd.   bind (more...)

Box Icon

Box 81

No volume number present. If no volume number is present, follow the publisher with the issue number Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow [Internet]. Utrecht (Netherlands): VetScite. No. 1, Jan 2001 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available (more...)

Issue Number for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Issue Number

  • Precede the issue number with "No.", regardless of the particular word for issue used by the journal
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert IV or Fourth to 4.
  • Separate multiple issues by a hyphen, such as 2-3
  • Follow issue information with a comma

Specific Rules for Issue Number

Box Icon

Box 82

Non-English names for issue. Use only "number", the English word for issue, and abbreviate it to "No." To help locate issues in languages other than English, see the following list of words and abbreviations used for issue (usually variations on the (more...)

Box Icon

Box 83

No volume number present. If no volume number is present, follow the publisher with the issue number: Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow [Internet]. Utrecht (Netherlands): VetScite. No. 1, Jan 2001 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available (more...)

Box Icon

Box 84

No issue number present. If no issue number is present but a volume number can be found, follow the publisher with the volume number and beginning date Enformatika: Transactions on Engineering, Computing and Technology [Internet]. [place unknown]: World (more...)

Box Icon

Box 85

Options for issues. It is not NLM policy, but the following is an acceptable option: If a journal began publishing with volume one, number one, you may omit the issue number European Respiratory Journal [Internet]. Lausanne (Switzerland): European Respiratory (more...)

Date of Publication for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include the month and year the journal began to be published, in that order, such as May 2004
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End beginning date information with a hyphen and three spaces if the journal is still being published
  • End beginning date information with a hyphen preceded and followed by a space if the journal ceased publication. Enter closing volume and issue information followed by a comma and the closing date. End closing date information with a space.

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

Box Icon

Box 86

Multiple years, months, or days of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last year of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 Example: (more...)

Box Icon

Box 87

Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

Box Icon

Box 88

Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them Examples: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Separate multiple seasons by a hyphen, such as Fall-Winter Spring-Summer (more...)

Box Icon

Box 89

Options for dates. It is not NLM policy, but the following are acceptable options: If both volume and issue numbers are present, you may omit the name of the months or seasons. European Respiratory Journal [Internet]. Lausanne (Switzerland): European (more...)

Date of Citation for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Give the date the journal was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • Place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Availability for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Give the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

Box Icon

Box 90

Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break within a URL

Box Icon

Box 91

URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always be used to retrieve the journal, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions for (more...)

Box Icon

Box 92

Multiple URLs. If more than one URL can be used to locate a journal: Give the URL you used in locating the journal As an option, give all known URLs, separated by a space, a semicolon, and a space Examples: Emerging Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Atlanta (more...)

Language for Journal Titles on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

Box Icon

Box 93

Journals appearing in more than one language. If a journal is published in multiple languages: Give the title in the first language found, in order of preference: on the opening screens, the bottom or closing screens, links from the sidebar, and the (more...)

Notes for Journal Titles on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for further useful information about the journal
  • If a journal was published under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continues: ", such as Continues: Journal of Contemporary Neurology.
  • If a journal continues publication under another title, provide the name preceded by "Continued by: ", such as Continued by: FEBS Journal.

Specific Rules for Notes

Box Icon

Box 94

System requirements. System requirements describe the particular software and hardware needed to view the journal. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the wording as supplied by the publisher; no standardization (more...)

Box Icon

Box 95

Other types of material to include in notes. The name under which a journal was previously published, preceded by. "Continues: " The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases [Internet]. Botucatu (Brazil): Universidade Estadual (more...)

Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles on the Internet

1. Standard Internet journal title that is still being published

European Respiratory Journal [Internet]. Lausanne (Switzerland): European Respiratory Society. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 1988 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://erj.ersjournals.com/.

Neurosurgical Focus [Internet]. Charlottesville (VA): American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1996 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.aans.org/education/journal/neurosurgical/default.asp

Structure and Dynamics: ejournal of Anthropological and Related Sciences [Internet]. Irvine (CA): University of California. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2005 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://repositories.cdlib.org/imbs/socdyn/sdeas/.

Access Management Journal [Internet]. Washington: National Association of Healthcare Access Management. Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: https://www.naham.org/custom/journal/backissues.cfm Continues: NAHAM Access Management Journal.

2. Standard Internet journal title that has ceased publication

Actinomycetes [Internet]. Udine (Italy): University of Udine, Mycology Department. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1990 - Vol. 10, No. 1, 2000 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.bioline.org.br/ac

Graduate Research in Nursing [Internet]. Tucson (AZ): Graduate Research, LLC. Vol. 1, No. 1, Aug 1999 - Vol. 3, No. 1, Jun 2001 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.graduateresearch.com/.

Acoustics Research Letters Online [Internet]. Melville (NY): Acoustical Society of America. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 2000 - Vol. 6, No. 4, Oct 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://scitation.aip.org/arlo/.

3. Internet journal title with subtitle

The Virtual Mentor: American Medical Association Journal of Ethics [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association. Sep 1999 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/3040.html

AHRQ WebM&M: Morbidity & Mortality Rounds on the Web [Internet]. Rockville (MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Feb 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://webmm.ahrq.gov/.

4. Internet journal title with lowercase or capital letters/special characters

eCOMMUNITY: International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction [Internet]. [Morgantown (WV)]: West Virginia University, Department of Behavioral Medicine & Psychiatry, Professional Advanced Services. Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep 15, 2003 - Vol. 3, No. 2, Nov 21, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.ijma-journal.com/issues.php Continued by: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

Forest@ [Internet]. [place unknown]: Societa Italiana di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale. Vol. 1, No. 1, Oct 2004 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.sisef.it/forest@/index.php Italian, English.

PLoS Clinical Trials [Internet]. Cambridge (UK): Public Library of Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 21, 2006 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.plosclinicaltrials.org/.

ACS Chemical Biology [Internet]. Washington: American Chemical Society. Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 2006 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://pubs.acs.org/journals/acbcct/index.html

5. Internet journal title with section or part

Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Structure Reports Online [Internet]. Chester (England): International Union of Crystallography. Vol. E57, Pt 1, Jan 1, 2001 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://journals.iucr.org/e/contents/backissues.html

Estimates. Part 3, Report on Plans and Priorities [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2001-2002 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/BT31-2-2002-III-30E.pdf

6. Internet journal title with edition

Physician's Weekly (Surgery Edition) [Internet]. Englishtown (NJ): Physician's Weekly, LLC. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 12, 2004 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.physiciansweekly.com/index_se.asp

Parasitology Today (Personal Edition) [Internet]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1985 - Vol. 16, No. 12, Dec 2000 [cited 2007 Jan 30]. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01694758 Continued by: Trends in Parasitology.

7. Internet journal title not in English

Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin [Internet]. Koln (Germany): Deutscher Arzte-Verlag. Vol. 49, No. 1, 1998 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.zeitschrift-sportmedizin.de/zeitschr.htm German. Print publication began in 1978.

PISTES: Perspectives Interdisciplinaires Sur le Travail Et la Sante [Internet]. Montreal (QC): IRSST. Vol 1, No 1, Nov 1999 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.unites.uqam.ca/pistes/. French.

Anestesia Pediatrica e Neonatale [Internet]. Foggia (Italy): Anestesia Pediatrica e Neonatale. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar-Apr 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.anestesiapediatrica.it Italian, with some articles in English and Spanish.

8. Internet journal title not in English, with optional translation

Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin [German Journal for Sports Medicine] [Internet]. Koln (Germany): Deutscher Arzte-Verlag. Vol. 49, No. 1, 1998 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.zeitschrift-sportmedizin.de/zeitschr.htm German. Print publication began in 1978.

PISTES: Perspectives Interdisciplinaires Sur le Travail Et la Sante [PISTES: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Work and Health] [Internet]. Montreal (QC): IRSST. Vol. 1, No. 1, Nov 1999 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.unites.uqam.ca/pistes/. French.

Anestesia Pediatrica e Neonatale [Pediatric and Neonatal Anesthesia] [Internet]. Foggia (Italy): Anestesia Pediatrica e Neonatale. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar-Apr 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.anestesiapediatrica.it Italian, with some articles in English and Spanish.

9. Internet journal title published in multiple languages

Action Against Infection: a Newsletter for WHO and Its Partners [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, CDS Information Resource Centre. No. 1, Dec 1999 - Vol. 4, No. 5, 2nd Semester 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.who.int/infectious-disease-news/newsletter/. English, French, Spanish.

Alasbimn Journal: Revista de Medicina Nuclear [Internet]. Santiago (Chile): Universidad de Chile. Year 1, No. 1, Sep 1998 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www2.alasbimnjournal.cl/alasbimn/CDA/CDA_Journal_Index/. Spanish, English.

10. Internet journal title published in two or more equal languages

Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada. Jan 7, 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index.html ; http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index_f.html French, English.

Pernatyie Khishchniki = Raptors Conservation [Internet]. Novosibirsk (Russia): [Siberian Environmental Center]. No. 1, 2005 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC Russian, English.

11. Internet journal title with current editor name provided

Neurosurgical Focus [Internet]. John Anthony Jane, editor. Charlottesville (VA): American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1996 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.aans.org/education/journal/neurosurgical/default.asp

Visible Human Journal of Endosonography [Internet]. John C. Deutsch, editor. Aurora (CO): University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Center for Human Simulation. Vol. 1, 2002 -   [cited 2007 Mar 2]. Available from: http://www.vhjoe.org/.

12. Internet journal title with well-known place of publication

The amfAR treatment insider [Internet]. New York: American Foundation for AIDS Research. Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 2000 - Vol. 5, No. 8, Dec 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://web.amfar.org/treatment/TI/insidermenu.asp

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal = La Revue de Sante de la Mediterranee Orientale = al-Majallah al-Aihhiyah li-Sharq al-Mutawassit [Internet]. Cairo: World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1995 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.emro.who.int/EMHJ.htm English, French, Arabic.

13. Internet journal title with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases [Internet]. Botucatu (Brazil): Universidade Estadual Paulista, Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peconhentos. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci%5Fserial&pid=1678-9199&lng=en&nrm=iso Continues: The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins [CD-ROM].

The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology [Internet]. Sugar Land (TX): Internet Scientific Publications. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1997 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ispub.com/journals/ija.htm

Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences [Internet]. Mumbai (India): Medknow Publications. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 2006 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/.

14. Internet journal title with place of publication inferred

NCI Cancer Bulletin [Internet]. [Bethesda (MD)]: National Cancer Institute (US). Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 6, 2004 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin

Nurse-zine [Internet]. [Minneapolis (MN)]: allnurses.com. Vol. 1, No. 1, Aug 29, 1997 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://allnurses.com/Nurse-zine/.

RHP&EO [Internet]. [France]: International Union for Health Promotion and Education. 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.rhpeo.org/.

Advances in Disease Surveillance [Internet]. [Boston]: International Society for Disease Surveillance. Vol. 1, 2006 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.isdsjournal.org/.

15. Internet journal title with unknown place of publication

Thoracic Surgical Science [Internet]. [place unknown]: GMS. Vol. 1, 2004 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.egms.de/en/journals/tss/index.shtml

Medical Education Online [Internet]. [place unknown]: Medical Education Online. Vol. 1, 1996 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.med-ed-online.org/.

16. Internet journal title with publisher having subsidiary part

WHO Policy Perspectives on Medicine [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy Department. No. 1, Dec 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/policyperspectives/en/.

The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Public Policy. Vol. 1, Nov 1, 2001 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/10599

17. Internet journal title with government agency as publisher

Amber Waves: the Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America [Internet]. Washington: Department of Agriculture (US), Economic Research Service. Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS27344

Preventing Chronic Disease [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 2004 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd

18. Internet journal title with joint publishers

Neurosurgical Focus [Internet]. Charlottesville (VA): American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jul 1996 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.aans.org/education/journal/neurosurgical/default.asp Jointly published by the Journal of Neurosurgery.

19. Internet journal title with publisher name translated

Pernatyie Khishchniki = Raptors Conservation [Internet]. Novosibirsk (Russia): [Siberian Environmental Center]. No. 1, 2005 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC Russian, English.

20. Internet journal title with unknown publisher

The International Journal of Forensic Psychology [Internet]. [Australia]: [publisher unknown]. Vol. 1, No. 1, May 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://pandora.nla.gov.au/tep/35811

21. Internet journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher

Haptics-e: the Electronic Journal of Haptics [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]. Vol. 1, No. 1, Oct. 7, 1999 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.haptics-e.org/.

22. Internet journal title with standard volume and issue number

Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences [Internet]. Mumbai (India): Medknow Publications. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 2006 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/.

23. Internet journal title with volume having another name

Alasbimn Journal: Revista de Medicina Nuclear [Internet]. Santiago (Chile): Universidad de Chile. Year 1, No. 1, Sep 1998 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www2.alasbimnjournal.cl/alasbimn/CDA/CDA_Journal_Index/. Spanish, English.

Digest of Neurology and Psychiatry: Abstracts and Reviews of Selected Literature in Psychiatry, Neurology, and their Allied Fields [Internet]. Hartford (CT): Hartford Hospital, Institute of Living. Series 69, Winter 2001 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.instituteofliving.org/Education/Digest/digest.htm Print available from Series 12, Nov 1944.

24. Internet journal title with volumes viewable for online version different from print version

American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation [Internet]. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan 1998 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ajkd.org/issues Print version from Vol. 1, 1981.

European Journal of Biochemistry [Internet]. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Science Ltd. Vol. 259, No. 1-2, Jan 1999 - Vol. 271, No. 23-24, Dec 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://content.febsjournal.org/. Print version began with Vol. 1, 1967.

25. Internet journal title with volume number and year the same

Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. Vol. 2000, Apr 2000 - Vol. 2005, Dec 16, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/10279 Continues: Journal of Contemporary Neurology. Continued by: Neurology, Neurophysiology, and Neuroscience.

26. Internet journal title with volume number but no issue

Enformatika: Transactions on Engineering, Computing and Technology [Internet]. [place unknown]: World Enformatika Society. Vol. 1, 2004 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.enformatika.org/data/.

27. Internet journal title with issue number, but no volume

Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow [Internet]. Utrecht (Netherlands): VetScite. No. 1, Jan 2001 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.vetscite.org/.

Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research Newsletter [Internet]. Geneva: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. No. 1, Sep 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.alliance-hpsr.org/jahia/Jahia/lang/en/pid/20

28. Internet journal title with multiple issue numbers

European Journal of Biochemistry [Internet]. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Science Ltd. Vol. 259, No. 1-2, Jan 1999 - Vol. 271, No. 23-24, Dec 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://content.febsjournal.org/.

Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence [Internet]. Linkoping (Sweden): Linkopings Universitet, Institutionen for Datavetenskap. Vol. 1, No. 1-3, Jan-Sep 1997 - Vol. 5, No. B2, 2001 [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.ida.liu.se/ext/etai/.

29. Internet journal with article numbering in place of volume and issue

The Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials [Internet]. London: Chapman & Hall. Document No. 1, 1992 - Document No. 200-201, 1996 [cited 2007 Mar 20]. Available from: http://firstsearch.oclc.org/journal=1059-2725;screen=info;ECOIP By subscription only.

Tracking Reports [Internet]. Washington: Center for Studying Health System Change. Report No. 1, Mar 2002 -   [cited 2007 Mar 20]. Available from: http://www.hschange.com/index.cgi?func=pubs&what=15

30. Internet journal title with date only, no volume, issue, or article numbers

Molecular Systems Biology [Internet]. London: Nature Publishing Group. Mar 2005 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.nature.com/msb/index.html

Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada. Jan 7, 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index.html ; http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index_f.html French, English.

Health Hazards of Smoke [Internet]. Missoula (MT): Forest Service (US), Missoula Technology & Development Center. Summer 1990 - Spring 2001 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS49349

Addictions: an International Research Journal [Internet]. Woodbridge (ON): Vitanova Foundation. 1996 - 2002 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.vitanova.on.ca/.

Estimates. Part 3, Report on Plans and Priorities [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2001-2002 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/BT31-2-2002-III-30E.pdf

31. Internet journal title with multiple month(s) or years in date

AAPS PharmSci [Internet]. Alexandria (VA): American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1999 - Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.aapsj.org/.

The World Wide Web Journal of Biology [Internet]. Plymouth (MN): Epress Inc. Vol. 1, Oct 1995-Nov 1996 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.epress.com/w3jbio/.

International Journal of Human Sciences [Internet]. [Turkey]: Uluslararasý Insan Bilimleri Dergisi. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2002-2004 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://insanbilimleri.com/en/.

32. Internet journal title with days of the month included in date

PLoS Clinical Trials [Internet]. Cambridge (UK): Public Library of Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 21, 2006 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.plosclinicaltrials.org/.

AIDScience [Internet]. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 15, 2001 - Vol. 3, No. 23, Dec 5, 2003 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://aidscience.com/Backissues.asp

33. Internet journal title with season in date

The Journal of Genetic Genealogy [Internet]. [place unknown]: Journal of Genetic Genealogy. Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 2005 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.jogg.info/.

Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics [Internet]. Louisville (KY): Multimed Inc. Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.jacmp.org/.

Health Hazards of Smoke [Internet]. Missoula (MT): Forest Service (US), Missoula Technology & Development Center. Summer 1990 - Spring 2001 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS49349

34. Internet journal title with other division to date than month or season

Action Against Infection: a Newsletter for WHO and Its Partners [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, CDS Information Resource Centre. No. 1, Dec 1999 - Vol. 4, No. 5, 2nd Semester 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.who.int/infectious-disease-news/newsletter/. English, French, Spanish.

35. Internet journal title with multiple URLs

Emerging Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Infectious Diseases. Vol. 3, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1997 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/index.html ; http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS2039 Print version from Vol. 1, 1995.

Actualites en Bref pour Maladies Infectieuses = Infectious Diseases News Brief [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada. Jan 7, 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index.html ; http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/nb-ab/index_f.html French, English.

African Journal of Biotechnology [Internet]. Nairobi (Kenya): Academic Journals. Vol. 1, No.1, Nov 2002 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/6038 ; http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/6018 ; http://www.ajol.info/journal_index.php?jid=82&ab=ajb ; http://www.bioline.org.br/jb/.

36. Internet journal title previously published under another name

The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases [Internet]. Botucatu (Brazil): Universidade Estadual Paulista, Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peconhentos. Vol. 9, No. 1, 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci%5Fserial&pid=1678-9199&lng=en&nrm=iso Continues: The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins [CD-ROM].

Access Management Journal [Internet]. Washington: National Association of Healthcare Access Management. Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 2003 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: https://www.naham.org/custom/journal/backissues.cfm Continues: NAHAM Access Management Journal.

Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. Apr 2000 - Dec 16, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/10279 Continues: Journal of Contemporary Neurology. Continued by: Neurology, Neurophysiology, and Neuroscience.

37. Internet journal title continuing to be published under another name

Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. Apr 2000 - Dec 16, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/10279 Continues: Journal of Contemporary Neurology. Continued by: Neurology, Neurophysiology, and Neuroscience.

European Journal of Biochemistry [Internet]. Oxford (UK): Blackwell Science Ltd. Vol. 259, No. 1-2, Jan 1999 - Vol. 271, No. 23-24, Dec 2004 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://content.febsjournal.org/. Print version began in 1967. Continues: Biochemische Zeitschrift. Continued by: FEBS Journal.

38. Internet journal title with sponsorship note

Sleep Research Online [Internet]. Los Angeles: WebSciences. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1998 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.sro.org/. Published on behalf of the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies.

Molecular Systems Biology [Internet]. London: Nature Publishing Group. Mar 2005 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.nature.com/msb/index.html Published on behalf of European Molecular Biology Organization.

39. Internet journal title with frequency of publication note

The Virtual Mentor: American Medical Association Journal of Ethics [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association. Sep 1999 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/3040.html Monthly.

Homeopathy Online: a Journal of Homeopathic Medicine [Internet]. [place unknown]: Homeopathy Mailing List. Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar-Apr 1996 - No. 6, 2000 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.lyghtforce.com/HomeopathyOnline/. Irregular.

40. Internet journal title with ISSN note

Medical Education Online [Internet]. [place unknown]: Medical Education Online. Vol. 1, 1996 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.med-ed-online.org/. ISSN: 1087-2981.

41. Internet journal title with note on the print version

Problems in General Surgery [Internet]. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins. Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 2001 - Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 2003 [cited 2007 Jan 24]. Available from: http://gateway.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&MODE=ovid&NEWS=n&PAGE=toc&D=ovft&AN=00013452-000000000-00000 The print version began with Vol. 1 in 1984.

42. Internet journal title with system requirements

The World Wide Web Journal of Biology [Internet]. Plymouth (MN): Epress Inc. Vol. 1, Oct 1995-Nov 1996 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.epress.com/w3jbio/. System Requirements: This site is best viewed with Netscape Navigator 3.0 or Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 or higher.

Shi yong jun xue bao [Internet]. Beijing: Zhongguo xue shu qi kan (guang pan ban) dian zi za zhi she. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 29]. Available from: http://cjn.lib.hku.hk Chinese. System Requirements: CAJ viewer is required to view full text.

43. Internet journal title with examples of other notes

Eukaryotic Cell [Internet]. Washington: American Society for Microbiology. Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 2002 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://ec.asm.org/. Subscription required for latest issues. After one year, articles available free from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?journal=86

Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research Newsletter [Internet]. Geneva: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. No. 1, Sep 2000 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.alliance-hpsr.org/jahia/Jahia/lang/en/pid/20 Also issued in French, Spanish, and Chinese.

PISTES: Perspectives Interdisciplinaires Sur le Travail Et la Sante [Internet]. Montreal (QC): IRSST. Vol 1, No 1, Nov 1999 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://www.unites.uqam.ca/pistes/. French. IRSST is the Institut de Recherche Robert-Sauve en Sante et en Securite du Travail.

Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. Apr 2000 - Dec 16, 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/10279 Also called NCN.

Japanese Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine [Internet]. Kanazawa-shi Ishikawa (Japan): Japanese Society for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004 -   [cited 2007 Jan 25]. Available from: http://bibpurl.oclc.org/web/8553 Japanese version has title: Nihon Hokan Daitai Iryo Gakkaishi.