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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 25Web Sites

Created: ; Last Update: September 15, 2011.

A. Homepages

B. Parts of Web Sites

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Homepages

The general format for a reference to a homepage, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a homepage.

Examples of Citations to Homepages

A homepage is the first or introductory page of a Web site (NISO Z39.29). It usually provides a table of contents or index to the contents of the site. Homepages are placed on the Internet by both organizations and individuals for purposes ranging from an effort to provide information about a government agency, a company, an association, or a specific subject, to a means of providing a forum for a personal point of view. Homepages vary greatly in size and complexity, reflecting the Web site which they introduce. A citation to a Web site is made primarily from the information found on a homepage.

The rules for citing homepages are similar to those for Internet books. Locate the author or organization with responsibility for the homepage, a title, a place of publication, a publisher, and a date of publication. Simply adding a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or other electronic address to a title is not sufficient. Internet sites disappear with great frequency, and users of a citation must be given some other identifying information if they are to locate sites in the future.

Some elements, however, are more difficult to locate when citing homepages. For example, some poorly constructed sites do not contain dates, and authorship or publishing responsibility may be unclear or absent. The title may also be difficult to discern from a collage of graphics. The person doing the citing can only work with the information provided.

Some elements require expansion for an Internet citation to provide needed information. For example, the date of publication is required in a citation, but most homepages are updated or otherwise modified numerous times after the date of publication, i.e., the date the homepage was first placed on the Internet. The latest date of update/revision should therefore be included along with the date cited, i.e., the date the person doing the citing saw the homepage on the Internet. This is necessary in the volatile Internet environment, where changes can be easily made and a site seen one day may not be the same when viewed the next day. Producing a print or other copy of crucial pages for future reference is strongly recommended.

Note also that it is possible to have Web sites within Web sites. For example, the National Institute on Aging (NIA) is organizationally a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Each of these bodies has its own Web site with a homepage; the NIA site is not considered a part of the NIH site. Similarly, the PubMed database on the NLM site stands alone and is cited as a database, not a part of the NLM site. A URL only reflects server location and should not necessarily be used to indicate hierarchy or subordinate relationships for citation purposes. The basic rule is to cite the most specific identifiable site used.

To cite an entire Web site from the homepage, use the instructions below. To cite only one component of a Web site, such as a specific page or pages, first determine whether or not the component can stand alone and be cited separately. A book or other monograph, a journal, or a database on a Web site should be cited according to the instructions for the particular type of format. Cite a book on a Web site according to Chapter 22, a journal according to Chapter 23, and a database according to Chapter 24.

To use the NLM Web site as an example of components that can be cited separately:

  • A book and similar items on the NLM Web site:
    • Metagenomics: sequences from the environment [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biomedical Information; 2006 [cited 2007 Apr 20]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=metagenomics.TOC
    • Fact sheet: AIDS information resources [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2003 May 2 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Mar 26]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/aidsinfs.html
  • An NLM database:
    • ChemIDplus Lite [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Specialized Information Services Division. [2003] - [cited 2007 Mar 26]. Available from: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • A publication produced by another organization that resides on the NLM site:
    • A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta: A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2005 [cited 2007 Mar 26]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Cite components of Web sites that cannot stand alone according to Chapter 25B Parts of Web Sites. Examples of these include a disease page from the MedlinePlus site and a press release from the AMA site. Never cite as parts those components with authorship distinct from the authors of the site as a whole. If in doubt about the status of a component, cite it separately using the instructions in the appropriate chapter.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Homepages.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Homepages.

Citation Rules with Examples for Homepages

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear on the site
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period
  • See Editor and other Secondary Authors below if there are no authors but editors are named

Specific Rules for Author

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Determining the author. Some homepages clearly state the names of the authors of the Web site. When they do not: Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first screen or the bottom of the last screen of the homepage Do not assume that an individual (more...)

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton   becomes   Palmer-Canton E Ahmed El-Assmy   becomes   El-Assmy (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit   becomes   Al Bassit L Jiddeke M. van de Kamp   becomes   van de Kamp JM Gerard de Pouvourville    (more...)

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Disregard hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot   becomes   Lagrot JL Use only the first letter of given (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   Reed JA Kristine Schmidt, Ph.D.    (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent T. DeVita, Jr.   becomes   DeVita (more...)

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Organizations as author. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may serve as an author. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society   becomes   American (more...)

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No author can be found. If no person or organization can be identified as the author, begin the reference with the title of the homepage Do not use anonymous Example: Mesothelioma.com: the web's most trusted source on mesothelioma [Internet]. New York: (more...)

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Options for author names. The following formats are not NLM practice for citing authors, but are acceptable options: Full first names of authors may be given. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; (more...)

Author Affiliation for Homepages (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the parentheses, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for (more...)

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E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears on the homepage Do not end an e-mail address with a period Place the e-mail address within the (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Give the affiliation of all authors or only the first author Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian (more...)

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Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries if possible. However, the name as found on the Web site may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

Examples for Author Affiliation

Title for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Reproduce the title of a homepage as closely as possible to the wording on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, punctuation, and special characters when possible
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Determining the title. While many homepages clearly state the title of the Web site, some sites do not. When there is no clear title: Look for the most prominent (usually the largest) wording on the opening screen Look at the title bar of the Web browser (more...)

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Retain special characters in titles when possible E@UP: European Copyright Focal Point [Internet]. OncoLink™: the Web's first cancer resource [Internet]. MedConnect (more...)

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Titles not in English. Provide the title in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) Societe Francaise de Mycologie Medicale [Internet]. (more...)

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Titles in more than one language. If a homepage title is written in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the availability statement Separate the languages by commas (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [Internet] or [homepage on the Internet] inside the period. AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 (more...)

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No title can be found. Occasionally a homepage does not appear to have any title; it simply begins with the text. When this occurs: Construct a title from the first few words of the text Use enough words to make the constructed title meaningful Place (more...)

Content Type for Homepages (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • Use a content type to tell the user the format of the Internet item being cited
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "homepage on the"
  • End content type with space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [homepage on the Internet] inside the period. AMA: helping doctors help patients [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, place it in square brackets Place [homepage on the Internet] after the square brackets for the translation Example: Societe Francaise de Mycologie Medicale [French Society of Medical Mycology] (more...)

Type of Medium for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the word Internet in square brackets following the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • End with a period placed outside the closing bracket
  • Add location information (URL, etc) according to the instructions under Availability below

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium. Give the content type (homepage) before the type of medium (Internet) Separate them with "on the" Place both the content type and type of medium in square brackets End with a period Examples: AMA: helping doctors (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [Internet] or [homepage on the Internet] inside the period. AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, give the translation after the original language or romanized title and place it in square brackets Place Internet in square brackets following the translation End with a period Example: (more...)

Examples for Type of Medium

Edition for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the Type of Medium (and Content Type, if present) when a homepage is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions. Abbreviate common words found in edition statements, if desired: For additional abbreviations, see ISO 832:1994 - Rules for the abbreviation of bibliographic terms.Follow abbreviated words with a period and end all edition (more...)

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions. For non-English edition statements in the roman alphabet (French, German, Spanish, Italian, etc.): Provide the name in the original language Abbreviate common words used in edition statements if the language is a familiar (more...)

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Both an edition and a version. If an edition and a version are present, give both, in the order they are presented, separated by a semicolon and a space Professional ed.; Rev. version. Windows version; Office ed. If an edition and a version are present, (more...)

Examples for Edition

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Homepages (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, producers, and illustrators.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the Type of Medium and any Edition statement
  • Use the same rules for the format of names presented in Author above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author. A Web site may have several types of secondary author. List all of them in the order they are given in the site Separate each type of secondary author with the accompanying role by a semicolon End secondary author (more...)

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Secondary author performing more than one role. If the same secondary author performs more than one role: List all of them in the order they are given on the Web site Separate the roles by "and" End secondary author information with a period Example: (more...)

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Non-English names for secondary authors. Translate the word found for editor, translator, illustrator, or other secondary author into English if possible. However, the wording found on the Web site may always be used. If not translated, ignore diacritics, (more...)

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Organization as editor. On rare occasions an organization may be listed as the editor. Follow the instructions for entering the organizational name found under Organizations as author Place a comma, space, and the word editor after the organizational (more...)

Examples for Editor and other Secondary Authors

Place of Publication for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the homepage is published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wein
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Locating the place of publication. When a homepage does not clearly state the place of publication of the Web site: Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first screen or the bottom of the last screen of the homepage If it is not in one of these (more...)

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Non-US cities. Use the anglicized form of a city name, such as Rome for Roma and Moscow for Moskva, if possible. However, the name as found on the Web site may always be used. Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. This rule ignores (more...)

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Joint publication. Two or more organizations may co-publish a Web site. Use the city of the first organization found on the opening screens as the place of publication Uijtdehaage S, Dennis S. HEAL: Health Education Assets Library [Internet]. Oakland (more...)

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Multiple places of publication. If more than one place of publication is found, use the first one or the one set in the largest type or in bold type. Do not give multiple places. An alternative is to use the place of publication and publisher likely (more...)

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No place of publication can be found. If no place of publication can be found on the opening screens, but one can be found elsewhere on the site or can be reasonably inferred (e.g., Chicago as the place for a publication of the American Medical Association), (more...)

Publisher for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • A publisher is defined as the individual or organization issuing the homepage
  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears on the homepage or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley"
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Determining the publisher. When a homepage does not clearly state the name of the publisher: Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first screen or the bottom of the last screen of the homepage Look for the name after a copyright statement, e.g., (more...)

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Abbreviated words in publisher names. Abbreviate commonly used words in publisher names, if desired Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for Department Div. for Division Inst. (more...)

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Non-English names for publishers. Give publisher names in the roman alphabet (French, Spanish, Italian, etc.) in their original language Rome: Societa Editrice Universo; Lisbon: Imprensa Medica; Romanize names in Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew Sofia (more...)

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher. When citing publishers that are national bodies such as government agencies, if a nationality is not part of the name, place the country in parentheses after the name, using (more...)

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Joint publication. Two or more organizations may co-publish a Web site. Use the first organization appearing as publisher on the opening screens Place the name of the other organization(s) as a note at the end of the citation, if desired Do not give (more...)

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Multiple publishers. If more than one publisher is found in a document, use the first one given or the one set in the largest type or bold type An alternative is to use the publisher likely to be most familiar to the audience of the reference list. For (more...)

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No publisher can be found. If no publisher can be found, use [publisher unknown] If no publisher can be found, use [publisher unknown]

Date of Publication for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Use the date the homepage was first placed on the Internet
  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication. Some homepages clearly state the date that the site was placed on the Internet, using such phrases as "first published", "created", and "began". When they do not: Look for the date at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the (more...)

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Multiple years of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last year of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 If months are given, place (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Date of publication and date of copyright. Some homepages display both a date of publication and a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Use only the date (more...)

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. If no date of publication can be found, but the homepage contains a date of copyright, (more...)

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No date of publication or copyright can be found. If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found, use the date of update/revision and/or the date cited The Kennedy Institute of Ethics [Internet]. Washington: The Institute; [updated (more...)

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Options for date of publication. It is not NLM policy, but the following is an acceptable option: The date of publication may follow the author names (or type of medium if there is no author) in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text (more...)

Date of Update/Revision for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Homepages are frequently updated or revised after publication dates or copyright dates
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated, modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision. Homepages on the Internet are often updated or revised after first publication. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modified, revised, reviewed: At the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first screen (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Both a date of update and a date of revision. Various words are used to show that the content of a Web site has changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Use the wording supplied on the site Give all words expressing update/revision (more...)

Date of Citation for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the homepage was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation. Various words are used to show that the content of a homepage has changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Begin with the date(s) of update/revision in the format year month (more...)

Availability for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in its entirety; do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break within a URL

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Multiple URLs. If more than one URL can be used to locate a homepage: Give the URL you used in locating the site As an option, give all known URLs, separated by a space, a semicolon, and a space Neonatology on the Web [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neonatology (more...)

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always be used to retrieve the homepage, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions for (more...)

Language for Homepages (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Homepages appearing in more than one language. If a homepage is written in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the homepage List all languages of publication after the Availability statement (URL) Capitalize the language (more...)

Notes for Homepages (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements. System requirements describe the particular software and hardware needed to view the Web site. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the wording supplied by the publisher; no standardization (more...)

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Web master name. If a Web master is given, place the name in natural word after the Availability statement and any language of publication, if desired Neonatology on the Web [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neonatology on the Web; 1995 Aug 1 [updated 2006 (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. The notes element may be used to provide any further information useful. Begin by citing the homepage, then add the note. Some examples of notes are: Information not provided for in the citation rules Complementary/Integrative (more...)

Examples of Citations to Homepages

1. Standard citation to a homepage

Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/CIMER/.

AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/.

with optional content type

AMA: helping doctors help patients [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/.

2. Homepage with author(s)

Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://bama.ua.edu/~jhooper/.

D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.

Huckstep RL, Sherry E. World Ortho [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [updated 2007 Mar 23; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.worldortho.com/.

Fugh-Berman A. PharmedOUT [Internet]. Washington: Georgetown University, Department of Physiology and Biophysics; c2006 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.pharmedout.org/.

3. Homepage with full author name(s)

D'Alessandro, Donna M.; D'Alessandro, Michael P. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.

4. Homepage with author role indicated

Clutterbuck J, compiler. The Aspergillus nidulans Linkage Map [Internet]. Glasgow (Scotland): University of Glasgow, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Division of Molecular Genetics; [updated 2006 Nov; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.pharmedout.org/.

5. Homepage with an organization(s) as author

Gene Ontology Consortium. the Gene Ontology [Internet]. [place unknown]: the Gene Ontology; c1999-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.geneontology.org/.

International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Recommendations on Biochemical & Organic Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology etc. [Internet]. London: University of London, Queen Mary, Department of Chemistry; [updated 2006 Jul 24; cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/.

6. Homepage with no authors or editors

Mesothelioma.com: the web's most trusted source on mesothelioma [Internet]. New York: Early, Ludwick, Sweeney & Strauss; c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.mesothelioma.com/.

StatePublicHealth.org [Internet]. Washington: ASTHO; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://statepublichealth.org/.

Profiles in Science [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 1998 -   [cited 2011 Jul 8]. Available from: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov

American Indian Health [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Division of Specialized Information Services, Outreach and Special Populations Branch; 2004 -   [updated 2011 Jul 8; cited 2011 Jul 29]. Available from: http://americanindianhealth.nlm.nih.gov/.

7. Homepage with author affiliation

Uijtdehaage S (David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA. bas@mednet.ucla.edu), Dennis S (Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. sdennis@lib.med.utah.edu). HEAL: Health Education Assets Library [Internet]. Oakland (CA): Regents of the University of California; c2000-2005 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.healcentral.org/.

8. Homepage with title having a subtitle

NursingWorld: Official Web site of the American Nurses Association [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): American Nurses Association, Inc.; c2007 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.ana.org/.

Care2Learn.com: continuing education for healthcare [Internet]. Bradenton (FL): HealthNow, Inc.; [updated 2007 Feb 22; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://care2learn.com/. System Requirements: Netscape Navigator 3.x or higher or Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.02 or higher.

growthhouse.org: improving care for the dying [Internet]. San Francisco: Growth House, Inc.; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.growthhouse.org/.

American Academy of Pain Medicine: The Physician's Voice in Pain Medicine [Internet]. Glenview (IL): The Academy; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.painmed.org/.

Women's Health Resources: Women's Health Research from NIH [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Division of Specialized Information Services, Office of Outreach and Special Populations; 2009 May 1 -   [updated 2010 Sep 1; cited 2011 Jul 13]. Available from: http://www.womenshealthresources.nlm.nih.gov/. Created in partnership with the National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director, Office of Research on Women's Health.

9. Homepage with upper/lower case/special characters in the title

familydoctor.org [Internet]. Leawood (KS): American Academy of Family Physicians; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://familydoctor.org/.

BIRDNET [Internet]. Washington: Ornithological Council; c1999-2006 [updated 2006 Dec 8; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/.

National Library for Health [Internet]. [London]: NHS; c2005 [cited 2007 Jun 11]. Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/.

E@UP: European Copyright Focal Point [Internet]. The Hague (Netherlands): EBLIDA Secretariat; c2000 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.eblida.org/ecup/.

OncoLink™: the Web's first cancer resource [Internet]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Abramson Cancer Center; c1994-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.oncolink.com/.

MedConnect: an online resource for medical professionals [Internet]. Monmouth Junction (NJ): Medical Network Inc.; c1995-2006 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.medconnect.com/.

Chlamy Center: an Online Informatics Resource for Chlamydomonas [Internet]. Durham (NC): Duke University, Department of Biology; [modified 2007 Mar 8; cited 2007 Mar 22]. Available from: http://jupiter.biology.duke.edu/.

10. Homepage with title ending in punctuation other than a period

Shape Up America! [Internet]. Clyde Park (MT): Shape Up America!; c2005-2006 [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.shapeup.org/.

11. Homepage in a language other than English

Societe Francaise de Mycologie Medicale [Internet]. Paris: The Society; [2007; cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://mycolmed.chez-alice.fr/. French.

Senovida [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Oncologia; [2007; cited 2007 Mar 28]. Available from: http://www.senovida.org/. Spanish.

Max-Planck-Institut fur Experimentelle Medizin [Internet]. Gottingen (Germany): Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; c2006 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.em.mpg.de/site/. German.

MedlinePlus®: Informacion de Salud para Usted [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://medlineplus.gov/spanish/. Spanish.

with translation included

Senovida [Breast life] [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Oncologia; [2007; cited 2007 Mar 28]. Available from: http://www.senovida.org/. Spanish.

Societe Francaise de Mycologie Medicale [French Society of Medical Mycology] [Internet]. Paris: The Society; [2007; cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://mycolmed.chez-alice.fr/. French.

12. Homepage published with parallel text in two or more languages

Health Canada = Sante Canada [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; [updated 2007 Feb 8; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/. English, French.

Mange Bien, Mange Saintaire = Eat Well, Eat Safe [Internet]. [Guelph (ON)]: Doug Powell; c2003-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.eatwelleatsafe.ca/frfiles/frindex.htm French, English.

The Virtual Body = El Cuerpo Virtual [Internet]. [place unknown]: HCA; c2001 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.medtropolis.com/vbody.asp English, Spanish.

13. Homepage published with optional content type

Frankenstein: Penetrating the Secrets of Nature [exhibit on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), History of Medicine Division; 1998 Feb 13 [updated 2010 Oct 29; cited 2011 Feb 11]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/frankenstein/index.html

National Jewish Medical and Research Center [homepage on the Internet]. Denver: The Center; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.njc.org/.

14. Homepage with an edition or version

Doctor's Guide [Internet]. Global ed. [place unknown]: Doctor's Guide Publishing Limited; c1995-2007 [updated 2007 Feb 21; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.cancerguide.org/.

15. Homepage with editor(s)

Alternative Nature Online Herbal [Internet]. Bergeron K, editor. Erin (TN): Alternative Nature; 1997 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://altnature.com/.

PedsCCM.org: The Pediatric Critical Care Website [Internet]. Markovitz B, Weigle C, Pon S, editors. [place unknown]: PedsCCM; 1995 [updated 2007 Mar 9; cited 2007 Mar 22]. Available from: http://pedsccm.org/.

16. Homepage with well known place of publication

OncoLink™: the Web's first cancer resource [Internet]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Abramson Cancer Center; c1994-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.oncolink.com/.

Psychology in the News [Internet]. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://psycport.apa.org/.

17. Homepage with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

HDCN: Hypertension, Dialysis & Clinical Nephrology [Internet]. Hinsdale (IL): Medtext, Inc.; c1995-2006 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.medtext.com/hdcn.htm

Max-Planck-Institut fur Experimentelle Medizin [Internet]. Gottingen (Germany): Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; c2006 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.em.mpg.de/site/. German.

18. Homepage with place of publication inferred

National Library for Health [Internet]. [London]: NHS; c2005 [cited 2007 Jun 11]. Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/.

D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.

19. Homepage with unknown place of publication

Dunn S. The CancerGuide Page [Internet]. [place unknown]: Steve Dunn; c1995-2004 [updated 2004 Aug 9; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.cancerguide.org/.

Doctor's Guide [Internet]. Global ed. [place unknown]: Doctor's Guide Publishing Limited; c1995-2007 [updated 2007 Feb 21; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.cancerguide.org/.

Huckstep RL, Sherry E. World Ortho [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [updated 2007 Mar 23; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.worldortho.com/.

20. Homepage with publisher having subsidiary division

OncoLink™: the Web's first cancer resource [Internet]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Abramson Cancer Center; c1994-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.oncolink.com/.

21. Homepage with government agency or other national body as publisher

National Center for Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); [reviewed 2007 Feb 15; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/index.htm

Healthy People [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.healthypeople.gov/.

22. Homepage with title and publisher the same

PhysOrg.com [Internet]. [place unknown]: PhysOrg.com; c2003 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.physorg.com

cancerbackup: informing, understanding, supporting [Internet]. London: Cancerbackup; c2003 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/.

23. Homepage with title and publisher the same, with publisher name abbreviated

United States National Library of Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Library; 1993 Oct 10 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/.

Johns Hopkins University [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): The University; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.jhu.edu/.

International HIV/AIDS Alliance [Internet]. Brighton (UK): The Alliance; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.aidsalliance.org/.

The Kennedy Institute of Ethics [Internet]. Washington: The Institute; [updated 2007 Mar 16; cited 2007 Mar 22]. Available from: http://kennedyinstitute.georgetown.edu/.

24. Homepage with author and publisher the same

Double D. Critical Psychiatry Website [Internet]. Norwich (UK): Duncan Double; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.critpsynet.freeuk.com/antipsychiatry.htm

25. Homepage with joint publication

Uijtdehaage S, Dennis S. HEAL: Health Education Assets Library [Internet]. Oakland (CA): Regents of the University of California; c2000-2005 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.healcentral.org/. Joint publication with the University of Utah and the University of Oklahoma.

Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://bama.ua.edu/~jhooper/. Jointly published by the University of Alabama School of Law and the Alabama Department of Mental Health & Mental Retardation.

26. Homepage with unknown publisher

Huckstep RL, Sherry E. World Ortho [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [updated 2007 Mar 23; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.worldortho.com/.

27. Homepage with month(s)/day(s) included in date of publication

Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://bama.ua.edu/~jhooper/.

28. Homepage with date of copyright instead of date of publication

E@UP: European Copyright Focal Point [Internet]. The Hague (Netherlands): EBLIDA Secretariat; c2000 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.eblida.org/ecup/.

enc: egg nutrition center [Internet]. Washington: The Center; c2004 [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.enc-online.org/.

29. Homepage with multiple years of publication

APSnet: Plant Pathology Online [Internet]. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994-2006 [cited 2006 Dec 4]. Available from: http://www.apsnet.org/.

Lab Tests Online® [Internet]. Washington: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.labtestsonline.org/index.html

30. Homepage with update/revision date

United States National Library of Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Library; 1993 Oct 10 [updated 2007 Mar 22; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/.

NursingWorld: Official Web site of the American Nurses Association [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): American Nurses Association, Inc.; c2007 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.ana.org/.

D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.

Food and Nutrition Information Center [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National Agricultural Library (US); [modified 2007 Jan 30; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://grande.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?tax_level=1&info_center=4

31. Homepage with a date of update and a date of revision

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Institute; [updated 2007 Mar 23; modified 2007 Mar 26; cited 2007 Mar 27]. Available from: http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/.

32. Homepage with no date of publication or copyright

EPERC: End of Life / Palliative Education Resource Center [Internet]. Milwaukee (WI): Medical College of Wisconsin; [updated 2007 Feb; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.eperc.mcw.edu/.

growthhouse.org: improving care for the dying [Internet]. San Francisco: Growth House, Inc.; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.growthhouse.org/.

33. Homepage with multiple URLs

Neonatology on the Web [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neonatology on the Web; 1995 Aug 1 [updated 2006 Dec 22; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.neonatology.org/ ; www.neonatology.net ; www.neonatology.com

34. Homepage with optional system requirements

Care2Learn.com: continuing education for healthcare [Internet]. Bradenton (FL): HealthNow, Inc.; [updated 2007 Feb 22; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://care2learn.com/. System Requirements: Netscape Navigator 3.x or higher or Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.02 or higher.

PHA: Pulmonary Hypertension Association [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): The Association; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.phassociation.org/. System Requirements: PC Windows running Internet Explorer 5.5 or higher or Macintosh Internet Explorer 5.2 or higher; Macromedia Flash Player; Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.0 or higher.

35. Homepage with Web master named

Neonatology on the Web [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neonatology on the Web; 1995 Aug 1 [updated 2006 Dec 22; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.neonatology.org/. Ray Duncan, Web master.

36. Homepage with supplemental note included

Uijtdehaage S, Dennis S. HEAL: Health Education Assets Library [Internet]. Oakland (CA): Regents of the University of California; c2000-2005 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.healcentral.org/. This project made possible by grants from the National Science Foundation, DUE-0085660 and DUE-0226314, and from the National Library of Medicine, 1 G08 LM007877-01 and 1 G08 LM008054-01.

Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/CIMER/. Some content available in Spanish and Chinese.

StatePublicHealth.org [Internet]. Washington: ASTHO; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://statepublichealth.org/. Sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Governors Association, and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Web Sites

The general format for a reference to part of a Web site, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to part of a Web site.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Web Sites

To cite an entire Web site from the homepage, use the instructions in Chapter 25A. To cite only one component of a Web site, such as a specific page or pages, first determine whether or not the component can stand alone and be cited separately. A book or other monograph, a journal, or a database on a Web site should be cited according to the instructions for the particular type of format. Cite a book on a Web site according to Chapter 22, a journal according to Chapter 23, and a database according to Chapter 24.

To use the NLM Web site as an example of components that can be cited separately:

  • A book and similar items on the NLM Web site:
    • Metagenomics: sequences from the environment [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biomedical Information; 2006 [cited 2007 Apr 20]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=metagenomics.TOC
    • Fact sheet: AIDS information resources [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2003 May 2 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Mar 26]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/aidsinfs.html
  • An NLM database:
    • ChemIDplus Lite [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Specialized Information Services Division. [2003] - [cited 2007 Mar 26]. Available from: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • A publication produced by another organization that resides on the NLM site:
    • A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta: A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2005 [cited 2007 Mar 26]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Components of Web sites that cannot stand alone should be cited according to the instructions presented here. Examples include a disease page from the MedlinePlus site and a press release from the AMA site. Never cite as parts components with authorship distinct from the authors of the site as a whole. Also, be sure that the part is to the Web site as a whole and not to a book or other separately citable component on a site. If in doubt about the status of a component, cite it separately using the instructions in the appropriate chapter.

Note also that it is possible to have Web sites within Web sites. For example, the National Institute on Aging (NIA) is organizationally a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Each of these bodies has its own Web site with a homepage; the NIA site is not considered a part of the NIH site. Similarly, the PubMed database on the NLM site stands alone and is cited as a database, not a part of the NLM site. A URL in reality only reflects server location and should not necessarily be used to indicate hierarchy or subordinate relationships for citation purposes. The basic rule is to cite the most specific identifiable site used.

Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a part of a Web site with information about the entire site; follow it with the information about the part.

When citing a part of a print book, the location (pagination) of the part is shown as the numbers of the pages on which the part resides, such as p. 34-6. When citing a part of a Web site, unless the part is in PDF (Portable Document Format), standard page numbers are not available. For non-PDF parts:

  • Give location as the total extent of the part.
  • Calculate extent by the best means possible, in terms of the number of print pages, screens, paragraphs, or bytes, and place the total in square brackets. Screen size, font used, and printers vary greatly, but the purpose is to give an indication of the length of the part.
  • Use the word "about" before the length indicator when the number is calculated.

Web sites frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as parts using these instructions. Consult the original publication and cite the particular item from there.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Web Sites.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Web Sites.

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Web Sites

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Homepage (R) | Title (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Homepage on the Internet (required)

Title for a Part of a Web Site (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the part as it appears on the Web site
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End title information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles for parts not in English. Provide the name in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) Senovida [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad (more...)

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Titles for parts in more than one language. If the title of the part is presented with equal text in two or more languages, as often occurs in Canadian publications: Give all titles in the order in which they are found on the title page or opening screens (more...)

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Titles for parts containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Capitalize the first word of the title of a part unless the title begins with a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character that might lose its (more...)

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Title proceeded by a name and number. Parts of Web sites may have a name and number in addition to a title. For example, a name such as Table or Figure may precede the title of an illustration, or Press release precede the text of an announcement. Provide (more...)

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Part is a video clip, videocast, or podcast. If a video clip, videocast, or podcast is part of a Web site: Place the word Video, Videocast, or Podcast in square brackets before the title Follow it with a comma and a space Enter the length of the item (more...)

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No title appears. Occasionally a part of a Web site does not appear to have a formal title. When this occurs: Create a title from the first few words of the text. Use enough words to make the constructed title meaningful. Place the created title in square (more...)

Date of Publication for Parts of Web Sites (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Include if the date differs from the date of the Web site as it appears on the homepage
  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication. Some Web sites clearly state the date that the part of the site was placed on the Internet, using such phrases as "first published", "created", and "began". When they do not: Look for the date at the top, bottom, or (more...)

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Multiple years of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last year of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 If months are given, place (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Date of copyright. Some parts of Web sites display a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Be sure, however, that this is the copyright date of the part and (more...)

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No date of publication or copyright can be found. If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found for the part of a Web site, use the date of update/revision and/or the date cited AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: (more...)

Date of Update/Revision for a Part of a Web Site (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Parts of Web sites may be updated or revised after initial publication
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated and modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision. Parts of Web sites on the Internet are often updated or revised after publication. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modified, revised, reviewed: At the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Both a date of update and a date of revision. Various words are used to show that the content of a part of a Web site has changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Use the wording on the site Give all words with the dates provided, (more...)

Examples for Date of Update/Revision

Date of Citation for a Part of a Web Site (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the part of a Web site was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a semicolon placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation. Various words are used to show that the content of a part of a Web site has changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Begin with the date(s) of update/revision in the year month (more...)

Location (Pagination) for a Part of a Web Site (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

For parts with standard page numbers such as those in PDF:

  • Begin location with "p." followed by a space
  • Enter the page number or numbers on which the part appears. Examples: p. 438 and p. 663-4.
  • Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
  • Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: p. S10-8.
  • End location with a period

For parts without page numbers:

  • Give location as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes of the part, whichever is most practical; precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 15 screens]
  • If the part is printed out, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, as [about 10 p.]
  • End location information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)

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Roman numerals for page numbers. Keep roman numerals when they are used as page numbers Give roman numerals in upper or lower case, whichever appears in the publication Examples: Common aquatic invertebrates; [cited 2006 Dec 15]; p. XXI-XXII. Classification (more...)

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No page numbers appear on the pages of the part. If the part of a Web site in PDF (Portable Document Format) has no page numbers: Count the total numbers of pages of the text Follow the count total by "p." Place the number and "p." in square brackets, (more...)

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Part is a video clip, videocast, or podcast. If a video clip, videocast, or podcast is part of a Web site: Place the word Video, Videocast, or Podcast in square brackets followed by a comma and a space Enter the title of the part, followed by a semicolon (more...)

Availability for a Part of a Web Site (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the part in its entirety; do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • Use the URL for the homepage if the part does not have its own URL; check HTML file properties to be sure
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break within a URL

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always retrieve the part of the Web site, i.e., the part is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions (more...)

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Multiple URLs. If more than one URL can be used to locate a part: Give the URL you used in locating the part As an option, give all known URLs, separated by a space, a semicolon, and a space Example: Health Canada = Sante Canada [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): (more...)

Language for a Part of a Web Site (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Parts appearing in more than one language. If a part of a Web site is written with equal text in two or more languages, as often occurs in Canadian publications: Give all titles in the order they are presented on the title page or on the opening screens (more...)

Notes for a Part of a Web Site (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements. System requirements describe the particular software and hardware needed to view the Web site. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the wording supplied by the publisher; no standardization (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. The notes element may be used to provide any further information useful. Begin by citing the homepage, then add the note. Some examples of notes are: Information not provided for in the citation rules the (more...)

Examples of Citations to Parts of Web Sites

1. Standard part of a Web site

AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007. AMA launches exclusive partnership with the ReachMD Channel for medical professionals; 2007 Mar 26 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/17469.html

Chlamy Center: an Online Informatics Resource for Chlamydomonas [Internet]. Durham (NC): Duke University, Department of Biology; [modified 2007 Mar 8]. Core collections; [modified 2006 Jan 25; cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://jupiter.biology.duke.edu/strains.html

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Index to drug-specific information [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): U.S. Food and Drug Administration; [updated 2009 Jun 4]. Sleep disorder (sedative-hypnotic) drug information; [updated 2009 May 21; cited 2009 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm101557.htm

2. Part of a Web site with name and number

Health Canada = Sante Canada [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; [updated 2007 Mar 28]. Information update 2007-31, Health Canada's revised assessment of mercury in fish enhances protection while reflecting advice in Canada's Food Guide = Mise a jour 2007-31, Les normes revisees de Sante Canada sur le mercure dans le poisson assurent une meilleure protection et refletent les conseils du Guide alimentaire canadien; 2007 Mar 28 [cited 2007 Mar 29]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2007/2007_31_e.html ; http://hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2007/2007_31_f.html English, French.

Max-Planck-Institut fur Experimentelle Medizin [Internet]. Gottingen (Germany): Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; c2006. Presseinformation 2006 (159), Wenn Nervenzellen kontaktscheu sind; 2006 Sep 21 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [174 KB]. Available from: http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/
pressemitteilungen/2006/pressemitteilung20060920/. German.

3. Part of a Web site with name added

fruits & veggies - more matters™ [Internet]. [place unknown]: Produce for Better Health Foundation; c2007. [Chart], Ways to get more; [cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org/?page_id=113&iCat=22

NIAAA: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Institute; 2004 Jun 10 [modified 2007 Feb 28]. [Table], Percent who drink beverage alcohol, by gender, 1939-2003; [updated 2004 Mar; cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/Resources/DatabaseResources/QuickFacts/
AlcoholConsumption/PercentAlcoholGender.htm

NIH SeniorHealth [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Aging (US); 2002 Mar 19 [reviewed 2007 Feb 16]. [Video], Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease; 2002 Mar 19 [reviewed 2007 Mar 12; cited 2007 Mar 28]; [2 min., 31 sec.]. Available from: http://nihseniorhealth.gov/alzheimersdisease/symptoms/08.html

4. Part of a Web site with title ending in punctuation other than a period

NCCAM: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Center; [modified 2007 Mar 22]. What is CAM?; [modified 2007 Feb 12; cited 2007 Mar 29]; [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/.

Senovida [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Oncologia; [2007]. Que tipos de cancer de mama hay?; [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.senovida.org/site/info_general/info_02.htm Spanish.

5. Part of a Web site not in English

Senovida [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Oncologia; [2007]. Que tipos de cancer de mama hay?; [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.senovida.org/site/info_general/info_02.htm Spanish.

Max-Planck-Institut fur Experimentelle Medizin [Internet]. Gottingen (Germany): Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; c2006. Presseinformation 2006 (159), Wenn Nervenzellen kontaktscheu sind; 2006 Sep 21 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [174 KB]. Available from: http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/
pressemitteilungen/2006/pressemitteilung20060920/. German.

with translation

Senovida [Breast life] [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Oncologia; [2007]. Que tipos de cancer de mama hay? [What types of breast cancer are there?]; [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.senovida.org/site/info_general/info_02.htm Spanish.

Max-Planck-Institut fur Experimentelle Medizin [Internet]. Gottingen (Germany): Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; c2006. Presseinformation 2006 (159), Wenn Nervenzellen kontaktscheu sind [Press release 2006 (159), When nerve cells can't make contact]; 2006 Sep 21 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [174 KB]. Available from: http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/
pressemitteilungen/2006/pressemitteilung20060920/. German.

6. Part of a Web site with equal text in two or more languages

Health Canada = Sante Canada [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; [updated 2007 Mar 28]. Information update 2007-31, Health Canada's revised assessment of mercury in fish enhances protection while reflecting advice in Canada's Food Guide = Mise a jour 2007-31, Les normes revisees de Sante Canada sur le mercure dans le poisson assurent une meilleure protection et refletent les conseils du Guide alimentaire canadien; 2007 Mar 28 [cited 2007 Mar 29]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2007/2007_31_e.html ; http://hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2007/2007_31_f.html English, French.

7. Part of a Web site with a date of publication separate from the date of the Web site

Neonatology on the Web [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neonatology on the Web; 1995 Aug 1 [updated 2007 Mar 25]. Clinical resources for neonatology and perinatology: information about sick newborns for professionals and families; 1995 Oct 31 [modified 2006 Jul 1; cited 2007 Mar 27]. Available from: http://www.neonatology.org/neo.clinical.html

AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007. AMA launches exclusive partnership with the ReachMD Channel for medical professionals; 2007 Mar 26 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/17469.html

StatePublicHealth.org [Internet]. Washington: ASTHO; [cited 2007 Mar 27]. Hurricanes and your health; 2005 Fall [cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://statepublichealth.org/?template=view_story.php&fs_id=20

8. Part of a Web site with date(s) of update/revision

Chlamy Center: an Online Informatics Resource for Chlamydomonas [Internet]. Durham (NC): Duke University, Department of Biology; [modified 2007 Mar 8]. Core collections; [modified 2006 Jan 25; cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://jupiter.biology.duke.edu/strains.html

AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007. Medical liability crisis map; [updated 2006 Dec 20; cited 2007 Mar 28]. [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/noindex/category/11871.html

Lab Tests Online® [Internet]. Washington: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001-2007. ACT; [reviewed 2004 Dec 7; cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/act/glance.html

cancerbackup: informing, understanding, supporting [Internet]. London: Cancerbackup; c2003. Treating ovarian cancer with chemotherapy; [reviewed 2006 Jul 1; modified 2006 Aug 31; cited 2007 Feb 21]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/Cancertype/Ovary/Treatment/Chemotherapy

9. Part of a Web site with date of citation only

Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007. Bladder cancer; [cited 2007 Mar 27]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/diseases/bladder/.

Profiles in Science [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 1998 -   . Visual Culture and Health Posters; [cited 2011 Jul 8]. Available from: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/VC/.

10. Part of a Web site with traditional page numbers for location (pagination)

the American Academy of Pain Medicine: The Physician's Voice in Pain Medicine [Internet]. Glenview (IL): The Academy; c2007. Consent for chronic opioid therapy; 1999 [cited 2007 Feb 21]; [2 p.]. Available from: http://www.painmed.org/productpub/statements/pdfs/opioid_consent_form.pdf

11. Part of a Web site with location (pagination) estimated as page numbers

NCCAM: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Center; [modified 2007 Mar 22]. What is CAM?; [modified 2007 Feb 12; cited 2007 Mar 29]; [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/.

12. Part of a Web site with location (pagination) estimated as number of screens

NursingWorld: Official Web site of the American Nurses Association [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): American Nurses Association, Inc.; c2007. American Nurse Today; [cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.ana.org/anajournal/.

Lab Tests Online® [Internet]. Washington: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001-2007. ACT; [reviewed 2004 Dec 7; cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/act/glance.html

AAMC: Association of American Medical Colleges [Internet]. Washington: The Association; c1995-2007. Press release, U.S. medical school enrollment projected to increase by 17 percent; 2007 Feb 12 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.aamc.org/newsroom/pressrel/2007/070212.htm

13. Part of a Web site with location (pagination) shown as number of paragraphs

Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007. Energy therapies; [cited 2007 Feb 21]; [3 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/cimer/dIndex.cfm?pn=7B632E4A-56B2-11D5-812100508B603A14

14. Part of a Web site with location (pagination) shown as number of bytes

Max-Planck-Institut fur Experimentelle Medizin [Internet]. Gottingen (Germany): Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; c2006. Presseinformation 2006 (159), Wenn Nervenzellen kontaktscheu sind; 2006 Sep 21 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [174 KB]. Available from: http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/
pressemitteilungen/2006/pressemitteilung20060920/. German.

15. Part of a Web site with hyperlinks so location (pagination) cannot be provided

MedlinePlus: Trusted Health Information for You [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); [updated 2007 Mar 26]. E. coli infections; [reviewed 2007 Feb 12; updated 2007 Mar 26; cited 2007 Mar 28]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ecoliinfections.html

NHS in England [Internet]. London: NHS Connecting for Health; [updated 2007 Mar 27]. History of the NHS; [cited 2007 Mar 28]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/england/aboutTheNHS/history/default.cmsx

OncoLink™: the Web's first cancer resource [Internet]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Abramson Cancer Center; c1994-2007. Caregivers; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.oncolink.com/coping/coping.cfm?c=1

BIRDNET [Internet]. Washington: Ornithological Council; c1997-2006 [updated 2007 Mar 19]. Avian influenza; [updated 2005 Dec 30; cited 2007 Mar 28]. Available from: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/OC/avianinfluenza.html

16. Part of a Web site that is a video clip

NIH SeniorHealth [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Aging (US); 2002 Mar 19 [reviewed 2007 Feb 16]. [Video], Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease; 2002 Mar 19 [reviewed 2007 Mar 12; cited 2007 Mar 28]; [2 min., 31 sec.]. Available from: http://nihseniorhealth.gov/alzheimersdisease/symptoms/08.html

The Virtual Body = El Cuerpo Virtual [Internet]. [place unknown]: HCA; c2001. [Video], Animated heart; [cited 2007 Feb 21]; [about 5 sec.]. Available from: http://www.medtropolis.com/vbody.asp by selecting heart from the menu. English, Spanish.

17. Part of a Web site with URL not directly addressable

The Virtual Body = El Cuerpo Virtual [Internet]. [place unknown]: HCA; c2001. [Video], Animated heart; [cited 2007 Feb 21]; [about 5 sec.]. Available from: http://www.medtropolis.com/vbody.asp by selecting heart from the menu. English, Spanish.

18. Part of a Web site with multiple URLs

Health Canada = Sante Canada [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; [updated 2007 Mar 28]. Information update 2007-31, Health Canada's revised assessment of mercury in fish enhances protection while reflecting advice in Canada's Food Guide = Mise a jour 2007-31, Les normes revisees de Sante Canada sur le mercure dans le poisson assurent une meilleure protection et refletent les conseils du Guide alimentaire canadien; 2007 Mar 28 [cited 2007 Mar 29]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2007/2007_31_e.html ; http://hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2007/2007_31_f.html English, French.

19. Part of a Web site with optional system requirements

NIH SeniorHealth [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Aging (US); 2002 Mar 19 [reviewed 2007 Feb 16]. [Video], Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease; 2002 Mar 19 [reviewed 2007 Mar 12; cited 2007 Mar 28]; [2 min., 31 sec.]. Available from: http://nihseniorhealth.gov/alzheimersdisease/symptoms/08.html System Requirements: Windows Media Player for PC or QuickTime Player for MAC.

20. Part of a Web site with supplemental note included

The American Academy of Pain Medicine: the Physician's Voice in Pain Medicine [Internet]. Glenview (IL): The Academy; c2007. Consent for chronic opioid therapy; 1999 [cited 2007 Feb 21]; [2 p.]. Available from: http://www.painmed.org/productpub/statements/pdfs/opioid_consent_form.pdf Approved by the AAPM Executive Committee on January 14, 1999.

StatePublicHealth.org [Internet]. Washington: ASTHO; [cited 2007 Mar 27]. Hurricanes and your health; 2005 Fall [cited 2007 Mar 27]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://statepublichealth.org/?template=view_story.php&fs_id=20 Sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, National Governors Association, and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials.

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