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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 24Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

Created: ; Last Update: September 15, 2011.

A. Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

B. Parts of Databases on the Internet

C. Contributions to Databases on the Internet

See also:

Chapter 20 Databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

The general format for a reference to a database/retrieval system on the Internet, including punctuation:

- for a serial database that is open:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database/retrieval system on the Internet for a serial database that is open.

- for a serial database that is closed:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database/retrieval system on the Internet for a serial database that is closed.

- for a single database:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database/retrieval system on the Internet for a single database.

- for a retrieval system:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a database/retrieval system on the Internet for a retrieval system.

Examples of Citations to Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

A database is a collection of individual records that are most often standardized in both format and content. Database records are usually related by a common denominator such as subject matter or the source of the material in them. Text-oriented databases are generally bibliographic or full-text, where each record has a bibliographic citation to a publication or the complete text of a document. Number-oriented databases cover many types, including statistical, time series, and transactional.

There are two broad categories of databases found on the Internet: serial and single. Their publication pattern differentiates them.

Serial databases contain records or other entries that have been collected over a period of time, with new or updated versions issued at stated intervals. Serial databases are either open or closed. Open databases continue to add new records and to update existing records. Closed databases add no records nor update existing ones.

  • To cite an open serial database, give the beginning date of the database followed by a hyphen, 3 spaces, and a period.
  • To cite a closed serial database, give the beginning and ending dates, separated by a hyphen. End date information with a period.

The second broad category is single databases. These are collections of records published only once, usually with no intent to update or add records, although minor corrections/changes may be made.

  • To cite a single database, give the one date of publication as you would for a standard book.
  • If you are unsure whether a database is a serial or single one, cite it as a single.

A retrieval system is "An online or Internet based system which provides access to the contents of multiple databases or files, usually with a common search mechanism or command language across the databases or files" (NISO Z39.29). Examples include the NLM Entrez system, OVID, and DIALOG.

System providers may allow users to select an individual database for access or to select all or subsets of all of the databases to be searched in one operation. Updates and revisions to Internet retrieval systems may be labeled as new versions, releases, or editions. This is particularly true of commercial systems which carry copyright dates, but may not be true for government-sponsored or other noncommercial systems. Citations to databases and retrieval systems have been combined in this chapter because they are cited the same way.

For all types of databases and retrieval systems on the Internet, reproduce the title for citation purposes as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation. This may include all capital letters or all lower case letters, capital letters within words, run-together words, and symbols. Some examples are: bioProtocol, GReTA, and PDQ®.

Databases frequently change titles and publishers over time. When citing a database, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version.

Look to the opening screen(s), the bottom or closing screens, sidebar, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser), in that order, for authoritative information to use in citing a database or retrieval system.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • If there are no authors or editors, as is often the case, see No author can be found below
  • List names in the order they appear on the title page or opening screens
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period
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No author can be found. If no person or organization can be found as the author but editors or translators are present, begin the reference with the names of the editors or translators. Follow the same rules as used for author names, but end the list (more...)

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Determining the author if there is no standard title page. Some databases/retrieval systems on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the names of the authors. When there is no title page: Look at the top, bottom, or (more...)

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton   becomes   Palmer-Canton E Ahmed El-Assmy   becomes   El-Assmy (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit   becomes   Al Bassit L Jiddeke M. van de Kamp   becomes   van de Kamp JM Gerard de Pouvourville    (more...)

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Disregard hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot   becomes   Lagrot JL Use only the first letter of given (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   Reed JA Kristine Schmidt, Ph.D.    (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent T. DeVita, Jr.   becomes   DeVita (more...)

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Non-English words for editor. Translate the word found for editor into English. However, the wording found on the publication may always be used. If not translated, ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. This rule ignores some conventions (more...)

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Organizations as author. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may be an author. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society   becomes   American (more...)

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Options for author names. The following formats are not NLM practice for citing authors, but are acceptable options: Full first names of authors may be given. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; (more...)

Author Affiliation for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. (more...)

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E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the publication Do not end an e-mail address with a period Place the e-mail address within (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Give the affiliation of all authors or only the first author Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian (more...)

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Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

Title for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Reproduce the title of a database/retrieval system as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Determining the title if there is no standard title page. While many databases/retrieval systems on the Internet display a traditional title page and clearly state the title, some sites do not. When there is no title page: Look for the most prominent (more...)

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Titles not in English. Provide the title in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) Sistema Informativo Sanitario [Internet]. Rome: Ministero (more...)

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Titles in more than one language. If a database/retrieval system title is written in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the availability statement Separate the (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [Internet] inside period. Rat Atlas [Internet]. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. c2007 -   [cited (more...)

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Reproduce the title of a database/retrieval system as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation arXiv.org (more...)

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No title can be found. Under rare circumstances a database does not appear to have any title; the database simply begins with the records in it. In this unusual circumstance: Construct a title based on the content of the records Use enough words to make (more...)

Content Type for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • A content type alerts the user that the reference is not to a standard book but to a database or retrieval system
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "database on" or "retrieval system on"
  • End the content type with a space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place the closing period after the content type and type of medium. Rat Atlas [database on the Internet]. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Laboratory of (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, put it in square brackets Place the content type and type of medium (Internet) in square brackets after the translation Sistema Informativo Sanitario [Health Information System] [database (more...)

Type of Medium for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the word Internet in square brackets following the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • End with a period, placed outside the closing bracket
  • Add location information (the URL, etc.) according to the instructions under Availability below
  • See Chapter 20 for databases on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium. Give the content type (database or retrieval system) and the word "on" before the type of medium (Internet) in the same square brackets EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [database (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [Internet] inside the period. Rat Atlas [Internet]. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. c2007 -   [cited (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, give the translation in square brackets after the original language or romanized title Place Internet in square brackets following the translation End with a period Example: Sistema Informativo (more...)

Edition for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited after the Type of Medium when a database/retrieval system is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express words and numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions. Abbreviate common words found in edition statements, if desired: For additional abbreviations, see ISO 832:1994 - Rules for the abbreviation of bibliographic terms.Follow abbreviated words with a period and end all edition (more...)

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions. For non-English edition statements in the roman alphabet (French, German, Spanish, Italian, etc.): Provide the name in the original language Abbreviate common words used in edition statements if the language is a familiar (more...)

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Both an edition and a version. If a database/retrieval system on the Internet provides information for both an edition and a version: Give both, in the order presented Separate the two statements with a semicolon and a space End edition/version information (more...)

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First editions. If a database/retrieval system does not carry an edition statement, assume it is the first or only edition Use 1st ed. only when you know that subsequent editions have been published and you are citing the earlier one If a database/retrieval (more...)

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, and illustrators.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the Type of Medium and any Edition statement
  • Use the same rules for the format of names given in Author/Editor above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author. A database/retrieval system may have several types of secondary author. List all of them in the order they are given on the opening screens Separate each type of secondary author with the accompanying role by a (more...)

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Secondary author performing more than one role. If the same secondary author performs more than one role: List all of them in the order they are given in the publication Separate the roles by "and" End secondary author information with a period Example: (more...)

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Non-English names for secondary authors. Translate the word found for editor, translator, illustrator, or other secondary author into English if possible. However, the wording found on the publication may always be used. If not translated, ignore diacritics, (more...)

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Organization as editor or other secondary author. An organization may be listed as an editor or other secondary author. Follow the instructions for entering the organizational name found under Organizations as author Place a comma, space, and the word (more...)

Place of Publication for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the database/retrieval system is published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Locating the place of publication if there is no standard title page. When databases/retrieval systems on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the place of publication: Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first (more...)

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Non-US cities. Use the anglicized form of a city name, such as Rome for Roma and Moscow for Moskva, when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. This rule (more...)

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Joint publication. Two or more organizations may co-publish a database/retrieval system. Use the city of the first organization found on the opening screens (or on "contact us" or other links if no place information appears on the opening screens), as (more...)

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Multiple places of publication. If more than one place of publication is found, use the first one or the one set in the largest type or in bold type. Do not give multiple places. An alternative is to use the place of publication and publisher likely (more...)

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No place of publication can be found. If no place of publication can be found on the opening screens or elsewhere on the site but the place can be reasonably inferred (e.g., Chicago as the place for a publication of the American Medical Association), (more...)

Publisher for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • A publisher is defined as the individual or organization issuing the database/retrieval system
  • Record the name of the publisher as it appears on the title page or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a period for serial databases and retrieval systems and a semicolon for single databases

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Determining the publisher if there is no standard title page. When databases/retrieval systems on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the name of the publisher: Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the first screen (more...)

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Abbreviated words in publisher names. Abbreviate commonly used words in publisher names, if desired Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for Department Div. for Division (more...)

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Non-English names for publishers. Give publisher names in the roman alphabet (French, Spanish, Italian, etc.) in their original language Rome: Societa Editrice Universo Lisbon: Imprensa Medica Romanize names given in Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew Sofia (more...)

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher. When citing publishers that are national bodies such as government agencies, if a nationality is not part of the name, place the country in parentheses after the name, using (more...)

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Joint publication. Two or more organizations may co-publish a database/retrieval system. Use the name of the first organization found on the opening screens (or on "contact us" or other links if no publisher information appears on the opening screens), (more...)

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Multiple publishers. If more than one publisher is found on the opening screens, use the first one given or the one set in the largest type or bold type An alternative is to use the publisher likely to be most familiar to the audience of the reference (more...)

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No publisher can be found. If no publisher can be found, use [publisher unknown]. Hong Kong: [publisher unknown]. 2000. If no publisher can be found, use [publisher unknown]. Hong Kong: [publisher unknown]. 2000.

Date of Publication for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • For an open serial database or retrieval system, give the beginning date of the database/system followed by a hyphen and 3 spaces
  • For a closed serial database/system, give the beginning and ending dates, separated by a hyphen with a space before and after
  • If the beginning (and ending) date are not provided, see No date is provided below
  • For a single database, give the date as you would for a book
  • End date information for all types with a space
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No date is provided. If the date(s) of coverage cannot be determined but the date of the earliest (and latest if closed) records in the database can be determined, place date information in square brackets REHABDATA [Internet]. Lanham (MD): National (more...)

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication if there is no standard title page. When databases/retrieval systems on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the dates of coverage, i.e. the date the database began (and closed): Look (more...)

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Multiple years of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last years of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 If months are given, place (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Date of publication and date of copyright. Some publications have both a date of publication and a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Use only the date (more...)

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. If no date(s) of publication can be found, but the publication contains a date of copyright, (more...)

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Options for date of publication. It is not NLM policy, but the date of publication may follow the author names (or title and type of medium if there are no authors) in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text references is used. Use (more...)

Date of Update/Revision for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Databases/retrieval systems may be updated or revised between editions or versions
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated and modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision. Databases/retrieval systems on the Internet are often updated or revised after initial presentation. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modified, revised, reviewed: At the top, bottom, or sidebar (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Both a date of update and a date of revision. Various words are used to show that the content of a database/retrieval system has been changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Use the wording supplied in the database/retrieval system (more...)

Date of Citation for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the database/retrieval system was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation. Various words are used to show that the content of a database/retrieval system has been changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Begin with the date(s) of update/revision in (more...)

Availability for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break into a URL Some URLs (Uniform Resource (more...)

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always be used to retrieve the database/retrieval system, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide (more...)

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Multiple URLs. If more than one URL can be used to locate a database/retrieval system: Give the URL you used in locating the database/retrieval system As an option, give all known URLs, separated by a space, a semicolon, and a space Example: WHOSIS: (more...)

Language for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Databases/retrieval systems in more than one language. If the contents of a database/retrieval system appear in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the Availability (more...)

Notes for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements. System requirements describe the software and hardware needed to view the database/retrieval system. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the publisher's wording; no standardization is needed (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. The notes element may be used to provide any further information. Begin by citing the database/retrieval system, then add the note. Examples of notes are: Information on the database/retrieval system content BELIT: (more...)

Examples of Citations to Entire Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

1. Standard citation to an open serial database on the Internet

MeSH Browser (2011 MeSH) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; [1999] -   [updated 2010 Aug 28; cited 2011 Jul 8]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html Files are updated every week on Sunday.

MeSH Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2003 Apr -   [cited 2011 Jul 8]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh

Online Archive of American Folk Medicine [Internet]. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California. 1996 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/.

PeriStats [Internet]. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.marchofdimes.com/peristats/.

TrialSearch [Internet]. New York: AIDS Community Research Initiative of America. c2003 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acria.org/clinical_trials/.

with optional content type

TrialSearch [database on the Internet]. New York: AIDS Community Research Initiative of America. c2003 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acria.org/clinical_trials/.

2. Standard citation to a closed serial database on the Internet

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.

DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html

with optional content type

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [database on the Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.

3. Standard citation to a single database on the Internet

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html

Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.

with optional content type

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html

4. Standard citation to a retrieval system on the Internet

DialogWeb [Internet]. Version 2.5. Cary (NC): The Dialog Corporation. c1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.dialogweb.com/.

Ovid [Internet]. New York: Ovid Technologies, Inc. c2000 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://gateway.ovid.com/.

WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.who.int/whosis/en/.

with optional content type

DialogWeb [retrieval system on the Internet]. Version 2.5. Cary (NC): The Dialog Corporation. c1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.dialogweb.com/.

Patient UK [retrieval system on the Internet]. Horsforth (UK): EMIS; c1997 [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.patient.co.uk/.

5. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an individual(s) as author

Blaxter M. BaNG: Nematode and Neglected Genomics [Internet]. Version 2.03. Edinburgh (UK): University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Jun 22; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.nematodes.org/.

Gilliland G, Tung M, Ladner J. BMCD: Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database [Internet]. Test ed. 4.0. Gaithersburg (MD): National Institute of Standards and Technology (US). c1995 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://xpdb.nist.gov:8060/BMCD4/.

Bota M. The Brain Architecture Management System [Internet]. Los Angeles: University of Southern California. c2002 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://brancusi.usc.edu/bkms/.

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html

6. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with optional full names for author

Jablonski, Stanley. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive//20061212/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_db.html

Gilliland, Gary; Tung, Michael; Ladner, Jane. BMCD: Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database [Internet]. Test ed. 4.0. Gaithersburg (MD): National Institute of Standards and Technology. c1995 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://xpdb.nist.gov:8060/BMCD4/.

Cohen, Bernard A.; Lehmann, Christoph U. dermatlas.org: Dermatology Image Atlas [Internet]. [Baltimore (MD)]: Johns Hopkins University. c2000 -   [updated 2007 Jan 29; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu/derm/.

Blaxter, Mark. BaNG: Nematode and Neglected Genomics [Internet]. Version 2.03. Edinburgh (UK): University of Edinburgh, Institute of Evolutionary Biology. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Jun 22; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.nematodes.org/.

7. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an organization as author

American Diabetes Association. Genetics of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes: the GENNID Study [Internet]. Version 3.0.927. Camden (NJ): Coriell Institute for Medical Research. c1977 -   [updated 2005 Jun 1; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://ccr.coriell.org/ada/.

8. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with editors where there is no author

Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] -   [modified 2006 Jul; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/.

9. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with no authors or editors

Rat Atlas [Internet]. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.loni.ucla.edu/Atlases/Atlas_Detail.jsp?atlas_id=1

10. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with author affiliation

Allender S (British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK), Peto V, Rayner M, Scarborough P, Boxer A. heartstats: British Heart Foundation Statistics Database [Internet]. London: British Heart Foundation. c2003 -   [updated 2006 Nov 3; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.heartstats.org/.

11. Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with subtitle

BELIT: Bioethics Literature Database [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Sep 9; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.drze.de/BELIT?la=en

ALTBIB: Bibliography on Alternatives to Animal Testing [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Division of Specialized Information Services. 2002 -   [modified 2011 Feb 4; cited 2011 Jul 14]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/altbib.html

12. Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with sections

Faculty of 1000. Medicine [Internet]. London: Medicine Reports Ltd. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.f1000medicine.com/.

Faculty of 1000. Biology [Internet]. London: Biology Reports Ltd. c1999 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.f1000biology.com/.

13. Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with upper/lowercase letters and symbols

bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/index.jhtml

PDQ®: NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cancerdatabase

GReTA [Internet]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Zentrum fur transdisziplinare Geschlechterstudien. 1989 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://141.20.150.23:2200/start.fau?prj=ifaust German.

MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 -   [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/.

Aspergillus nidulans Database [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Broad Institute, Center for Genome Research. 2003 -   [updated 2007 Jan 10; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.broad.mit.edu/annoitation/fungi/aspergillus/.

ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2000 Feb 29 -   [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://clinicaltrials.gov/.

intute: health & life sciences [Internet]. Nottingham (UK): University of Nottingham. c2006 -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.intute.ac.uk/healthandlifesciences/.

14. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with title ending in other than a period

Is Your Doctor Certified? [Internet]. Evanston (IL): American Board of Medical Specialties. c2006 -   [updated 2006 Mar 17; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp

15. Database/retrieval system on the Internet in a language other than English

Sistema Informativo Sanitario [Internet]. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. 1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ministerosalute.it/servizio/datisis.jsp Italian.

Nederlands Trialregister [Internet]. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Dutch Cochrane Centre. [2005?] -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.trialregister.nl/. Dutch.

GReTA [Internet]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Zentrum fur transdisziplinare Geschlechterstudien. 1989 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://141.20.150.23:2200/start.fau?prj=ifaust German.

Bases de Datos de Tesis Doctorales (TESEO) [Internet]. Madrid: Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia. [1976] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.mcu.es/TESEO/teseo.html Spanish.

with translation included

Sistema Informativo Sanitario [Health Information System] [Internet]. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. 1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ministerosalute.it/servizio/datisis.jsp Italian.

16. Database/retrieval system on the Internet in multiple languages

ORPHANET: Maladies Rares, Medicaments Orphelins [Internet]. Paris: INSERM. 1997 -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.orpha.net/. French, German, Spanish, English, Italian, Portuguese.

17. Database/retrieval system on the Internet published with equal text in two languages

Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance On-line = Surveillance des Maladies Cardio-vasculaires en Direct [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Public Health Agency of Canada. [1950] -   [updated 2002 Jul 30; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://dsol-smed.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dsol-smed/cvd/index%5Fe.html English, French.

18. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an edition or version

MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 -   [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/.

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/.

Biozon [Internet]. Release 2.4. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University. c2005 -   [updated 2006 Aug; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.biozon.org/.

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/.

AnAge: the Animal Ageing Database [Internet]. Build 9. [Boston (MA)]: Joao Pedro de Magalhaes. c2002 -   [updated 2006 Feb 26; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://genomics.senescence.info/species/.

Gilliland G, Tung M, Ladner J. BMCD: Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database [Internet]. Test ed. 4.0. Gaithersburg (MD): National Institute of Standards and Technology (US). c1995 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://xpdb.nist.gov:8060/BMCD4/.

The Comprehensive Microbial Resource [Internet]. Date release 20.0; Website release 3.0. [place unknown]: Institute for Genomic Research. 2000 -   [updated 2006 Sep 27; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://cmr.tigr.org/tigr-scripts/CMR/CmrHomePage.cgi

IMGT/HLA Database [Internet]. Release 2.16.0. Cambridge (England): European Bioinformatics Institute. 1998 -   [updated 2007 Jan 12; cited 2007 Feb 6]. Available from: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/.

Health Library for Disasters [Internet]. Version 3.0. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003 -   [updated 2006 May; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.helid.desastres.net/.

RxNorm [dataset on the Internet]. Release META2011AA Full Update 2011_07_05. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2011 Jul 5 [cited 2011 Jul 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/rxnorm/docs/rxnormfiles.html

UMLS Knowledge Sources [dataset on the Internet]. Release 2011AA. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2011 May 5 [cited 2011 Jul 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/licensedcontent/umlsknowledgesources.html

SNOMED CT [dataset on the Internet]. Release January 2011 International. Copenhagen: International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization; 2011 Jan 31 [cited 2011 Jul 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/licensedcontent/snomedctfiles.html

19. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with well known place of publication

Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/.

Resource Guide for Public Health Preparedness [Internet]. New York: New York Academy of Medicine. c2003 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.phpreparedness.info/rgdatabase.php

20. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

The Cochrane Library [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley InterScience. c1999 -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/mrwhome/106568753/HOME?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

The Alberta Atlas of Human Pathology: a Resource for Teachers and Learners in the Health Sciences [Internet]. Edmonton (AB): University of Alberta, Museums and Collections Services. 1999 Sep -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://project.lse.ualberta.ca/pathology/.

BELIT: Bioethics Literature Database [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Sep 9; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.drze.de/BELIT?la=enintute: health & life sciences [Internet]. Nottingham (UK): University of Nottingham. c2006 -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.intute.ac.uk/healthandlifesciences/.

The PILOTS Database: an Electronic Index to the Traumatic Stress Literature [Internet]. White River Junction (VT): Department of Veterans Affairs (US), National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ncptsd.va.gov/ncmain/publications/pilots/index.html

21. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with place of publication inferred

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/.

Cohen BA, Lehmann CU. dermatlas.org: Dermatology Image Atlas [Internet]. [Baltimore (MD)]: Johns Hopkins University. c2000 -   [updated 2007 Jan 29; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu/derm/.

The GDB Human Genome Database [Internet]. [Research Triangle Park (NC)]: RTI International. 1998 -   [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.gdb.org/.

Patrocles: the database of polymorphic miRNA-target interactions [Internet]. Version 1.0. [Liege (Belgium)]: Unit Animal Genomics. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.patrocles.org/Patrocles.htm

22. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with unknown place of publication

Pfam [Internet]. Version 21.0. [place unknown]: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. [date unknown] -   [updated Nov 2006; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam/.

The Comprehensive Microbial Resource [Internet]. Date release 20.0; Website release 3.0. [place unknown]: Institute for Genomic Research. 2000 -   [updated 2006 Sep 27; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://cmr.tigr.org/.

23. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with publisher having subsidiary division

Nutrition Education for Diverse Audiences [Internet]. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://necd.aces.uiuc.edu/.

Antimicrobial Resistance Information Bank [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Anti-infective Drug Resistance and Containment Team. 1999 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rhone.b3e.jussieu.fr/arinfobank/ResistanceDataSearch.php

24. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with government agency or other national body as publisher

REHABDATA [Internet]. Lanham (MD): National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (US), National Rehabilitation Information Center. [1956] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.naric.com/research/rehab/default.cfm

Entrez: the Life Sciences Search Engine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information. 1991 -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gquery/gquery.fcgi

ERIC: the Education Resources Information Center [Internet]. Washington: Department of Education (US), Institute of Education Sciences. [1966] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal

25. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with joint publication

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/. Jointly published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Washington University at St. Louis, and The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

26. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with standard date of publication

Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.

Antimicrobial Resistance Information Bank [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Anti-infective Drug Resistance and Containment Team. 1999 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rhone.b3e.jussieu.fr/arinfobank/ResistanceDataSearch.php

27. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with month/day included in date of publication

Swiss Life Sciences Database [Internet]. Zurich (Switzerland): Venture Valuation AG. 2003 Mar -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.swisslifesciences.ch/page/index.html

Ribosomal Database Project II [Internet]. Release 9.47. East Lansing (MI): Michigan State University. 2002 Sep 13 -   [updated 2007 Feb 1; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://rdp.cme.msu.edu

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/.

The Alberta Atlas of Human Pathology: a Resource for Teachers and Learners in the Health Sciences [Internet]. Edmonton (AL): University of Alberta, Museums and Collections Services. 1999 Sep -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://project.lse.ualberta.ca/pathology/.

Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A. Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates [Internet]. Washington: Animal Welfare Institute. 1998 Jul 1 -   [updated 2006 Dec 8; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.awionline.org/Lab_animals/biblio/enrich.htm

PubMed Central (PMC) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2000 Feb -   [cited 2011 Jun 23]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/.

28. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with multiple years

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/.

DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html

29. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date of copyright instead of date of publication

Biozon [Internet]. Release 2.4. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University. c2005 -   [updated 2006 Aug; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.biozon.org/.

ProQolid: Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database [Internet]. Lyon (France): Mapi Research Institute. c2001 -   [updated 2005 Nov; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.proqolid.org/.

DocFinder [Internet]. [place unknown]: Administrators in Medicine. c1997 - c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.docboard.org/docfinder.html

30. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date obtained from earliest material in it

PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1946] -   [cited 2011 Jan 31]. Available from: http://pubmed.gov/.

CINAHL [Internet]. Glendale (CA): Cinahl Information Systems. [1982] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.cinahl.com/prodsvcs/prodsvcs.htm

31. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with date estimated

Nederlands Trialregister [Internet]. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Dutch Cochrane Centre. [2005?] -   [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://www.trialregister.nl/. Dutch.

The Digital Database for Screening Mammography [Internet]. Tampa (FL): University of South Florida. [1999 - 2000?] [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://marathon.csee.usf.edu/Mammography/Database.html

32. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with unknown date

The Internet Acronym Server [Internet]. Cork (Ireland): Simaril Information Management Consultants. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://silmaril.ie/cgi-bin/uncgi/acronyms

Prevention Communication Research Database [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.health.gov/communication/default.asp

33. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with update/revision date

Health Library for Disasters [Internet]. Version 3.0. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003 -   [updated 2006 May; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.helid.desastres.net/.

Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] -   [modified 2006 Jul; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/.

Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworkbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database [Internet]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Oct 27; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/index.html

34. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with multiple URLs

WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.who.int/whosis/en/ ; http://www.who.int/whosis/fr/index.html English, French.

35. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with optional system requirements

MEDMARX [Internet]. Version 6.5. Rockville (MD): United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. c2007 -   [updated 1999 Aug 6; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: https://www.medmarx.com/. System Requirements: Windows 95 or higher; 200-megaHertz Pentium or higher; Random Access Memory 128-megabytes or higher; Modem Speed 56 Kilobits per second or higher; 20-MB hard disk space; 17-inch video graphics array; 800 x 600 pixels/high with color; Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0; Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher.

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/. System Requirements: Compatible with Internet Explorer Mac 5.2 and Internet Explorer 6; Internet Explorer 7 is incompatible.

36. Database/retrieval system on the Internet that continues another database

BOND: the Biomolecular Object Network Databank [Internet]. Toronto (ON): Unleashed Informatics. 2006 Oct -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from:http://bond.unleashedinformatics.com/. Continues: DogBox.

37. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with supplemental note included

Is Your Doctor Certified? [Internet]. Evanston (IL): American Board of Medical Specialties. c2006 -   [updated 2006 Mar 17; cited 2007 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp Registration and login required.

PDQ®: NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cancerdatabase PDQ stands for Physician Data Query.

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005 [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/. RIVM is the Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu.

BELIT: Bioethics Literature Database [Internet]. Bonn (Germany): German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences. [date unknown] -   [updated 2006 Sep 9; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.drze.de/BELIT?la=en Provides access to about 320,000 records from the integrated German, American, and French databases.

Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A. Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates [Internet]. Washington: Animal Welfare Institute. 1998 Jul 1 -   [updated 2006 Dec 8; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.awionline.org/Lab_animals/biblio/enrich.htm Comprises published articles, abstracts, book chapters, books, as well as published photographs, slide sets, videotapes, and selected Web site information.

Federal Research in Progress Database (FEDRIP) [Internet]. Springfield (VA): Department of Commerce (US), National Technical Information Service. [date unknown] -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://grc.ntis.gov/fedrip.htm Updated monthly. Subscription required, but free trials are available.

GReTA [Internet]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Zentrum fur transdisziplinare Geschlechterstudien. 1989 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://141.20.150.23:2200/start.fau?prj=ifaust German. Database of German women's studies.

Pfam [Internet]. Version 21.0. [place unknown]: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. [date unknown] -   [updated Nov 2006; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam/. Pfam is a large collection of multiple sequence alignments and hidden Markov models covering many common protein domains and families.

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   [updated 2007 Jan 19; cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/. Supported by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute at the US National Institutes of Health # P41 HG02223 and the British Medical Research Council.

bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 -   [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/index.jhtml Protocols contributed by scientists from over 125 academic laboratories.

Online Archive of American Folk Medicine [Internet]. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California. 1996 -   [cited 2008 Aug 20]. Available from: http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/. Institutional repository of the University of California Libraries intended to provide comparative and historical information about traditional medical beliefs.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Databases on the Internet

The general format for a reference to a part of a database on the Internet, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a part of a database on the Internet.

Examples of Citations to Parts of Databases on the Internet

Rather than citing a whole database, portions of a database may be cited. Individual records, tables, datasets, and the like are considered parts of databases when they do not have individual authorship, i.e., they are written or compiled by the authors of the database. They are contributions when the database has individual records or other components written by various authors, usually called contributors.

A reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication:

  • Begin a reference to a part of a database with a citation to the database itself, followed by information about the part.
  • Begin a reference to a contribution with information about the contribution, followed by the word "In:" and information about the database. See Chapter 24C Contributions to Databases on the Internet for details.

Provide the length of the part to a database when possible. Calculate the extent of the part using the best means possible, i.e., number of paragraphs, screens, bytes, or pages if printed. Since screen size and print fonts vary, precede the estimated number of screens and pages with the word about and place extent information in square brackets, such as [about 3 screens]. For parts that contain hyperlinks, however, such as those shown in example 11, it will not be possible to provide the length.

See also Chapter 22B Parts of Books on the Internet for further examples of the types of parts.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Databases on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Databases on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Databases on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Database (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Location (Pagination) (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Database (required)

General Rules for Database

Name and Number/Letter of the Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Name and Number/Letter

  • Enter the name of the part as it appears in the database
  • Capitalize the name, such as Record, Table, Chart
  • You may abbreviate Number to No., but do not abbreviate other names. For example: convert Rec. to Record.
  • Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Record 122678 and Accession No. PF03061
  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
  • End name and number/letter information with a comma and a space

Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter

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Non-English names for parts. Provide the name in the original language for non-English names in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) Tabelle 5.3 Romanize (write in the roman alphabet) (more...)

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No letter or number follows the name. Occasionally, a database will label a part as simply "Table", "Chart," "Figure", or another name without following the name with a letter or number. In this case, give the name used for the part and follow it with (more...)

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No name appears. If the database part being cited has an identifying number or letter but has no name accompanying it, such as Record No. or Accession No., use the words "Acquisition No." followed by the number or letter If the part being cited is clearly (more...)

Title of the Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the part as it appears in the database
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End title information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles for parts not in English. Give the title in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) Tabla 10, Etiologia de la esplenomegalia (more...)

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Titles in more than one language. If the title for a part of a database is written in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the availability statement Separate the (more...)

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Capitalize the first word of the title of a part of a database unless the title begins with a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character that might lose (more...)

Date of Publication for a Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Enter the date of publication if it differs from the date of the database as a whole
  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication. The location of the date of publication for a part of a database may be found: At the top of the part Below the author name(s) or title At the bottom of the part In a specific date field

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Multiple years of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last years of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 If months are given, place (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Date of publication and date of copyright. Some publications have both a date of publication and a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Use only the date (more...)

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. If no date of publication can be found, but the publication contains a date of copyright, (more...)

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No date of publication or copyright can be found. If no date of publication or of copyright for the part can be found, use any date of update/revision for the part and the date of citation. Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database [Internet]. (more...)

Date of Update/Revision for a Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Parts of databases may be updated or revised separately from the database as a whole
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated or modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision. Parts of databases on the Internet may be updated or revised after initial presentation. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modified, revised, reviewed: At the top or bottom of the first screen (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Both a date of update and a date of revision. Various words are used to show that the content of a part of a database has been changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Use the wording supplied in the database Give all words expressing (more...)

Date of Citation for Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Include the date the part of a database was seen on the Internet
  • Give the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a semicolon placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation. Various words are used to show that the content of a part of a database has been changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Begin with the date(s) of update/revision in the format (more...)

Location (Pagination) of the Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Location (Pagination)

  • Give location as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes of the part, whichever is most practical
  • Precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 5 screens]
  • If the part is printed, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 10 p.]
  • End location information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Availability for a Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the part in its entirety; do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • Use the URL for the entire book if the part does not have its own URL
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break into a URL Some URLs (Uniform Resource (more...)

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always be used to retrieve the part of the database, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions (more...)

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Multiple URLs. If more than one URL can be used to locate a part of a database: Give the URL you used in locating the part As an option, give all known URLs, separated by a space, a semicolon, and a space Example: Available from: http://www.who.int/whosis/299576/en/ (more...)

Language of the Part of a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Parts appearing in more than one language. If the title for a part of a database is in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the availability statement Capitalize (more...)

Notes for a Part of a Database on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any further useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements. System requirements describe the software and hardware needed to view the database. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the publisher's wording; no standardization is needed Separate the (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. The notes element may be used to provide any further information. Begin by citing the database/retrieval system, then add the note. Some examples of notes are: Information on any access requirements/limitations Subscription (more...)

Examples of Citations to Parts of Databases on the Internet

1. Standard part of a database on the Internet with name and number/letter

Online Archive of American Folk Medicine [Internet]. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California. 1996 -   . Record No. 1928, Cataracts; [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/FMDetail.cfm?UID=1_928

Pfam [Internet]. Version 21.0. [place unknown]: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. [date unknown] -   . Accession No. PF03061, 4HBT; [cited 2007 Feb 16]. Available from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cgi-bin/Pfam/getacc?PF03061

2. Standard part of a database on the Internet without a name or number/letter

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section; 2001 Apr. Tariverdian syndrome; [cited 2007 Mar 13]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/archive/20061212/mesh/jablonski/cgi/jablonski/syndrome_cgi87d6.html?term=Tariverdian+syndrome&field=name

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database [Internet]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. [date unknown] -   . Pyridine alkaloids; [updated 2001 Oct 4; cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/pyridine.html

MeSH Browser (2011 MeSH) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), Medical Subject Headings Section. [1999] -   . Heart failure, systolic; [cited 2011 Jul 8]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2011/MB_cgi?mode=&index=24306

PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] -   . Single citation matcher; [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query/static/citmatch.html

3. Part of a database on the Internet with a name inferred

WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 -   . [Table], GBD 2000: deaths by age, sex and cause for the year 2002; [cited 2007 Feb 16]; 1.19Mb. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/gbd1990regionmortality2002.xls

4. Part of a database on the Internet with title containing special scripts/characters

Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] -   . ISRCTN13256080, A phase II study to investigate the effect of Glivec® (imatinib mesylate, formerly known as STI571) in patients with inoperable medullary thyroid carcinoma; 2007 Feb 23 [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN13256080/.

Gene [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information. [2004] -   . ADRA2A adrenergic, alpha-2A-, receptor [Homo sapiens]; [updated 2011 Jul 31; cited 2011 Aug 1]; [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?term=150 Gene ID:150

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   . Aberration Dmel\Ab(1;?)wm4000; [cited 2007 Feb 27]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/reports/FBab0023371.html

or

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   . Aberration Dmel\Ab(1;?)w(m4000); [cited 2007 Feb 27]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/reports/FBab0023371.html

5. Part of a database on the Internet with a title in a language other than English

Depenses en Medicaments au Canada: base de donnees sur les depenses nationales de sante [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Institut Canadien d'Information sur la Sante. 1985 - 2005. Tableau A.2, Partie 1, Depenses en medicaments par type, source de financement et en tant que part des depenses publiques, privees et totales de sante, Canada, de 1985 a 2005; [cited 2007 Mar 8]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_institute_for_health/depenses_medicaments/1985-2005.pdf French.

with translation

Depenses en Medicaments au Canada: base de donnees sur les depenses nationales de sante [Canadian Drug Expenditures: database of national health expenditures] [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Institut Canadien d'Information sur la Sante. 1985 - 2005. Tableau A.2, Partie 1, Depenses en medicaments par type, source de financement et en tant que part des depenses publiques, privees et totales de sante, Canada, de 1985 a 2005 [Table A.2, Part 1, Drug expenditures by type, source of financing, and how much was public expenditure, private expenditure, and totals for health, Canada, 1985-2005]; [cited 2007 Mar 8]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_institute_for_health/depenses_medicaments/1985-2005.pdf French.

6. Part of a database on the Internet with a date of publication separate from the date of the database as a whole

ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2000 Feb 29 -   . Identifier NCT00287391, Sleep disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); 2006 Feb 3 [cited 2007 Feb 22]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00287391?order=1

Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] -   . ISRCTN13256080, A phase II study to investigate the effect of Glivec® (imatinib mesylate, formerly known as STI571) in patients with inoperable medullary thyroid carcinoma; 2007 Feb 23 [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN13256080/.

7. Part of a database on the Internet with a date of update/revision

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database [Internet]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. [date unknown] -   . Pyridine alkaloids; [updated 2001 Oct 4; cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/pyridine.html

Genetics Home Reference [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [2003] -   . Alzheimer disease; [updated 2008 Oct 20; reviewed 2006 Oct; cited 2008 Oct 22]; [about 6 screens]. Available from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=alzheimerdisease

ProQolid: Patient-Reported Outcome and Quality of Life Instruments Database [Internet]. Lyon (France): Mapi Research Institute. c2001 -   . QUAlity of Life questionnaire In OSTeoporosis (QUALIOST®); [updated 2007 Jan; cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.proqolid.org/instruments/quality_of_life_questionnaire_in_osteoporosis_qualiost_sup_r_sup

PDQ®: NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US). [date unknown] -   . Childhood cerebral astrocytoma/malignant glioma (PDQ®): treatment; [modified 2006 Jul 21; cited 2007 Feb 16]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/child-cerebral-astrocytoma/healthprofessional/.

8. Part of a Database on the Internet with location (pagination) expressed as number of screens

IMGT/HLA Database [Internet]. Release 2.16.0. Cambridge (England): European Bioinformatics Institute. 2007 Jan 12 -   . Alleles with aberrant splice sites; [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/help/splice_help.html

9. Part of a Database on the Internet with location (pagination) expressed as number of pages

Antimicrobial Resistance Information Bank [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, Anti-infective Drug Resistance and Containment Team. 1999 -   . Network Identifier INTssp-spn-sau, European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System -EARSS; 1999 Jul 2 [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 2 p.]. Available from: http://rhone.b3e.jussieu.fr/arinfobank/NetworkDisplay.php?id_network=85

Current Controlled Trials [Internet]. London: BioMed Central. [date unknown] -   . ISRCTN13256080, A phase II study to investigate the effect of Glivec® (imatinib mesylate, formerly known as STI571) in patients with inoperable medullary thyroid carcinoma; 2007 Feb 23 [cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN13256080/.

10. Part of a Database on the Internet with location (pagination) expressed as number of bytes

WHOSIS: WHO Statistical Information System [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization. c2007 -   . [Table], GBD 2000: deaths by age, sex and cause for the year 2002; [cited 2007 Feb 16]; 1.19Mb. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/gbd1990regionmortality2002.xls

11. Part of a Database on the Internet with hyperlinks so that the pagination (extent) cannot be provided

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   . Pedigree browser for MSaa; [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/db/searches/pedigree?name=MSaa

Entrez Genome [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information. [date unknown] -   . Haloarcula marismortui ATCC 43049 plasmid pNG200, complete sequence; [cited 2007 Feb 27]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=genome&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=Overview&list_uids=18013

12. Part of a Database on the Internet with a URL not directly addressable

Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A. Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates [Internet]. Washington: Animal Welfare Institute. 1998 Jul 1 -   . Case 1896, Acute staphylococcal endocarditis; [cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://project.lse.ualberta.ca/pathology/ by clicking on Keyword Search and entering the case number under Fast Find.

Cohen BA, Lehmann CU. dermatlas.org: Dermatology Image Atlas [Internet]. [Baltimore (MD)]: Johns Hopkins University. c2000 -   . Pellagra_1_031007; [updated 2007 Feb 19; cited 2007 Feb 27]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu/derm/ by entering pellagra in the Quick Search box.

EARSS: the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [Internet]. Bilthoven (Netherlands): RIVM. 2001 - 2005. Susceptibility results for E. coli isolates in Denmark (DK) in 2005; [cited 2007 Feb 16]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/earss/database/ by selecting Denmark, 2005, E. coli, Aminoglycosides, Table.

Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [2006] -   . LactMed record number 323, Fluoxetine; [rev. 2007 Dec 27; cited 2009 Apr 2]; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT by entering fluoxetine in the Search box. CASRN: 54910-89-3.

Drugs@FDA [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; [2004] -   . Demerol; [cited 2009 Apr 3]. Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index.cfm by entering demerol in the Search box and then selecting from the list of drug names retrieved.

13. Part of a Database on the Internet with a note

FlyBase: a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes [Internet]. Version FB2006_01. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University. 2006 Dec 8 -   . Aberration Dmel\Ab(1;?)wm4000; [cited 2007 Feb 27]. Available from: http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/reports/FBab0023371.html System Requirements: Compatible with Internet Explorer Mac 5.2 and Internet Explorer 6; Internet Explorer 7 is incompatible.

WormBase: the Biology and Genome of C. elegans [Internet]. Release WS170. [Pasadena (CA)]: California Institute of Technology. c1999 -   . Pedigree browser for MSaa; [cited 2007 Feb 1]. Available from: http://www.wormbase.org/db/searches/pedigree?name=MSaa WormBase is supported by a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute at the US National Institutes of Health # P41 HG02223 and the British Medical Research Council.

C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Contributions to Databases on the Internet

The general format for a reference to a contribution to a database on the Internet, including punctuation:

- without a separate date of publication for the contribution:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a contribution to a database on the Internet without a separate date of publication for the contribution.

- with a separate date of publication for the contribution:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a contribution to a database on the Internet with a separate date of publication for the contribution.

- with complete publication information for the contribution (see text below for clarification):

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a contribution to a database on the Internet with complete publication information for the contribution.

Examples of Citations to Contributions to Databases on the Internet

Contributions are separately identified records, sections, or other portions of Internet databases that are provided by individuals or organizations other than the database builders. They thus have distinct authorship.

There are two types of contributions: those written expressly for the database, such as a review produced for the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and those written for a primary publication such as a journal or book that is cited in the database. A journal article in a bibliographic database such as PubMed is an example of the latter. The first type of contribution contains only an author and title, and sometimes a date of publication; it has no place of publication, publisher, or other publication information separate from the database. The second type, however, contains full publication information.

A reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication. Begin a reference to a contribution with information about the contribution, followed by the word "In:" and information about the database. Use date of citation and the availability (URL) for the contribution, not the database.

Although directions are provided here for creating citations to items published elsewhere and cited in a database, this format for contributions should rarely be used in a reference list. Unless only information found in the database record is used, articles, books, and other publications should be located directly and cited as their original form. This will also assure that any possible errors introduced in creating the database record will not be continued.

In large bibliographies it is usually not practical to identify the source for each citation, but the overall sources used should be identified in introductory text.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Contributions to Databases on the Internet.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Contributions to Databases on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Contributions to Databases on the Internet

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Publication Information (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Connective Phrase (R) | Database (R) | Extent (Pagination) (R) | Availability (R) | Acquisition Number (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author of a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Author

  • List names in the order they appear in the text
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
  • Capitalize names and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials, for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
  • End author information with a period

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton   becomes   Palmer-Canton E Ahmed El-Assmy   becomes   El-Assmy (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit   becomes   Al Bassit L Jiddeke M. van de Kamp   becomes   van de Kamp JM Gerard de Pouvourville    (more...)

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Disregard hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot   becomes   Lagrot JL Use only the first letter of given (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   Reed JA Kristine Schmidt, Ph.D.    (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent T. DeVita, Jr.   becomes   DeVita (more...)

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Organizations as author. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may be an author. Omit "The" preceding an organization name The American Cancer Society   becomes   American (more...)

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Options for author names. The following formats are not NLM practice for citing authors, but are acceptable options: Full first names of authors may be given. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; (more...)

Author Affiliation for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless it is the affiliation of the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. (more...)

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E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the publication Do not end an e-mail address with a period Place the e-mail address within (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Give the affiliations of all authors or only the first author. Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian (more...)

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Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries if possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

Title of a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the contribution as it appears in the database, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle unless some other form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles not in English. Translate non-English titles of contributions that are journal articles into English regardless of the original language. Place the translation in square brackets. Piccot-Crezollet C, Casamatta JM, Lepage OM. [Digital semiological (more...)

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Titles in more than one language. If a record or another contribution is written with equal text in two or more languages, as often occurs in Canadian publications: Give all titles in the order they are presented on the title page or opening screens (more...)

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Capitalize the first word of the title of a record or other contribution unless the title begins with a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character that (more...)

Publication Information for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Publication Information

  • If the contribution is an item published elsewhere and cited in the database, provide complete publication information according to the other chapters in this guide, i.e. Chapter 1A for journal articles, Chapter 2 for books, etc.
  • If the contribution was written for the database, enter the date of publication (when provided) if it differs from the date of the database as a whole
  • Always give the year of publication
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May 13
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication. The location of the date of publication for a contribution that was written for the database may be found: At the top of the contribution Below the author name(s) or the title At the bottom of the contribution In a specific (more...)

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Multiple years of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last year of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 If months are given, place (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Date of publication and date of copyright. Some publications have both a date of publication and a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Use only the date (more...)

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. If no date of publication can be found, but the publication contains a date of copyright, (more...)

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No date of publication or copyright can be found. If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found, but a date can be estimated because of material in the record, insert a question mark after the estimated date and place date information (more...)

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Options for date of publication. It is not NLM policy, but the following is an acceptable option: The date of publication of the contribution may follow the author names in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text references is used. (more...)

Date of Update/Revision for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Contributions to databases may be updated or revised separately from the database as a whole
  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated or modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision. Contributions to databases on the Internet may be updated or revised after publication. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modified, revised, reviewed: At the top or bottom of the first screen (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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Both a date of update and a date of revision. Various words are used to show that the content of a contribution has changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Use the wording supplied in the contribution Give all words expressing (more...)

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Database also has a date of update/revision. Contributions to databases may be updated or revised separately from the database as a whole. If the database also has a date of update/revision, retain it. Contributions to databases may be updated or revised (more...)

Date of Citation for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Give the date the contribution was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a Date of Update/Revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation. Various words are used to show that the content of a contribution has been changed. Among them are: updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Begin with the date(s) of update/revision in the format year (more...)

Connective Phrase for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Connective Phrase

  • Place a space and the word "In" after the title (and any dates) of the contribution
  • Follow "In" with a colon and a space

Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for a Database on the Internet

Extent (Pagination) (required)

General Rules for Extent (Pagination)

  • If the extent is not provided by the database, calculate the extent as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes of the database record or other contribution, whichever is most practical
  • If the extent is calculated, precede the total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 15 screens]
  • If the contribution is printed, precede the page total with the word about and place it in square brackets, such as [about 10 p.]
  • If the contribution contains hyperlinks, it is not possible to provide the extent
  • End extent information with a period

Specific Rules for Extent (Pagination)

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Extent for items published elsewhere and cited in the database. If the contribution is a journal article or book that was published elsewhere and cited in the database: Give the pagination for the item, i.e., the page numbers on which a journal article (more...)

Availability for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break into a URL

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always be used to retrieve the record or other item, i.e., is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions (more...)

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Multiple URLs. If more than one URL can be used to locate a contribution: Give the URL you used in locating the contribution As an option, give all known URLs, separated by a space, a semicolon, and a space Example: Available from: http://www.fao.org/nutrdb/006/y4962t/y4962t01.htm#bm1..1.3.1 (more...)

Acquisition Number for a Contribution to a Database (optional)

General Rules for Acquisition Number

  • Give the record number or other acquisition number assigned to the contribution by the database
  • Precede the number with the identifying wording used by the database, such as Record No. or PMID
  • Use Acquisition No. if the database does not identify the number
  • Follow the wording with a colon and a space, then add the number, such as PMID: 17236284
  • End number information with a period

Language for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication of the contribution if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Contributions appearing in more than one language. If a record or another contribution is written with equal text in two or more languages, as often occurs in Canadian publications: Give all titles in the order they are presented on the title page or (more...)

Notes for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any further useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements. System requirements describe the software and hardware needed to view the contribution on the database. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the publisher's wording; no standardization is (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. The notes element may be used to provide any further information. Begin by citing the contribution and the database, then add the note. Examples of notes are: Information on any access requirements/limitations Beaver (more...)

Examples of Citations to Contributions to Databases on the Internet

1. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet without a separate date for the item

Kadonaga J. Preparation of a highly efficient transcription extract from Drosophila embryos. [cited 2007 Feb 1]. In: bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 -   . [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/protocol.jhtml?id=p9052

2. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with a separate date for the item

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

Jordan S, Schnepf M, Boeckner L. Hispanic food frequency. 1996 Sep 20 [cited 2007 Feb 16]. In: Nutrition Education for Diverse Audiences [Internet]. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://necd.aces.uiuc.edu/inter2_search.cgi?ind=853868171

Rotchford JK. Single-use acupuncture needles: scanning electron-microscopy of needle-tips [review]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] -   . [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/wkstone/webkeystone.py?Profile=ABarticles/
search_whole_review.prof&ReviewID=146&UserID=biz_acubriefs Review ID: 146.

British Cardiovascular Intervention Society. Number of coronary bypass operations and percutaneous coronary interventions per year 1980-2004, United Kingdom. 2005 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Allender S, Peto V, Rayner M, Scarborough P, Boxer A. heartstats: British Heart Foundation Statistics Database [Internet]. London: British Heart Foundation. c2003 -   [updated 2006 Nov 3]. [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.heartstats.org/temp/Figsp3.3spweb06.xls

Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC. Ambien cr (zolpidem tartrate) tablet, coated. 2007 [rev. 2007 Sep; cited 2009 Apr]. In: DailyMed [Internet]. [2005] -   . [about 20 p.]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Available from: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=5420

3. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with complete publication information for the item

Frank CD, Adler DG. Post-ERCP pancreatitis and its prevention. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Dec [cited 2007 Mar 9];3(12):680-8. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve
&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17130878&query_hl=2&itool=
pubmed_docsum PMID: 17130878.

Beaver BV. The veterinarian's encyclopedia of animal behavior. Ames (IA): Iowa State University Press; 1994 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. 307 p. In: WorldCat [Internet]. Dublin (OH): OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. 1971 -   . [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://firstsearch.oclc.org/WebZ/FSFETCH?fetchtype=fullrecord:sessionid=fsappd-50507-ez31hdf6-76zk93:
entitypagenum=15:0:recno=1:resultset=3:format=FI:next=html/record.html:bad=error/badfetch.html
:entitytoprecno=1:entitycurrecno=1:numrecs=1 Accession No: OCLC: 30700481.

4. Contribution to a database on the Internet with organization as author

British Cardiovascular Intervention Society. Number of coronary bypass operations and percutaneous coronary interventions per year 1980-2004, United Kingdom. 2005 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Allender S, Peto V, Rayner M, Scarborough P, Boxer A. heartstats: British Heart Foundation Statistics Database [Internet]. London: British Heart Foundation. c2003 -   [updated 2006 Nov 3]. [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.heartstats.org/temp/Figsp3.3spweb06.xls

5. Contribution to a database on the Internet with author affiliation

Kadonaga J (University of California, San Diego, CA). Preparation of a highly efficient transcription extract from Drosophila embryos. [cited 2007 Feb 1]. In: bioProtocol: a Bio Online Site [Internet]. Emeryville (CA): Bio.Com. c1992 -   . [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://bioprotocol.bio.com/protocolstools/protocol.jhtml?id=p9052

6. Contribution to a database on the Internet with title in a language other than English

Stegenga B, de Bont LG. [Diagnosis and classification of orofacial pain by dental and general practitioners]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2006 Nov [cited 2007 Mar 9];113(11):437-41. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] -   . Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17147024&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum PMID: 17147024. Dutch.

Piccot-Crezollet C, Casamatta JM, Lepage OM. [Digital semiological anesthesia in horses: technique and elements of interpretation]. Can Vet J. 2005 Sep [cited 2007 Mar 9];46(9):807-13. In: Agricola [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National Agricultural Library (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&CNT=
20&CMD=horse&SL=Submit&DATE=2000&DTBL=G%7C&LANG=
FRE%7C&STARTDB=AGRIDB Call No.: 41.8 R3224. French.

Loyber I, Varela SB. Bases neurofisiologicas del dolor: dolor referido. Cordoba (Argentina): Universitas; c2002 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. 94 p. In: LocatorPlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://locatorplusv2.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search_Arg=101178678&Search_Code=
FT*&PID=t@ODl%3COIo@ODm@%3EHs@%3EIm@NIo@%3F%3C&SEQ=
20070312150312&CNT=25&HIST=1 NLM Unique ID: 101178678. Spanish.

with translation of original language provided

Stegenga B, de Bont LG. Diagnostiek en classificatie van orofaciale pijnen in de eerste lijn [Diagnosis and classification of orofacial pain by dental and general practitioners]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2006 Nov [cited 2007 Mar 9];113(11):437-41. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [1950] -   . Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17147024&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum PMID: 17147024. Dutch.

Piccot-Crezollet C, Casamatta JM, Lepage OM. Anesthesies semiologiques digitales chez le cheval: technique et elements d'interpretation [Digital semiological anesthesia in horses: technique and elements of interpretation]. Can Vet J. 2005 Sep [cited 2007 Mar 9];46(9):807-13. In: Agricola [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National Agricultural Library (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&CNT=
20&CMD=horse&SL=Submit&DATE=2000&DTBL=G%7C&LANG=
FRE%7C&STARTDB=AGRIDB French.

Loyber I, Varela SB. Bases neurofisiologicas del dolor: dolor referido [Neurophysiological basis of pain: referred pain]. Cordoba (Argentina): Universitas; c2002. 94 p. In: LocatorPlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://locatorplusv2.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search_Arg=101178678&Search_Code=
FT*&PID=t@ODl%3COIo@ODm@%3EHs@%3EIm@NIo@%3F%3C&SEQ=20070312150312
&CNT=25&HIST=1 NLM Unique ID: 101178678. Spanish.

7. Contribution to a database on the Internet with date of update/revision

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

8. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent provided by the database

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

9. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent calculated

Jordan S, Schnepf M, Boeckner L. Hispanic food frequency. 1996 Sep 20 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Nutrition Education for Diverse Audiences [Internet]. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://necd.aces.uiuc.edu/inter2_search.cgi?ind=853868171

Phillips JA 3rd. Cortisone reductase deficiency. 2000 May [updated 2007 May 22; cited 2009 Jun 15]. In: Hamosh A, editor. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine; c1966-2009. [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=604931

Van Marck VL, Bracke ME. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in human cancer. [2003?] [cited 2010 Jun 9]. In: Madame Curie Bioscience Database [Internet]. Austin (TX): Landes Bioscience. 2000 -   . [about 26 p.]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=eurekah&part=A32382

10. Contribution to a database on the Internet with an acquisition number

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

Couzos S, Murray RB, editors. Aboriginal primary health care: an evidence-based approach. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. 658 p. In: LocatorPlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [date unknown] -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://locatorplusv2.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?Search_Arg=101195240&Search_Code=
FT*&PID=lPoRW%3D_IlHOHp@oRqXoRm@oRo%3C%3C%3C&
SEQ=20070309151319&CNT=25&HIST=1 NLM Unique ID: 101195240.

11. Contribution to a database on the Internet with a note

Beaver BV. The veterinarian's encyclopedia of animal behavior. Ames (IA): Iowa State University Press; 1994 [cited 2007 Mar 9]. 307 p. In: WorldCat [Internet]. Dublin (OH): OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. 1971 -   . [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://firstsearch.oclc.org/WebZ/FSFETCH?fetchtype=fullrecord:sessionid=fsappd-50507-ez31hdf6-76zk93:
entitypagenum=15:0:recno=1:resultset=3:format=FI:next=html/record.html:bad=error/badfetch.html
:entitytoprecno=1:entitycurrecno=1:numrecs=1 Accession No: OCLC: 30700481. Subscription required to view.

Rotchford JK. Single-use acupuncture needles: scanning electron-microscopy of needle-tips [review]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Mar 9]. In: Rotchford JK, editor. Acubriefs.com [Internet]. Port Townsend (WA): Best of Both Worlds Foundation. [date unknown] -   . [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.acubriefs.com/wkstone/webkeystone.py?Profile=ABarticles/search_whole_review.prof&ReviewID=146&UserID=biz_acubriefs Review ID: 146. Acubriefs was established by a grant from the Medical Acupuncture Research Foundation (MARF).