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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 26Electronic Mail and Discussion Forums

Created: ; Last Update: January 14, 2009.

A. Electronic Mail

B. LISTSERVs and Similar Discussion Lists

C. Blogs

D. Wikis

See also:

Chapter 13 Letters and Other Personal Communication

A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Electronic Mail

The general format for a reference to an electronic mail message, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to an electronic mail message.

Examples of Citations to Electronic Mail

Electronic mail or e-mail is a written message sent over communication networks to a single address or to multiple addressees. E-mail systems are maintained by most computer networks, and virtually all online services and Internet service providers have them.

E-mail is a form of personal communication and is not often accepted by editors and others for inclusion in a reference list. Most authorities recommend placing references to e-mail communications within the running text, not as formal end references. The nature and source of the cited information should be identified by an appropriate statement. Place the source information in parentheses, using a term or terms to indicate clearly that the citation is not in the reference list. For example:

…and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (Mar 22, 2007 e-mail from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see "Notes") while a few….

The author must provide written permission to the publisher from the cited person (if living) or from the cited organization if the message is not accessible to scholars via the e-mail server's archive. The permission should be a statement in an "Acknowledgments" or a "Notes" section following the text of an article or placed at the end of a book's main text. These statements may include additional details, such as the reason for the communication.

It is highly recommended that any message being considered for future citation be saved to disk or in print because not all e-mail systems use a standard method of saving or archiving messages.

The rules below apply when an e-mail message is included in a reference list rather than within the text as described above. References to e-mail messages have a formal structure to clearly identify the author (initiator) and the recipient (receiver) of the communication. Because of the lack of other information to include in a citation to an e-mail message, providing the full names for both author and recipient is recommended as well as clarifying notes on content.

For information on citing letters, see Chapter 13. For further examples of formats for author names and titles, see Chapter 1.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Electronic Mail.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Electronic Mail.

Citation Rules with Examples for Electronic Mail

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title of Message (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Connective Phrase (R) | Recipient (R) | Recipient Affiliation (O) | Date (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Extent (Pagination) (O) | Availability (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author for Electronic Mail (required)

General Rules for Author

  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for the person initiating the communication
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the document cited. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Follow the surname with a comma and a space
  • Enter the given (first) name and any middle name or initials; follow initials with periods
  • End author information with a period unless the Author Affiliation is given, then use a space

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton   becomes   Palmer-Canton, Estelle Ahmed El-Assmy   becomes   El-Assmy, (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit   becomes   Al Bassit, Lama Jiddeke M. van de Kamp   becomes   van de Kamp, Jiddeke M. Gerard (more...)

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Keep hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot   becomes   Lagrot, Jean-Louis Keep prefixes, prepositions, (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   Reed, James A. Kristine Schmidt, (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the given (first) name and any middle name or initials End initials and Jr or Sr with periods Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent T. (more...)

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Organization as author. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or government body may be an author. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society   becomes   American (more...)

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Title of author given. If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Leavitt, Michael O. (Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC). If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning (more...)

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Options for author names. The following format is not NLM practice for citing authors of messages, but is an acceptable option: Given (first) and middle names of authors may be reduced to initials. See Chapter 1 for instructions on handling names in (more...)

Author Affiliation for Electronic Mail (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the parentheses

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for (more...)

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E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the message Do not end an e-mail address with a period Place the e-mail address inside the (more...)

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Titles in affiliations. If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Leavitt, Michael O. (Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC). If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian province (see Appendix E), and the country name or ISO country (more...)

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Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

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No affiliation found. If no affiliation is found or the affiliation is incomplete but it can be determined from elsewhere in the message or from knowledge of the writer, put the place name in square brackets Wolf, Michael R. (University of Southern California, (more...)

Title of Message for Electronic Mail (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the subject line of a message as it appears on the screen, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Capitalize the first word of a message title unless the title begins with a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character that might lose its meaning if (more...)

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Titles not in English. Provide the message title in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) La recherche sur les embryons [Internet]. (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most message titles end in a period. Place the closing period after the type of medium. Backus J. Physician Internet search behavior: detailed study [Internet]. If a message title ends in another form (more...)

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No title can be found. Occasionally an author will leave the subject line blank; the message simply begins with the text. When this occurs: Construct a title from the first few words of the text Use enough words to make the constructed title meaningful (more...)

Content Type for Electronic Mail (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • Use a content type to describe the format of the item being cited
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "electronic mail on the"
  • End content type with space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most message titles end in a period. Place the closing period after the content type and type of medium. Backus J. Physician Internet search behavior: detailed study [electronic mail on the Internet]. (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, give the translation after the original or romanized title and place it in square brackets Put "electronic mail on the Internet" in square brackets following the translation End with a period (more...)

Type of Medium for Electronic Mail (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the type of medium in square brackets following the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • End with a period placed outside the closing bracket
  • Add location information (URL, etc) according to the instructions under Availability below

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium. Give the content type "electronic mail" before the type of medium separated by "on the" Carlyle RC. Stem-cell-based therapies for heart disease [electronic mail on the Internet]. Give the content type "electronic (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most message titles end in a period. Place the closing period after the type of medium. Backus J. Physician Internet search behavior: detailed study [Internet]. If a message title ends in another form (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, give the translation after the original or romanized title and place it in square brackets Put Internet in square brackets following the translation End with a period Example: Perez-Corrazon (more...)

Connective Phrase for Electronic Mail (required)

General Rules for Connective Phrase

  • Use the phrase "Message to" after the title of the message and the Type of Medium
  • Follow the phrase with a colon and a space

Examples for Connective Phrase

Recipient for Electronic Mail (required)

General Rules for Recipient

  • Begin with the given (first) name and any middle name or initials of the person receiving the communication; follow initials with periods
  • Give the surname (family or last name)
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the message. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Separate multiple recipients with a semicolon and a space
  • End recipient information with a period unless the Recipient Affiliation is given, then use a space

Specific Rules for Recipient

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Keep hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot Keep prefixes, prepositions, or other particles D'Arcy Hart W. St. John Patterson De la Broquerie Fortier (more...)

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton Ahmed El-Assmy Keep particles, such as O', D', and L' Alan D. O'Brien James O. L'Esperance U. S'adeh Keep all other punctuation in surnames Charles (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit Jiddeke M. van de Kamp Gerard de Pouvourville Keep compound surnames even if no hyphen appears Sergio Lopez Moreno Jaime Mier y Teran Virginie Halley des Fontaines Ignore diacritics, accents, (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   James A. Reed Kristine Schmidt, (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the surname Omit any commas between the surname and the designation Follow Jr or Sr with a period Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent (more...)

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Titles in recipient names. If the recipient's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation, if desired Message to: Kenneth P. Moritsugu (Acting Surgeon General, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC). If the recipient's (more...)

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Organization as recipient. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body is the recipient of a message. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society    (more...)

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Options for recipient names. The following format is not NLM practice for citing recipients, but is an acceptable option: Given (first) and middle names of recipients may be reduced to initials. See Chapter 1 for instructions on converting names to initials. Y (more...)

Recipient Affiliation for Electronic Mail (optional)

General Rules for Recipient Affiliation

  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a semicolon placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless the affiliation is for the last or only recipient, then use a period

Specific Rules for Recipient Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for (more...)

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E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the recipient with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the message Do not end an e-mail address with a period Place the e-mail address within the (more...)

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Title in affiliations. If the recipient's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation if desired Message to: Kenneth P. Moritsugu (Acting Surgeon General, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC). If the recipient's (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian province (see Appendix E), and the country name or ISO country (more...)

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Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

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No affiliation found. If no affiliation for the recipient is found or the affiliation is incomplete but it can be determined from elsewhere in the message or from knowledge of the recipient, put the place name in square brackets Message to: John G. Grant (more...)

Date for Electronic Mail (required)

General Rules for Date

  • Begin with the year the message was sent
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MMVII to 2007.
  • Include the month and day after the year, such as 2007 Apr 30
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date

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Time of the message included. Follow the date of the message with a comma and a space Give the time in the format hour:minutes, such as 10:15, and a space Enter the time as AM or PM End with a space Example: Harris, Pat (National Information Standards (more...)

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Formats for dates. Dates in US messages usually appear in the format month day, year. For example: 5/1/2007 or April 23, 2007. Dates in other countries may appear in a variety of formats 2004/12/02 30.07.2004 2004-10-02 14 June 2004 15/06/2005 Enter (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Optional date location. It is not NLM policy, but the following is an acceptable option: The date for the message may follow the author name in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text references is used.

Date of Citation for Electronic Mail (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Give the date the message was first seen
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • Place citation date information in square brackets
  • End citation date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Messages not in English. Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters Enter the year first, then the month and the day, regardless of the format used in the country of origin 5/1/2007   becomes (more...)

Extent (Pagination) for Electronic Mail (optional)

General Rules for Extent (Pagination)

  • Give extent as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes, whichever is most practical
  • Precede the total with the word "about" for all except the number of paragraphs and place it in square brackets, as [about 5 screens]
  • If the message is printed, precede the page total with the word "about" and place it in square brackets, as [about 3 p.]
  • End extent information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Extent (Pagination)

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Messages containing an attachment. If the message contains an attachment in the form of a file or a video, videocast, or podcast: Begin with the phrase "Accompanied by" followed by a colon and a space Give the number and type of items 2 Word files 1 (more...)

Examples for Extent (Pagination)

Availability for Electronic Mail (optional)

General Rules for Availability

  • Provide the access address of the archive if the message is archived by the mail server
  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit FTP, http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break within a URL

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed may not always be used to retrieve the message, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions for locating it from the (more...)

Language for Electronic Mail (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of the message if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Notes for Electronic Mail (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for further information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Messages containing an attachment. If the message contains an attachment in the form of a file or a video, videocast, or podcast: Begin with the phrase "Accompanied by" followed by a colon and a space Give the number and type of items 2 Word files 1 (more...)

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System requirements. System requirements describe the particular software and hardware needed to view the message and/or its attachments. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the wording supplied by the author; (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. Notes is a collective term for any type of information given after the citation itself. Examples include: Any restrictions on use of the archived message Messages restricted to members. Explanatory information (more...)

Examples of Citations to Electronic Mail

Note: The examples below are derived from actual e-mail messages, but the names and addresses have been changed in most cases to preserve privacy.

1. Standard citation to an electronic mail message

Backus, Joyce. Physician Internet search behavior: detailed study [Internet]. Message to: Karen Patrias. 2007 Mar 27 [cited 2007 Mar 28]. [2 paragraphs].

2. Electronic mail message with optional initials for author and recipient

Backus J. Physician Internet search behavior: detailed study [Internet]. Message to: K. Patrias. 2007 Mar 27 [cited 2007 Mar 28]. [2 paragraphs].

3. Electronic mail message with organization as author

Protein Lounge (San Diego, CA). Pathway illustration tool and database [Internet]. Message to: Karen Patrias (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD). 2007 May 1 [cited 2007 May 2]. [about 2 screens].

4. Electronic mail message with optional content type

Protein Lounge (San Diego, CA). Pathway illustration tool and database [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Karen Patrias (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD). 2007 May 1 [cited 2007 May 2]. [about 2 screens].

5. Electronic mail message with multiple recipients

Garner, Patricia. DSL and cable modem costs [Internet]. Message to: Phillip S. Chu; Margaret Lyons. 2006 Apr 23 [cited 2006 Apr 24]. [about 1 screen].

6. Electronic mail message with group as recipient

Zerhouni, Elias A. (Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). NIH Roadmap [Internet]. Message to: NIH staff. 2007 Feb 15 [cited 2007 Feb 15]. [about 3 p.].

7. Electronic mail message with affiliations for author and recipient

Harris, Pat (National Information Standards Organization, Bethesda, MD). ISO standards on bibliographic references to be revised [Internet]. Message to: Karen Patrias (Public Services Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD). 2005 Jul 07 [cited 2005 Jul 8]. [about 1 screen].

8. Electronic mail message with position titles for author and recipient included in affiliation

Garner, Patricia (Administrative Officer, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD). DSL and cable modem costs [Internet]. Message to: Phillip S. Chu (Chief, Behavioral and Social Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD); Margaret Lyons (Chief, Neuroscience and Neuropsychology and Aging Program, Bethesda, MD). 2006 Apr 23 [cited 2006 Apr 24]. [about 1 screen].

Patrias, Karen (Senior Resource Specialist, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD). Dates in tables [Internet]. Message to: Lenore Roberts (Editor, Data-Tech, Inc., Ottawa, ON). 2006 Feb 8 [cited 2006 Feb 9]. [2 paragraphs].

9. Electronic mail message with e-mail addresses included in affiliation

Patrias, Karen (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. patrias@nlm.nih.gov). Presentation for May meeting [Internet]. Message to: Mary Silco (Food and Drug Administration, White Oak, MD. Mary.Silco@fda.hhs.gov). 2007 Feb 7 [cited 2007 Feb 8]. [about 1 screen].

10. Electronic mail message with time included in date

Harris, Pat (National Information Standards Organization, Bethesda, MD). ISO standards on bibliographic references to be revised [Internet]. Message to: Karen Patrias (Public Services Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD). 2005 Jul 07, 4:19 PM [cited 2005 Jul 8]. [about 1 screen].

11. Electronic mail message with extent provided

Patrias, Karen (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD). Dates in tables [Internet]. Message to: Lenore Roberts (Data-Tech, Inc., Ottawa, ON). 2006 Feb 8 [cited 2006 Feb 9]. [2 paragraphs].

Harris, Pat (National Information Standards Organization, Bethesda, MD). ISO standards on bibliographic references to be revised [Internet]. Message to: Karen Patrias (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD). 2005 Jul 07 [cited 2005 Jul 8]. [about 1 screen].

Zerhouni, Elias A. (Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). NIH Roadmap [Internet]. Message to: NIH staff. 2007 Feb 15 [cited 2007 Feb 15]. [about 3 p.].

12. Electronic mail message with a note

Patrias, Karen. Presentation for May meeting [Internet]. Message to: Mary Silco. 2007 Feb 7 [cited 2007 Feb 8]. [about 1 screen]. Accompanied by: 1 PowerPoint file.

B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing LISTSERVs and Similar Discussion Lists

The general format for a reference to a message from a LISTSERV or similar discussion list, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a message from a LISTSERV or similar discussion list.

Examples of Citations to LISTSERVs and Similar Discussion Lists

LISTSERV is a proprietary name for mailing list software that is a registered trademark of L-Soft International, Inc. However, the term is commonly used as a generic for all mailing list applications.

Mailing lists are usually subject-oriented and provide a forum for member discussion. Individuals join a list and post messages that are sent out to all the list members and receive messages sent by others. Lists may be moderated, i.e., content is filtered before broadcast, or unmoderated.

Like e-mail in general, messages posted to discussion lists are a form of personal communication and are not often accepted by editors and others for inclusion in a reference list. Most authorities recommend placing references to e-mail communications within the running text, not as formal end references. The nature and source of the cited information should be identified by an appropriate statement. Place the source information in parentheses, using a term or terms to indicate that the citation is not represented in the reference list. For example:

…and many nurses involved with such cases (Mar 22, 2007 posting by RS Grant to the ANPACC Listserv; unreferenced, see "Notes") report…

When a reference to a discussion list message is included in a reference list, the author must provide written permission to the publisher from the cited person (if living) or from the cited organization if the message is not accessible to scholars via the list server's archive. The permission should be stated in an "Acknowledgments" or "Notes" section that follows the text of an article or is placed at the end of a book's main text. These statements may include additional details, such as the reason for the communication.

Because all discussion lists do not employ a standard method of saving or archiving messages, it is highly recommended that any message being considered for future citation be saved to disk or in print.

The rules below apply when a posting to a discussion list is included in a reference list rather than within the text as described above. Because of the lack of other information to include in a citation to an e-mail message, providing the full name for the author is recommended as well as clarifying notes on content.

Some discussion lists post messages consisting entirely of referrals to publications for their members. Do not cite these as messages on the list, but locate the original publication and cite it.

To cite an entire LISTSERV or other discussion list rather than a message from one, use the instructions from Chapter 24A for citing an open serial database. See also example 24.

For information on citing letters, see Chapter 13. For further examples of formats for author names, titles, place of publication, and publisher see Chapter 1.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for LISTSERVs and Similar Discussion Lists.

Continue to Examples of Citations to LISTSERVs and Similar Discussion Lists.

Citation Rules with Examples for LISTSERVs and Similar Discussion Lists

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title for Message (R) | Connective Phrase (R) | Title (R) | Address (O) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Extent (Pagination) (O) | Availability (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author of Message for Lists (required)

General Rules for Author

  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for the person initiating the communication
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the document cited. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • End author information with a period unless the Author Affiliation is given, then use a space

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton   becomes   Palmer-Canton E Ahmed El-Assmy   becomes   El-Assmy (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit   becomes   Al Bassit L Jiddeke M. van de Kamp   becomes   van de Kamp JM Gerard de Pouvourville    (more...)

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Disregard hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot   becomes   Lagrot JL Use only the first letter of given (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S. becomes Reed JA Kristine Schmidt, Ph.D.   becomes   Schmidt (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent T. DeVita, Jr.   becomes   DeVita (more...)

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Organization as author. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or government body may be an author. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society   becomes   American (more...)

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Title of author given. If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Leavitt MO (Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC). If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Leavitt (more...)

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Options for author names. The following format is not NLM practice for citing authors of messages, but is an acceptable option: Full first names of authors may be given Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma and a space Follow (more...)

Author Affiliation for Lists (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for (more...)

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E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the message Do not end an e-mail address with a period Place the e-mail address inside the (more...)

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Titles in affiliations. If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Leavitt MO (Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC). If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Leavitt (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian province (see Appendix E), and the country name or ISO country (more...)

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Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

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No affiliation found. If no affiliation is found or the affiliation is incomplete but it can be determined from the message content or from knowledge of the writer, put the place name or other information in square brackets Wolf MR (University of Southern (more...)

Title of Message for Lists (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the subject line of a message as it appears on the screen, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles with required prefix. Some discussion lists require that a message title begin with a specified subject designation or a category for the type of message, often placed in all capital letters. Retain such prefixes in the title. KCarlson@penn.edu. (more...)

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Capitalize the first word of a message title unless the title begins with a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character that might lose its meaning if (more...)

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Titles not in English. Provide the message title in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) La recherche sur les embryons. In: Romanize (more...)

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Translated titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Give a translation after the original or romanized title If a translated message title ends in another form of punctuation, keep that punctuation Place the translated title in the square brackets (more...)

Connective Phrase for Lists (required)

General Rules for Connective Phrase

  • Use the word "In" after the title of the message
  • Follow the word with a colon and a space

Title for Lists (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the title of the list as it appears on screen, in the original language
  • Use the capitalization and punctuation found
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End the title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles containing special characters. Retain underlines and other special characters in list titles RC_WORLD [Internet]. HEALTH_2_0 [Internet]. Retain underlines and other special characters in list titles RC_WORLD [Internet]. HEALTH_2_0 [Internet]. (more...)

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Titles not in English. Provide the list title in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) DEUTSCHE-LISTE [Internet]. archivistes hospitaliers (more...)

Address for List (optional)

General Rules for Address

  • Give the e-mail address for the list as provided in the message
  • Use the capitalization and punctuation found
  • Separate the address from the Title by a space
  • Place the address in parenthesis
  • Follow the address with a space

Content Type for Lists (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • Use a content type to describe the format of the item being cited
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "discussion list on the"
  • End content type with space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a list title is provided, give the translation after the original or romanized title and place it in square brackets Put "discussion list on the Internet" in square brackets following the translation End with (more...)

Type of Medium for Lists (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the type of medium in square brackets following the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • End with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium. Give the content type "discussion list" before the type of medium separated by "on the" Ramirez AG. NPM1 gene mutation in AML. In: AML-Listserv [discussion list on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a list title is provided, give the translation after the original or romanized title and place it in square brackets Put Internet in square brackets following the translation End with a period Example: Michel (more...)

Place of Publication for Lists (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Use for place the city of the individual or organization responsible for the list
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Locating the place of publication. Use the Web site of the list to determine place of publication and publisher Messages often do not contain information about the place of publication. The e-mail address for the list only reflects server location, which (more...)

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Non-US cities. Use the anglicized form of a city name, such as Rome for Roma and Moscow for Moskva, if possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. This rule (more...)

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No place of publication can be found. If no place of publication can be found for the list but one can be reasonably inferred (e.g., Chicago as the place for a list of the American Medical Association), place the city in square brackets, such as "[Chicago]" [New (more...)

Publisher for Lists (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • The publisher is the individual or organization responsible for the list
  • Record the name of the publisher as it is found on the screen, using whatever capitalization and punctuation appears
  • Abbreviate well-known words in publisher names if desired
  • When a division or another subsidiary part of a publisher is provided, enter the publisher name first. For example: University of Texas, Comprehensive Cancer Center.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Determining the publisher. Use the Web site of the list to determine the publisher Actual messages often do not contain publishing information. The e-mail address for the list only reflects server location, which may or may not be the location of the (more...)

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Abbreviated words in publisher names. Abbreviate commonly used words in publisher names, if desired Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for Department Div. for Division Inst. (more...)

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Non-English names for publishers. Give publisher names in the roman alphabet (French, Spanish, Italian, etc.) in their original language Rome: Societa Editrice Universo; Romanize names given in Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew Sofia (Bulgaria): Sofia (more...)

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher. When citing publishers that are national bodies such as government agencies, if a nationality is not part of the name, place the country in parentheses after the name, using (more...)

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No publisher can be found. If no publisher can be found, use [publisher unknown] If no publisher can be found, use [publisher unknown]

Date for Lists (required)

General Rules for Date

  • Begin with the year the message was sent
  • Include the month and day after the year, such as 2007 Apr 30
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date

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Time of the message included. Follow the date of the message with a comma and a space Give the time in the format hour:minutes using 12-hour time, such as 10:15, and a space Enter the time as AM or PM End with a space Example: Murray GC. A diagram of (more...)

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Formats for dates. Dates in US messages usually appear in the format month day year. For example: 5/1/2007 or April 23, 2007. Dates in other countries may appear in a variety of formats 2004/12/02 30.07.2004 2004-10-02 14 June 2004 15/06/2005 Enter (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Optional date location. It is not NLM policy, but the following is an acceptable option: The date for the message may follow the author name in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text references is used.

Date of Citation for Lists (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Give the date the message was first seen
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • Place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Extent (Pagination) for Lists (optional)

General Rules for Extent (Pagination)

  • Give extent as the total number of screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes, whichever is most practical
  • Precede the total with the word "about" for all except the number of paragraphs and place it in square brackets, as [about 5 screens]
  • If the message is printed out, precede the page total with the word "about" and place it in square brackets, as [about 3 p.]
  • End extent information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Extent (Pagination)

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Messages containing an attachment. If the message contains an attachment in the form of a file or a video, videocast, or podcast: Begin with the phrase "Accompanied by" followed by a colon and a space Give the number and type of items 2 Word files 1 (more...)

Availability for Lists (optional)

General Rules for Availability

  • If the message is archived by the mail server, the access address of the archive may be provided
  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit FTP, http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break within a URL

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed may not always be used to retrieve the message, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions for locating it from the (more...)

Language for Lists (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of the message if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Notes for Lists (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Messages containing an attachment. If the message contains an attachment in the form of a file or a video, videocast, or podcast: Begin with the phrase "Accompanied by" followed by a colon and a space Give the number and type of items 2 Word files 1 (more...)

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System requirements. System requirements describe the software and hardware needed to view the message and/or its attachments. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the wording supplied by the author; no standardization (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. Notes is a collective term for any type of information given after the citation itself. Examples include: Any restrictions on use of the archived message Messages are restricted to members and may not be shared (more...)

Examples of Citations to LISTSERVs and Similar Discussion Lists

Note: The examples below are derived from actual lists, but the names and other components have been changed in most cases to preserve privacy.

1. Standard citation to a message from a LISTSERV or similar discussion list

Ramirez AG. NPM1 gene mutation in AML. In: AML-Listserv [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources; 2007 Jan 12 [cited 2007 Jan 14]. [about 3 screens].

with optional content type

Ramirez AG. NPM1 gene mutation in AML. In: AML-Listserv [discussion list on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources; 2007 Jan 12 [cited 2007 Jan 14]. [about 3 screens].

2. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with optional full name for author

Davis, Blake F. Albuterol versus levalbuterol for treatment of acute asthma. In: RC_WORLD [Internet]. Indianapolis (IN): IUPUI; 2007 Mar 2 [cited 2007 Mar 2]. [5 paragraphs].

3. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with organization as author

GPO Customer Contact Center. Cessation of the FDA Consumer in print. In: FDLP Listserv [Internet]. Washington: Government Printing Office (US); 2007 Apr 27 [cited 2007 Apr 27]. [13 lines].

4. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with e-mail address only for author

CarrieOlson@aol.com. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nephrology. In: PEDNEFRO-L [Internet]. Prague (Czech Republic): Univerzity Karlovy, Lekarska Fakulta; 1998 Jan 4, 10:01 PM [cited 2007 May 3]. [about 3 p.].

5. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with author affiliation

Slack HT (TMD and Orofacial Pain Clinic, College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Lincoln, NE). Orthodontics for TMD therapy. In: OANDP-L [Internet]. Gainesville (FL): O & P digital Technologies; 2007 Apr 20 [cited 2007 Apr 22]. [about 4 screens].

Ramirez AG (Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular del Cancer, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain). NPM1 gene mutation in AML. In: AML-Listserv [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources; 2007 Jan 12 [cited 2007 Jan 14]. [about 3 screens].

6. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with position title for author in affiliation

Slack HT (Clinical Administrator, TMD and Orofacial Pain Clinic, College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Lincoln, NE). Orthodontics for TMD therapy. In: OANDP-L [Internet]. Gainesville (FL): O & P digital Technologies; 2007 Apr 20 [cited 2007 Apr 22]. [about 4 screens].

7. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with e-mail address of author included in affiliation

Theron M (Hopital Marmottan, Paris, FR. marie.theron@marmottan.fr). WHO revised global disease standards. In: MEDLIB-L [Internet]. Chicago: Medical Library Association; 2007 Mar 18 [cited 2007 Apr 1]. [1 paragraph].

8. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with message title having a subtitle

Blake M. Summary: librarian handbooks and guidelines. In: MEDLIB-L [Internet]. Chicago: Medical Library Association; 2007 Apr 27 [cited 2007 Apr 28]. [about 2 screens].

9. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with required subject preceding message title

KCarlson@penn.edu. GLAUCOMA: Early vs late intraocular pressure following trabeculectomy. In: OPHTHAL [Internet]. [place unknown]: Internet Ophthalmology; 2007 Apr 27 [cited 2007 May 3]. [about 2 screens].

10. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with list title not in English

Michel D. Peut-on se fier aux statistiques fournies par les banques de donnees emanant du ministere de la sante? In: archivistes hospitaliers [Internet]. Lyon (FR): CISR; 2007 May 2 [cited 2007 May 3]. [about 3 p.]. French.

with translation included

Michel D. Peut-on se fier aux statistiques fournies par les banques de donnees emanant du ministere de la sante? [Could we trust clinical statistics from data banks of the National Health Service (NHS)?]. In: archivistes hospitaliers [hospital archivists] [Internet]. Lyon (FR): CISR; 2007 May 2 [cited 2007 May 3]. [about 3 p.]. French.

11. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with optional address for list

Davis BF. Albuterol versus levalbuterol for treatment of acute asthma. In: RC_WORLD (LISTSERV@LISTSERV.iupui.edu) [Internet]. Indianapolis (IN): IUPUI; 2007 May 2 [cited 2007 Sep 17]. [5 paragraphs].

Blake M. Summary: librarian handbooks and guidelines. In: MEDLIB-L (MEDLIB-L@LISTSERV.BUFFALO.EDU) [Internet]. Chicago: Medical Library Association; 2007 Apr 27 [cited 2007 Apr 28]. [about 2 screens].

Michel D. Peut-on se fier aux statistiques fournies par les banques de donnees emanant du ministere de la sante? [Could we trust clinical statistics from data banks of the National Health Service (NHS)?]. In: archivistes hospitaliers [hospital archivists] (archivistes_hospitaliers@listes.univ-lyon1.fr) [Internet]. Lyon (FR): CISR; 2007 May 2 [cited 2007 May 3]. [about 3 p.]. French.

12. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with optional content type

Davis BF. Albuterol versus levalbuterol for treatment of acute asthma. In: RC_WORLD [discussion list on the Internet]. Indianapolis (IN): IUPUI; 2007 May 2 [cited 2007 Sep 17]. [5 paragraphs].

13. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with well-known place of publication

Blake M. Summary: librarian handbooks and guidelines. In: MEDLIB-L [Internet]. Chicago: Medical Library Association; 2007 Apr 27 [cited 2007 Apr 28]. [about 2 screens].

14. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

King M. Africa goes into negative food balance. In: AFRO-NETS [Internet]. Watertown (MA): AED-SATELLIFE; 2003 May 4 [cited 2007 Apr 25]. 19.55 KB.

15. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with unknown place of publication

KCarlson@penn.edu. GLAUCOMA: Early vs late intraocular pressure following trabeculectomy. In: OPHTHAL [Internet]. [place unknown]: Internet Ophthalmology; 2007 Apr 27 [cited 2007 May 3]. [about 2 screens].

16. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with publisher having subsidiary division

Keller CD. Public health training for rural primary care physicians. In: RURALNET-L [Internet]. Huntington (WV): Marshall University School of Medicine, Department of Academic Computing; 2007 Apr 15 [cited 2007 Apr 16]. [about 3 screens].

17. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list published by a government agency

Murray GC. A diagram of the UMLS Semantic Network. In: UMLSUSERS-L [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 Apr 23, 11:33 AM [cited 2007 May 2]. [60 lines].

18. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with time included in date

Murray GC. A diagram of the UMLS Semantic Network. In: UMLSUSERS-L [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 Apr 23, 11:33 AM [cited 2007 May 2]. [60 lines].

19. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with extent provided

Davis BF. Albuterol versus levalbuterol for treatment of acute asthma. In: RC_WORLD [Internet]. Indianapolis (IN): IUPUI; 2007 May 2 [cited 2007 Sep 17]. [5 paragraphs].

GPO Customer Contact Center. Cessation of the FDA Consumer in print. In: FDLP Listserv [Internet]. Washington: Government Printing Office (US); 2007 Apr 27 [cited 2007 Apr 27]. [13 lines].

Karns M. Africa goes into negative food balance. In: AFRO-NETS [Internet]. Watertown (MA): AED-SATELLIFE; 2003 May 4 [cited 2007 Apr 25]. 19.55 KB. Accompanied by: 1 GIF file, 20KB.

CarrieOlson@aol.com. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nephrology. In: PEDNEFRO-L [Internet]. Prague (Czech Republic): Univerzity Karlovy, Lekarska Fakulta; 1998 Jan 4, 10:01 PM [cited 2007 May 3]. [about 3 p.].

Ramirez AG. NPM1 gene mutation in AML. In: AML-Listserv [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources; 2007 Jan 12 [cited 2007 Jan 14]. [about 3 screens].

20. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with accompanying file

Karns M. Africa goes into negative food balance. In: AFRO-NETS [Internet]. Watertown (MA): AED-SATELLIFE; 2003 May 4 [cited 2007 Apr 25]. 19.55 KB. Accompanied by: 1 GIF file, 20KB. Available from: http://www.afronets.org/docs-related.php

21. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with archive URL provided

Theron M. WHO revised global disease standards. In: MEDLIB-L [Internet]. Chicago: Medical Library Association; 2007 Mar 18 [cited 2007 Apr 1]. [1 paragraph]. Available from: http://listserv.buffalo.edu/archives/medlib-l.html

CarrieOlson@aol.com. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nephrology. In: PEDNEFRO-L [Internet]. Prague (Czech Republic): Univerzity Karlovy, Lekarska Fakulta; 1998 Jan 4, 10:01 PM [cited 2007 May 3]. [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.lf2.cuni.cz/cgi-bin/wilma_hiliter/pednefro-l/199806/msg00000.html?line=80#

22. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with archive not directly addressable

GPO Customer Contact Center. Cessation of the FDA Consumer in print. In: FDLP Listserv [Internet]. Washington: Government Printing Office (US); 2007 Apr 27 [cited 2007 Apr 27]. [13 lines]. Available from: http://listserv.access.gpo.gov/ by clicking on Online mailing list archives.

23. A message from a LISTSERV or similar list with a note

Ramirez AG. NPM1 gene mutation in AML. In: AML-Listserv [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources; 2007 Jan 12 [cited 2007 Jan 14]. [about 3 screens]. List for acute myelocytic leukemia.

Davis BF. Albuterol versus levalbuterol for treatment of acute asthma. In: RC_WORLD [Internet]. Indianapolis (IN): IUPUI; 2007 May 2 [cited 2007 Sep 17]. [5 paragraphs]. IUPUI is Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis.

24. Entire LISTSERV or similar list

AML-Listserv [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources. 1997 Nov 12 -   [cited 2007 May 11]. Available from: AML-request@LISTSERV.ACOR.ORG

MEDLIB-L [Internet]. Chicago: Medical Library Association. 1995 Aug 16 -   [cited 2007 May 11]. Available from: MEDLIB-L@LIST.UVM.EDU

C. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Blogs

The general format for a reference to a blog on the Internet, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a blog on the Internet.

The general format for a reference to a contribution to a blog, when the contribution is written by someone other than the blog owner, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a contribution to a blog, when the contribution is written by someone other than the blog owner.

Examples of Citations to Blogs

Blog is a contraction of Web log. A blog is a publicly available Web site that serves as a personal journal or sounding board for an individual or as an information tool for an organization. The blog owner posts messages and invites comments from readers. Entries or messages are displayed in reverse chronological order and the site is usually updated daily.

In citing a blog, note that:

  • The word blog may or may not be a part of the title. If it is not, using the content type "blog" is strongly recommended.
  • Many blogs are self-published, with the author and the publisher the same individual.
  • Place of publication may be absent. Use the author's city as the place if one is not provided.
  • Blogs often omit giving the date the blog began. If no beginning date is found, use the date of the earliest message posted (usually found under Archive) and place it in square brackets.
  • Many blogs have new content added daily or very frequently. A date of update/revision is therefore not useful and is omitted from a citation.

Look at the opening screen(s), the bottom or closing screens, sidebar, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser), in that order, for authoritative information to use in citing a blog.

Contributions to a Blog

To cite an entire blog, use the instructions below. To cite a part of, or a contribution to a blog, examples are provided. For more details, combine the instructions in this chapter with those in Chapter 24B Parts of Databases on the Internet if the item was posted by the blog owner or in Chapter 24C Contributions to Databases on the Internet if the item was written by someone other than the blog owner. See examples 29-30.

Be aware that the message content of many blogs is not moderated. Many blogs also post articles or other documents that were initially published elsewhere. Do not cite these as contributions to a blog. Locate the original and cite that item.

Messages posted to discussion lists like a blog are considered a form of personal communication and are not often accepted by editors or others for inclusion in a reference list. Most authorities recommend placing references to such communications within the running text, not as formal end references. The nature and source of the cited information should be identified by an appropriate statement. Place the source information in parentheses, using a term or terms to indicate that the citation is not represented in the reference list. For example:

…and many nurses involved with such cases (Mar 22, 2007 posting by RS Grant to Nurse Studio Blog; unreferenced, see "Notes") report…

When a reference to a blog posting is included in a reference list, the author must provide written permission to the publisher from the cited person (if living) or from the cited organization. The permission should be a statement in an "Acknowledgments" or a "Notes" section that follows the text of an article or is placed at the end of a book's main text. Such statements may include additional details, such as the reason for the posting.

It is highly recommended that any message being considered for future citation be saved to disk or in print because blogs may not save or archive messages for retrieval or may withdraw individual messages.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Blogs

Continue to Examples of Citations to Blogs

Citation Rules with Examples for Blogs

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • List names in the order they appear on the opening screens
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Determining the author. Look first for the author at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the opening screen(s) of the blog Try links such as "About", "Contact", and "My Profile" to find the author Look at the messages posted by the blog owner Do not assume (more...)

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton   becomes   Palmer-Canton E Ahmed El-Assmy   becomes   El-Assmy (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit   becomes   Al Bassit L Jiddeke M. van de Kamp   becomes   van de Kamp JM Gerard de Pouvourville    (more...)

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Disregard hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot   becomes   Lagrot JL Use only the first letter of given (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   Reed JA Kristine Schmidt, Ph.D.    (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent T. DeVita, Jr.   becomes   DeVita (more...)

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Non-English words for editor. Translate the word found for editor into English when possible. However, the wording found on the publication may always be used. To assist in identifying editors, below is a brief list of non-English words for editor: (more...)

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Organization as author. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or government body may be an author. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society   becomes   American (more...)

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No author can be found. If no person or organization can be found as the author but editors are present, begin the reference with the names of the editors. Follow the same rules used for author names, but end the list of names with a comma and editor (more...)

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Options for author names. The following formats are not NLM practice for citing authors, but are acceptable options. Full first names of authors may be given. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; (more...)

Author Affiliation for Blogs (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for (more...)

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E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the message Do not end an e-mail address with a period Place the e-mail address inside the (more...)

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Titles in affiliations. If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation if desired Leavitt MO (Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC). If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian province (see Appendix E), and the country name or ISO country (more...)

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Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

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No affiliation found. If no affiliation is found or the affiliation is incomplete but it can be determined from the message content or from knowledge of the writer, put the place name or other information in square brackets Wolf MR (University of Southern (more...)

Examples for Author Affiliation

Title for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Reproduce the title of a blog as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Determining the title. Some blogs do not clearly state the title. Use the following sources in the order given: Look for the most prominent (usually the largest) wording on the opening screen Use the "About" or similar link Look at the title bar of the (more...)

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Titles not in English. Provide the title in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) Fresquet Febrer JL. Blog de Historia de la medicina (more...)

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Titles in more than one language. If a blog is written in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the availability statement Separate the languages by commas End the (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [Internet] inside period. Bernstein M. Bioethics Discussion Blog [Internet]. Los Angeles: Maurice Bernstein. 2004 Jul -   [cited 2007 May 16]. (more...)

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Titles containing a Greek letter or another special character. Reproduce the title of a blog as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation eHealth: a blog devoted to ehealth and (more...)

Content Type for Blogs (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • Use a content type to alert the user that the reference is to a blog, not to a standard book or Web site
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "blog on"
  • End the content type with space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place the closing period after the content type and type of medium. Silverman E. PHARMALOT [blog on the Internet]. [Newark (NJ)]: Star-Ledger. 2007 Jan -   [cited (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, put the translation in square brackets Place the content type and type of medium in square brackets after the translation Endotoksikoza [Endotoxicosis] [blog on the Internet]. If a translation (more...)

Type of Medium for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the word "Internet" in square brackets after the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • End with a period, placed outside the closing bracket
  • Add location information (the URL, etc.) according to the instructions under Availability below

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium. Give the content type (blog) and the phrase "on the" before the type of medium (Internet) in one set of square brackets. Silverman E. PHARMALOT [blog on the Internet]. [Newark (NJ)]: Star-Ledger. 2007 Jan -   [cited (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [Internet] before the period. Cohen MH. CAMLAW: complementary and alternative medicine law blog [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Michael H. Cohen, Esq. c2007 -   [cited (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, give the translation in square brackets after the original language or romanized title Place Internet in square brackets following the translation End with a period Example: Fresquet Febrer (more...)

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Blogs (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, translators, and producers.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the Type of Medium
  • Use the same rules for the format of names given in Author/Editor above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author. A blog may have several types of secondary author. List all of them in the order they are given on the opening screens Separate each type of secondary author with the accompanying role by a semicolon End secondary (more...)

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Secondary author performing more than one role. If the same secondary author performs more than one role: List all of them in the order they are given in the publication Separate the roles by "and" End secondary author information with a period Example: (more...)

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Non-English names for secondary authors. Translate the word found for editor, translator, illustrator, or other secondary author into English if possible. However, the wording found on the publication may always be used. If not translated, ignore diacritics, (more...)

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Organization as editor or other secondary author. An organization may be listed as an editor or other secondary author. Follow the instructions for entering the organizational name found under Organizations as author Place a comma, space, and the word (more...)

Examples for Editor and other Secondary Authors

Place of Publication for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Use for place of publication the city where the blog is published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code, when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Locating the place of publication. Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the opening screens If it is not in one of these locations, try to obtain it from a link within the site, usually a "contact us", "about", or similar link Look in the source code (more...)

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Non-US cities. Use the anglicized form of a city name, such as Rome for Roma and Moscow for Moskva, when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. This rule (more...)

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No place of publication can be found. If no place of publication can be found on the opening screens or elsewhere on the blog site but the place can be reasonably inferred (e.g., Chicago as the place for a blog of the American Medical Association), place (more...)

Publisher for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Use for publisher the individual or organization issuing the blog
  • Record the name of the publisher as it is found on the title page or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation appears
  • When a division or another subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a period

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Determining the publisher. Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the opening screens Look for the name after a copyright statement, e.g., copyright 2006 by the American Chemical Society or © John Jones Try to obtain it from a link within the (more...)

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Abbreviated words in publisher names. Abbreviate commonly used words in publisher names, if desired Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for Department Div. for Division Inst. (more...)

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Non-English names for publishers. Give publisher names in the roman alphabet (French, Spanish, Italian, etc.) in their original language Rome: Societa Editrice Universo Lisbon: Imprensa Medica Romanize names in Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew Sofia (more...)

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher. When citing publishers that are national bodies such as government agencies, if a nationality is not part of the name, place the country in parentheses after the name, using (more...)

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No publisher can be found. If the blog is self-published: use the full author's name as the publisher Bernstein M. Bioethics Discussion Blog [Internet]. Los Angeles: Maurice Bernstein. 2004 Jul -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available (more...)

Date of Publication for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Give the beginning date, i.e., the date the blog was created
  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • For an open blog, give the beginning date of the blog followed by a hyphen and 3 spaces
  • For a closed blog, give the beginning and ending dates, separated by a hyphen with a space before and after
  • If the beginning date is not provided, see No beginning date is provided below
  • End date information with a space
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No beginning date is provided. If the date the blog began cannot be found but the date of the earliest (and latest if closed) postings to the blog can be determined, place date information in square brackets Bernhardt JM. Director's Blog [Internet]. (more...)

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication. When a blog does not clearly state the date the blog began (and closed): Look for the beginning date in a link titled "About", "My Profile", etc., at the top, bottom, or on the sidebar of the opening screens If the beginning (more...)

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Multiple years of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last years of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 If months are given, place (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Date of publication and date of copyright. Some publications have both a date of publication and a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Use only the date (more...)

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright. If no beginning date of publication can be found, use the earliest date of messages posted to the blog, usually found under "Archive" If the neither the beginning date of the blog nor the dates of the (more...)

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Blog is no longer updated. If a blog is closed, i.e., it is no longer posting or receiving comments: Give the beginning and ending dates of the blog Separate the two dates with a space, hyphen, space End date information with a space Examples: 2005 - (more...)

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Options for date of publication. It is not NLM policy, but the date of publication may follow the author(s) (or title and type of medium if there is no author) in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text references is used. Use the (more...)

Date of Citation for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the blog was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Examples for Date of Citation

Availability for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • Provide the specific URL or Permalink for the content if available
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break into a URL

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always be used to retrieve the blog, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions for locating (more...)

Language for Blogs (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Blogs appearing in more than one language. If the contents of a blog appear in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the Availability statement Capitalize the language (more...)

Examples for Language

Notes for Blogs (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Types of material to include in notes. The notes element may be used to provide any further information. Begin by citing the blog, then add the note. Examples of notes are: System requirements, such the specific software and hardware needed to view and (more...)

Examples of Citations to Blogs

1. Standard citation to a blog

Bernstein M. Bioethics Discussion Blog [Internet]. Los Angeles: Maurice Bernstein. 2004 Jul -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://bioethicsdiscussion.blogspot.com/.

Holt M. The Health Care Blog [Internet]. San Francisco: Matthew Holt. 2003 Oct -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.thehealthcareblog.com/the_health_care_blog/.

with optional content type

KidneyNotes.com [blog on the Internet]. New York: KidneyNotes. c2006 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.kidneynotes.com/.

2. Blog with an individual(s) as author

Cohen MH. CAMLAW: complementary and alternative medicine law blog [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Michael H. Cohen, Esq. c2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.camlawblog.com/.

Mik T. Nursing Studio [blog on the Internet]. Seattle: Akon. [2002 May] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.nursingstudio.net

3. Blog with optional full names for authors/editors

Cohen, Michael H. CAMLAW: complementary and alternative medicine law blog [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Michael H. Cohen, Esq. c2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.camlawblog.com/.

Ostrovsky, Michael; Genes, Nicholas; Odell, Timothy; Ostrovsky, Gene, editors. medGadget [blog on the Internet]. El Granada (CA): Medgadget LLC. [2004 Dec] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.medgadget.com/.

4. Blog with only first name provided for author

Kim. Emergiblog: The Life & Times of an ER Nurse [Internet]. Ask Shane, producer. San Francisco: Emergiblog. c2005-2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.emergiblog.com/.

5. Blog with only blog name provided for author

Doctor CBB. CodeBlueBlog [Internet]. [Florida]: [Thomas Boyle]. [2004 May] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://codeblueblog.blogs.com/.

6. Blog with an organization as author

Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG: WSJ's blog on health and the business of health [Internet]. Hensley S, editor. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://blogs.wsj.com/health/.

AARP Issues Blog Team. AARP Issues Blog [Internet]. Washington: AARP. [2005 Jan] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://aarp.typepad.com/.

7. Blog with editors where there is no author

Ostrovsky M, Genes N, Odell T, Ostrovsky G, editors. medGadget [blog on the Internet]. El Granada (CA): Medgadget LLC. [2004 Dec] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.medgadget.com/.

8. Blog with no authors

KidneyNotes.com [blog on the Internet]. Viklund A, CSSCreator, illustrators. New York: KidneyNotes. c2006 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.kidneynotes.com/.

HealthNex: IBMers and friends on networked, patient-centric healthcare [Internet]. [place unknown]: IBM. [2006 Sep] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://healthnex.typepad.com/web_log/.

9. Blog with author affiliation

Myers PZ (University of Minnesota, Morris, MN). Pharyngula [blog on the Internet]. New York: ScienceBlogs LLC. [2006 Jan] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/.

Schwitzer G (University of Minnesota, School of Journalism & Mass Communication, Minneapolis, MN). Schwitzer health news blog [Internet]. Minneapolis (MN): HealthNewsReview.org. [2004 Sep] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://blog.lib.umn.edu/schwitz/healthnews/.

10. Blog title with a subtitle

Tenderich A. Diabetes Mine: a gold mine of straight talk and encouragement for people living with diabetes [blog on the Internet]. San Francisco: Amy Tenderich. [2005 Feb] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from:http://www.diabetesmine.com/.

11. Blog title with upper/lowercase letters, special characters

Kim. Emergiblog: The Life & Times of an ER Nurse [Internet]. Ask Shane, producer. San Francisco: Emergiblog. c2005-2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.emergiblog.com/.

Silverman E. PHARMALOT [blog on the Internet]. [Newark (NJ)]: Star-Ledger. 2007 Jan -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://pharmalot.com/.

Genes N. blogborygmi: a digest of developments in the life of an emergency medicine resident [Internet]. [place unknown]: Nicholas Genes. [2003 Jun] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://blogborygmi.blogspot.com/.

Sharp J. eHealth: a blog devoted to ehealth and healthcare information technology [Internet]. Cleveland (OH): EHEALTH.JOHNWSHARP.COM. [2006 Sep] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://ehealth.johnwsharp.com/.

12. Blog with title ending in punctuation other than a period

Scalpel or Sword? [blog on the Internet]. [Texas]: [publisher unknown]. [2006 Aug] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://scalpelorsword.blogspot.com/.

13. Blog in a language other than English

Arrington M, Ohayon O. TechCrunch: explorons le Web 2.0 [blog on the Internet]. Arrington M, editor. Paris: Pulpmedia. 2005 Jun 11 -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://fr.techcrunch.com/. French.

Martins G. O INTERNO: technologia e anesthesia [blog on the Internet]. Porto (Portugal): Gustavo Martins. [2006 Jun] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://ointerno.blogspot.com/. Portuguese.

Fresquet Febrer JL. Blog de Historia de la medicina [Internet]. Valencia (Spain): Universidad de Valencia. [2005 Dec] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://www.historiadelamedicina.org/blog/. Spanish.

with translation included

Fresquet Febrer JL. Blog de Historia de la medicina [Blog of the history of medicine] [Internet]. Valencia (Spain): Universidad de Valencia. [2005 Dec] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://www.historiadelamedicina.org/blog/. Spanish.

14. Blog published with content type given

Tenderich A. Diabetes Mine: a gold mine of straight talk and encouragement for people living with diabetes [blog on the Internet]. San Francisco: Amy Tenderich. [2005 Feb] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from:http://www.diabetesmine.com/.

Levy P. RUNNING A HOSPITAL [blog on the Internet]. Boston: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. [2006 Aug] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://runningahospital.blogspot.com/.

15. Blog with secondary authors

Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG: WSJ's blog on health and the business of health [Internet]. Hensley S, editor. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://blogs.wsj.com/health/.

KidneyNotes.com [blog on the Internet]. Viklund A, CSSCreator, illustrators. New York: KidneyNotes. c2006 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.kidneynotes.com/.

Arrington M, Ohayon O. TechCrunch: explorons le Web 2.0 [blog on the Internet]. Arrington M, editor. Paris: Pulpmedia. 2005 Jun 11 -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://fr.techcrunch.com/. French.

16. Blog with well known place of publication

Levy P. RUNNING A HOSPITAL [blog on the Internet]. Boston: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. [2006 Aug] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://runningahospital.blogspot.com/.

Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG: WSJ's blog on health and the business of health [Internet]. Hensley S, editor. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://blogs.wsj.com/health/.

Arrington M, Ohayon O. TechCrunch: explorons le Web 2.0 [blog on the Internet]. Arrington M, editor. Paris: Pulpmedia. 2005 Jun 11 -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://fr.techcrunch.com/. French.

17. Blog with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

Ostrovsky M, Genes N, Odell T, Ostrovsky G, editors. medGadget [blog on the Internet]. El Granada (CA): Medgadget LLC. [2004 Dec] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.medgadget.com/.

Schwab S. Surgeonsblog [Internet]. Puget Sound (WA): Sid Schwab. [2006] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://surgeonsblog.blogspot.com/.

Pho K. Kevin, M.D.: medical Weblog [Internet]. Nashua (NH): Kevin Pho. [2004 May] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://kevinmd.com/blog/.

Martins G. O INTERNO: technologia e anesthesia [blog on the Internet]. Porto (Portugal): Gustavo Martins. [2006 Jun] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://ointerno.blogspot.com/. Portuguese.

18. Blog with place of publication inferred

Silverman E. PHARMALOT [blog on the Internet]. [Newark (NJ)]: Star-Ledger. 2007 Jan -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://pharmalot.com/.

Hunscher D. Future Scenarios for Health IT [blog on the Internet]. [Ann Arbor (MI)]: Dale Hunscher. [2006 Aug] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://hunscher.typepad.com/futurehit/.

19. Blog with unknown place of publication

Reider J. Family Medicine Notes [blog on the Internet]. [place unknown]: Jacob Reider. 1999 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.docnotes.net/.

Genes N. blogborygmi: a digest of developments in the life of an emergency medicine resident [Internet]. [place unknown]: Nicholas Genes. [2003 Jun] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://blogborygmi.blogspot.com/.

20. Blog with publisher having subsidiary division

Gottesman MM The DDIR's COI Blog [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US), Office of the Director, Office of Intramural Research. 2005 Mar 25 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/ddir/COIBlog/COIBlog.htm

21. Blog with government agency or other national body as publisher

Bernhardt JM. Director's Blog [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Health Marketing. [2006 Jul 13] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthmarketing/blog.htm

22. Blog with publisher inferred

Doctor CBB. CodeBlueBlog [Internet]. [Florida]: [Thomas Boyle]. [2004 May] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://codeblueblog.blogs.com/.

23. Blog with unknown publisher

Scalpel or Sword? [blog on the Internet]. [Texas]: [publisher unknown]. [2006 Aug] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://scalpelorsword.blogspot.com/.

24. Blog with month/day included in date of publication

Holt M. The Health Care Blog [Internet]. San Francisco: Matthew Holt. 2003 Oct -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.thehealthcareblog.com/the_health_care_blog/.

Gottesman MM The DDIR's COI Blog [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US), Office of the Director, Office of Intramural Research. 2005 Mar 25 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/ddir/COIBlog/COIBlog.htm

25. Blog with multiple years

Kim. Emergiblog: The Life & Times of an ER Nurse [Internet]. Ask Shane, producer. San Francisco: Emergiblog. c2005-2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.emergiblog.com/.

26. Blog with date of copyright instead of date of publication

KidneyNotes.com [blog on the Internet]. Viklund A, CSSCreator, illustrators. New York: KidneyNotes. c2006 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.kidneynotes.com/.

Kim. Emergiblog: The Life & Times of an ER Nurse [Internet]. Ask Shane, producer. San Francisco: Emergiblog. c2005-2007 -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.emergiblog.com/.

27. Blog with date obtained from earliest material in it

Bernhardt JM. Director's Blog [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Health Marketing. [2006 Jul 13] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthmarketing/blog.htm

Mik T. Nursing Studio [blog on the Internet]. Seattle: Akon. [2002 May] -   [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://www.nursingstudio.net

28. Blog with supplemental note included

Scalpel or Sword? [blog on the Internet]. [Texas]: [publisher unknown]. [2006 Aug] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://scalpelorsword.blogspot.com/. Topic is emergency medicine.

Tripathi M. MAeHC Blog [Internet]. Waltham (MA): Micky Tripathi. [2006] -   [cited 2007 May 17]. Available from: http://maehc.blogspot.com/. MAeHC is the Massachusetts eHealth Collaborative.

29. Part of a blog on the Internet from the blog owner

Reider J. Family Medicine Notes [blog on the Internet]. [place unknown]: Jacob Reider. 1999 -   . CRP again ...; 2004 Apr 2 [cited 2007 May 23]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.docnotes.net/001763.html

Doctor CBB. CodeBlueBlog [Internet]. [Florida]: [Thomas Boyle]. [2004 May] -   . i-Mammo part II: breasts, lies and videotapes; 2005 Apr 15 [cited 2007 May 23]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://codeblueblog.blogs.com/codeblueblog/2005/04/part_ii_and_the.html

Kraft M. The Krafty Librarian [blog on the Internet]. [Cleveland (OH)]: Michelle Kraft. [2004 Jun] -   . Collaborative technologies and science: more tools or more risk? 2008 Jan 21 [cited 2008 Apr 28]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://kraftylibrarian.com/2008/01/collaborative-technologies-and-science.html

with author affiliation

Leavitt M (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC). Secretary Mike Leavitt's Blog [Internet]. [Washington]: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2007 Aug 13 -   . Health information technology; 2008 Jan 24 [cited 2008 Apr 28]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://secretarysblog.hhs.gov/my_weblog/2008/01/health-informat.html

30. Contribution to a blog on the Internet by someone other than the blog owner

Mantone J. Head trauma haunts many, researchers say. 2008 Jan 29 [cited 2008 Apr 28]. In: Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG [Internet]. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2008 -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://blogs.wsj.com/health/2008/01/29/head-trauma-haunts-many-researchers-say/.

Teresa. Comment on: "Flo's pledge: deal or no deal?" 2007 May 12 [cited 2007 May 16]. In: Kim. Emergiblog: The Life & Times of an ER Nurse [Internet]. San Francisco: Emergiblog. c2005-2007 -   . [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.emergiblog.com/2007/05/flos-pledge-deal-or-no-deal.html scroll down to comments.

with author affiliation

Lanard J (Western Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization, Manila, Philippines). Comment on: "This blog can save your life!" and "Health Communication: Science and Art." 2006 Oct 15 [cited 2007 May 17]. In: Bernhardt JM. Director's Blog [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Health Marketing. [2006 Jul 13] -   . [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthmarketing/blog_101106.htm scroll down to locate comment.

Campbell A (Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA). Diabetes and alcohol: do the two mix? (Part 2). 2008 Jan 28 [cited 2008 Apr 28]. In: Diabetes Self-Management Blog [Internet]. New York: Diabetes Self-Management. [2006 Aug 14] -   . 2 p. Available from: http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/Amy_Campbell/Diabetes_and_Alcohol_Do_the_Two_Mix_Part_2

D. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Wikis

The general format for a reference to a wiki on the Internet, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a wiki on the Internet.

Examples of Citations to Wikis

A wiki is a multi-authored or collaborative Web site that permits users to create additional content for the site and to edit existing content. Users may also add comments to content, ask questions, and reply to questions posed by others. The term wiki is derived from the Hawaiian "wiki wiki", which means quick. Wikipedia is perhaps the most widely known general wiki. Most other wikis are devoted to a particular subject, like AIDS Wiki or WIKISURGERY.

To cite a wiki:

  • Always begin with the title. If the word wiki is not included, using the content type "wiki" is strongly recommended.
  • Enter as secondary authors those named as editors, curators, moderators, and other similar roles.
  • Look to the opening screen(s), the sidebar, links from the site, and the source code (viewable through the Web browser), in that order, for authoritative information to use in citing a wiki.
  • If publication facts are absent from these sources, look for a link labeled "About this site", "History", or similar wording.

Contributions to a Wiki

To cite an entire wiki, use the instructions below. To cite a contribution to a wiki, combine the instructions in this chapter with those in Chapter 24C Contributions to Databases on the Internet if the contribution has an author named or with Chapter 24B Parts of Databases on the Internet if the contribution has no author named. See also examples 25-26.

Be aware, however, that many wikis are not moderated. Since anyone can post text to most wikis, the validity of the content may be questionable. Even for moderated sites, the content is generally only reviewed after posting and the content may remain online for some time before review. Note also that many wikis post articles or other documents that were initially published elsewhere. Do not cite these as contributions to a wiki. Locate the original and cite that item.

Messages or other content posted to discussion lists including wikis are a form of personal communication and not often accepted by editors or others for inclusion in a reference list. Most authorities recommend placing references to such communications within the running text, not as formal end references. The nature and source of the cited information should be identified by an appropriate statement. Place the source information in parentheses, using a term or terms to indicate that the citation is not represented in the reference list. For example:

…and many nurses involved with such cases (Mar 22, 2007 posting by RS Grant to Nurse Wiki; unreferenced, see "Notes") report…

When a reference to a wiki posting is included in a reference list, the author must provide written permission to the publisher from the cited person (if living) or from the cited organization. The permission should be a statement in an "Acknowledgments" or a "Notes" section that follows the text of an article or is placed at the end of a book's main text. These statements may include additional details, such as the reason for the posting.

It is highly recommended that any message/content considered for future citation be saved to disk or in print because all wikis may not save or archive message content for retrieval or may withdraw some content.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Wikis.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Wikis.

Citation Rules with Examples for Wikis

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Title for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Reproduce the title of a wiki as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Determining the title. Some wikis do not clearly state the title. Use the following sources in the order given: Look for the most prominent (usually the largest) wording on the opening screen Use the "About" or similar link Look at the title bar of the (more...)

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Titles not in English. Provide the title in the original language for non-English titles in the roman alphabet (primarily European languages, such as French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, etc.) PflegeWiki [Internet]. Gelsenkirchen (Germany): Verein (more...)

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Titles in more than one language. If a wiki is written in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the availability statement Separate the languages by commas End the (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [Internet] before the period. The RHIO Wiki [Internet]. Washington: Center for Health Transformation. 2006 Aug 21 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available (more...)

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Titles containing a Greek letter or another special character. Reproduce the title of a wiki as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, and punctuation xanthusBase RxWiki WIKISURGERY A*L*S Wiki (more...)

Content Type for a Wiki (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • Use a content type to alert the user that the reference is to a wiki, not to a standard book or Web site
  • Begin type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the phrase "wiki on the"
  • End the content type with space

Specific Rules for Content Type

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place the closing period after the content type and type of medium. OpenWetWare [wiki on the Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, put it in square brackets Place the content type and type of medium in square brackets after the translation Endotoksikoza [Endotoxicosis] [wiki on the Internet]. If a translation of a (more...)

Examples for Content Type

Type of Medium for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Place the word "Internet" in square brackets after the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • End with a period, placed outside the closing bracket
  • Add location information (the URL, etc.) according to the instructions under Availability below

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium. Give the content type (wiki) and the phrase "on the" before the type of medium (Internet) in one set of square brackets OpenWetWare [wiki on the Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (more...)

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period. Most titles end in a period. Place [Internet] before the period WIKISURGERY [Internet]. London: Surgical Associates Ltd. 2006 Sep -   [modified 2007 Jan 30; cited 2007 May 3]. (more...)

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Titles not in English. If a translation of a title is provided, give the translation in square brackets after the original language or romanized title Place Internet in square brackets following the translation End with a period Example: PflegeWiki [Nursing (more...)

Editor and other Secondary Authors a Wiki (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • Place the names of secondary authors, such as editors, curators, and moderators, after the Type of Medium
  • Use the same rules for the format of names given in Author/Editor above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named curator with a comma and the word curator or curators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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Role not named. If a name or names are given for the individuals clearly responsible for the wiki's content but the specific role such as editor or curator is not provided, use the term "moderator" or "moderators" Jones J, moderator. Phillips SA, Sanger (more...)

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More than one type of secondary author. A wiki may have several types of secondary author. List all of them in the order they are given on the opening screens Separate each type of secondary author with the accompanying role by a semicolon End secondary (more...)

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Secondary author performing more than one role. If the same secondary author performs more than one role: List all of them in the order they are given in the publication Separate the roles by "and" End secondary author information with a period Example: (more...)

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Non-English names for secondary authors. Translate the word found for editor, translator, illustrator, or other secondary author into English if possible. However, the wording found on the publication may always be used. If not translated, ignore diacritics, (more...)

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Organization as editor or other secondary author. An organization may be listed as an editor or other secondary author. Follow the instructions for entering the organizational name found under Organizations as author Place a comma, space, and the word (more...)

Examples for Editor and other Secondary Authors

Place of Publication for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Use for place of publication the city where the wiki is published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities, or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code, when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Cambridge (MA) and Cambridge (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Locating the place of publication. Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the opening screens If it is not in one of these locations, try to obtain it from a link within the site, usually under a "contact us", "history", or similar link Look in the source (more...)

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Non-US cities. Use the anglicized form of a city name, such as Rome for Roma and Moscow for Moskva, when possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. This rule (more...)

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Joint publication. Two or more organizations may co-publish a wiki. Use the city of the first organization found on the opening screens (or on "contact us", "history", or other links if no place information appears on the opening screens), as the place (more...)

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Multiple places of publication. If more than one place of publication is found, use the first one or the one set in the largest type or in bold type. Do not give multiple places. An alternative is to use the place of publication and publisher likely (more...)

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No place of publication can be found. If no place of publication can be found on the opening screens or elsewhere on the site but the place can be reasonably inferred (e.g., Chicago as the place for a publication of the American Medical Association), (more...)

Publisher for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Use for publisher the individual or organization issuing the wiki
  • Record the name of the publisher as it is found on the title page or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation appears
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a period

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Determining the publisher. Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the opening screens Look for the name after a copyright statement, e.g., copyright 2006 by the American Chemical Society or © Coastal Research Group Try to obtain it from a link (more...)

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Abbreviated words in publisher names. Abbreviate commonly used words in publisher names, if desired Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for Department Div. for Division Inst. (more...)

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Non-English names for publishers. Give publisher names in the roman alphabet (French, Spanish, Italian, etc.) in their original language Rome: Societa Editrice Universo Lisbon: Imprensa Medica Romanize names in Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew Sofia (more...)

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher. When citing publishers that are national bodies such as government agencies, if a nationality is not part of the name, place the country in parentheses after the name, using (more...)

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Joint publication. Two or more organizations may co-publish a wiki. Use the name of the first organization found on the opening screens (or on "contact us", "history", or other links if no publisher information appears on the opening screens), as the (more...)

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Multiple publishers. If more than one publisher is found on the opening screens, use the first one given or the one set in the largest type or bold type An alternative is to use the publisher likely to be most familiar to the audience of the reference (more...)

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No publisher can be found. If no publisher can be found, use [publisher unknown] ganfyd [wiki on the Internet]. [United Kingdom]: [publisher unknown]. [date unknown] -   [modified 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: (more...)

Date of Publication for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Give the beginning date, i.e., the date the wiki was created
  • Always give the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May 6
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date information with a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Locating the date of publication. When wikis do not clearly state the date the wiki began (and closed): Look for a link titled "About", "History", etc., at the top, bottom, or on the sidebar of the opening screens If the beginning date cannot be found (more...)

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Multiple years of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last years of publication by a hyphen. Do not shorten the second of the two years to the last two digits. 2002-2003 1997-1998 1999-2000 If months are given, place (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Date of publication and date of copyright. Some publications have both a date of publication and a date of copyright. A copyright date is identified by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Use only the date (more...)

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright. If no beginning date of publication can be found, use the earliest date of content/messages posted to the wiki If the neither the beginning date of the wiki nor the dates of the earliest content posted (more...)

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No date of creation is provided. If the date the wiki began cannot be determined but the date of the earliest (and latest if closed) messages/content posted to the wiki can be determined, place date information in square brackets HLWiki [Internet]. Giustini (more...)

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Wiki is no longer accepting contributions. If a wiki is closed, i.e., it is no longer accepting comments or contributions: Give the beginning and ending dates of the wiki Separate the two dates with a space, hyphen, space End date information with a (more...)

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Options for date of publication. It is not NLM policy, but the date of publication may follow the title and type of medium in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text references is used. Use only the year of publication (omitting months (more...)

Date of Update/Revision for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket
  • Use the word for update or revision provided, such as updated or modified
  • Always give the year of update/revision
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month and day of update/revision, if provided, after the year, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End update/revision information with a semicolon and a space

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Locating the date of update/revision. Wikis on the Internet are often updated or revised after initial presentation. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modified, revised, reviewed: At the top, bottom, or sidebar of the opening screens (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Both a date of update and a date of revision. Various words are used to show that the content of a wiki has been changed, including updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Use the wording supplied in the wiki Give all words expressing update/revision with (more...)

Examples for Date of Update/Revision

Date of Citation for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Date of Citation

  • Always include the date the wiki was seen on the Internet
  • Include the year month and day in that order, such as 2006 May 5
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • If a date of update/revision is given, place the date of citation after it and follow both dates with a right square bracket
  • If no date of update/revision is given, place citation date information in square brackets
  • End date information with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Citation

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Both a date of update/revision and a date of citation. Various words are used to show that the content of a wiki has been changed, including updated, modified, revised, reviewed. Begin with the date(s) of update/revision in the format year month day Use (more...)

Availability for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Availability

  • Begin with the phrase "Available from" followed by a colon and a space
  • Insert the entire Uniform Resource Locator (URL); do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components
  • End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation

Specific Rules for Availability

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Breaking long URLs. Some URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) are longer than one line. Retain the entire string as found when possible Break a URL at a slash if necessary Do not insert a hyphen or a hard line break into a URL

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URLs not directly addressable. The URL as displayed by the Web browser may not always be used to retrieve the wiki, i.e., it is not directly addressable. Always check to see if the URL is directly addressable If it is not, provide instructions for locating (more...)

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Multiple URLs. If more than one URL can be used to locate a wiki: Give the URL you used in locating the wiki As an option, give all known URLs, separated by a space, a semicolon, and a space Example: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page ; http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accueil (more...)

Examples for Availability

Language for a Wiki (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Wikis appearing in more than one language. If the contents of a wiki appear in several languages: Give the title in the first language found on the opening screens List all languages of publication after the Availability statement Capitalize the language (more...)

Notes for a Wiki (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any further information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements. System requirements describe the software and hardware needed to view and interact with the wiki. Begin with the phrase "System Requirements" followed by a colon and a space Use the publisher's wording; no standardization is needed (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. The notes element may be used to provide any further information. Begin by citing the wiki, then add the note. Examples of notes are: Names of any previous titles for the wiki Radiopaedia.org [Internet]. [place (more...)

Examples of Citations to Wikis

1. Standard citation to a Wiki

WIKISURGERY [Internet]. London: Surgical Associates Ltd. 2006 Sep -   [modified 2007 Jan 30; cited 2007 May 3]. Available from: http://www.wikisurgery.com/.

Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [Internet]. St. Petersburg (FL): Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2001 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/.

with optional content type

OpenWetWare [wiki on the Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division. 2005 May -   [modified 2007 Mar 4; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://openwetware.org/.

2. Wiki title with subtitle

Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [Internet]. St. Petersburg (FL): Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2001 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/.

WikiOmics: open bioinformatics [Internet]. [place unknown]: Wikiomics. 2005 Nov -   [cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://wikiomics.org/.

3. Wiki title with upper/lowercase letters and symbols

OpenWetWare [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division. 2005 May -   [modified 2007 Mar 4; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://openwetware.org/.

xanthusBase [Internet]. [Syracuse (NY): Syracuse University, Welch Laboratory]. c2006 -   [modified 2007 Mar 2; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.xanthusbase.org/.

ganfyd [Internet]. [United Kingdom]: [publisher unknown]. [date unknown] -   [modified 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.ganfyd.org/.

4. Wiki title in a language other than English

PflegeWiki [Internet]. Gelsenkirchen (Germany): Verein zur Forderung Freier Informationen fur die Pflege e.V. 2004 Aug -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://de.nursingwiki.org/. German.

with translation included

PflegeWiki [Nursing Wiki] [Internet]. Gelsenkirchen (Germany): Verein zur Forderung Freier Informationen fur die Pflege e.V. 2004 Aug -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://de.nursingwiki.org/. German.

5. Wiki in multiple languages

Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia [Internet]. St. Petersburg (FL): Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2001 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.wikipedia.org/. English, French, Japanese, Italian, Spanish, German, Polish, Dutch, Portuguese, Swedish.

6. Wiki with optional content type

OpenWetWare [wiki on the Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division. 2005 May -   [modified 2007 Mar 4; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://openwetware.org/.

ganfyd [wiki on the Internet]. [United Kingdom]: [publisher unknown]. [date unknown] -   [modified 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.ganfyd.org/.

PubDrug [wiki on the Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]. 2006 Nov 8 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.pubdrug.org/.

7. Wiki with editors or curators named

RxWiki [Internet]. Proctor KA, Staffa E, Roberts B, editors. Alexandria (VA): Community MTM Services, Inc. [2007?] -   [cited 2007 May 23]. Available from: http://www.rxwiki.com/.

Wikikidney.org [Internet]. Fadem SZ, curator. [Houston (TX)]: Nephron Information Center. [2002?] -   [modified 2007 Apr 25; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://wikikidney.org/.

AskDrWiki: a medical Wiki with the goal of creating a collective online memory for physicians, nurses, and medical students [Internet]. Civello K, Jefferson B, Bailey S, McWilliams M, editors. [place unknown]: Open Access Medical Informatics Group. 2006 Nov -   [modified 2007 May 3; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.askdrwiki.com/.

HLWiki [Internet]. Giustini D, Barsky E, Rowell G, Saunders J, Cho A, Stibravy R, curators. [Vancouver (BC)]: University of British Columbia. [2006 Aug] -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/.

8. Wiki with well known place of publication

The RHIO Wiki [Internet]. Washington: Center for Health Transformation. 2006 Aug 21 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.socialtext.net/rhiowiki/index.cgi

9. Wiki with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

OpenWetWare [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division. 2005 May -   [modified 2007 Mar 4; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://openwetware.org/.

PflegeWiki [Internet]. Gelsenkirchen (Germany): Verein zur Forderung Freier Informationen fur die Pflege e.V. 2004 Aug -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://de.nursingwiki.org/. German.

10. Wiki with place of publication inferred

Clinfowiki [Internet]. [Portland (OR)]: Dean F. Sittig. 2005 Jul 25 -   [cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.informatics-review.com/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

Student Doctor Network Wiki [Internet]. [Granite Bay (CA)]: Coastal Research Group. c1999-2007 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://studentdoctor.net/wiki//index.php/Main_Page

Flu Wiki [Internet]. [Virginia]: Melanie Mattson. 2005 Jun -   [modified 2007 Feb 21; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.fluwikie.com/.

ganfyd [wiki on the Internet]. [United Kingdom]: [publisher unknown]. [date unknown] -   [modified 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.ganfyd.org/.

11. Wiki with unknown place of publication

WikiOmics: open bioinformatics [Internet]. [place unknown]: Wikiomics. 2005 Nov -   [cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://wikiomics.org/.

AskDrWiki: a medical Wiki with the goal of creating a collective online memory for physicians, nurses, and medical students [Internet]. Civello K, Jefferson B, Bailey S, McWilliams M, editors. [place unknown]: Open Access Medical Informatics Group. 2006 Nov -   [modified 2007 May 3; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.askdrwiki.com/.

AIDS Wiki [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]. 2006 Jan -   [modified 2007 Apr 26; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.reviewingaids.org/awiki/.

12. Wiki with publisher having subsidiary division

OpenWetWare [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division. 2005 May -   [modified 2007 Mar 4; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://openwetware.org/.

COLAB: an open Collaborative Work Environment (CWE) to support networking among Communities of Practice [Internet]. Washington: General Services Administration (US), Intergovernmental Solutions Division. [date unknown] -   [edited 2007 May 1; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://colab.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?WikiHomePage#nid35OA

13. Wiki with government agency or other national body as publisher

COLAB: an open Collaborative Work Environment (CWE) to support networking among Communities of Practice [Internet]. Washington: General Services Administration (US), Intergovernmental Solutions Division. [date unknown] -   [edited 2007 May 1; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://colab.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?WikiHomePage#nid35OA

14. Wiki with individual as publisher

Flu Wiki [Internet]. [Virginia]: Melanie Mattson. 2005 Jun -   [modified 2007 Feb 21; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.fluwikie.com/.

Clinfowiki [Internet]. [Portland (OR)]: Dean F. Sittig. 2005 Jul 25 -   [cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.informatics-review.com/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

15. Wiki with joint publishers

The RHIO Wiki [Internet]. Washington: Center for Health Transformation. 2006 Aug 21 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.socialtext.net/rhiowiki/index.cgi Jointly published by eHealth Initiative and CHIME.

16. Wiki with publisher inferred

xanthusBase [wiki on the Internet]. [Syracuse (NY): Syracuse University, Welch Laboratory]. c2006 -   [modified 2007 Mar 2; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.xanthusbase.org/.

17. Wiki with unknown publisher

ganfyd [wiki on the Internet]. [United Kingdom]: [publisher unknown]. [date unknown] -   [modified 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.ganfyd.org/.

AIDS Wiki [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]. 2006 Jan -   [modified 2007 Apr 26; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.reviewingaids.org/awiki/.

18. Wiki with month/day included in date of publication

AskDrWiki: a medical Wiki with the goal of creating a collective online memory for physicians, nurses, and medical students [Internet]. Civello K, Jefferson B, Bailey S, McWilliams M, editors. [place unknown]: Open Access Medical Informatics Group. 2006 Nov -   [modified 2007 May 3; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.askdrwiki.com/.

Clinfowiki [Internet]. [Portland (OR)]: Dean F. Sittig. 2005 Jul 25 -   [cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://www.informatics-review.com/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

19. Wiki with date of copyright instead of date of publication

xanthusBase [wiki on the Internet]. [Syracuse (NY): Syracuse University, Welch Laboratory]. c2006 -   [modified 2007 Mar 2; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.xanthusbase.org/.

Student Doctor Network Wiki [Internet]. [Granite Bay (CA)]: Coastal Research Group. c1999-2007 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://studentdoctor.net/wiki//index.php/Main_Page

20. Wiki with date obtained from earliest additions

WikiMD [Internet]. Philadephia: Prab R. Tumpati. [2004] -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://69.60.110.99/wikimd/index.php?title=Main_Page

HLWiki [Internet]. Giustini D, Barsky E, Rowell G, Saunders J, Cho A, Stibravy R, curators. [Vancouver (BC)]: University of British Columbia. [2006 Aug] -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/.

21. Wiki with date estimated

Wikikidney.org [Internet]. Fadem SZ, curator. [Houston (TX)]: Nephron Information Center. [2002?] -   [modified 2007 Apr 25; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://wikikidney.org/.

RxWiki [Internet]. Proctor KA, Staffa E, Roberts B, editors. Alexandria (VA): Community MTM Services, Inc. [2007?] -   [cited 2007 May 23]. Available from: http://www.rxwiki.com/.

22. Wiki with unknown beginning date of publication

ganfyd [wiki on the Internet]. [United Kingdom]: [publisher unknown]. [date unknown] -   [modified 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.ganfyd.org/.

COLAB: an open Collaborative Work Environment (CWE) to support networking among Communities of Practice [Internet]. Washington: General Services Administration (US), Intergovernmental Solutions Division. [date unknown] -   [edited 2007 May 1; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://colab.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?WikiHomePage#nid35OA

HealthGrid [Internet]. [place unknown]: HealthGrid.org. [date unknown] -   [updated 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://wiki.healthgrid.org/.

23. Wiki with update/revision date

OpenWetWare [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division. 2005 May -   [modified 2007 Mar 4; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://openwetware.org/.

HealthGrid [Internet]. [place unknown]: HealthGrid.org. [date unknown] -   [updated 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://wiki.healthgrid.org/.

24. Wiki with supplemental note included

The RHIO Wiki [Internet]. Washington: Center for Health Transformation. 2006 Aug 21 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.socialtext.net/rhiowiki/index.cgi RHIO = Regional Health Information Organizations.

ganfyd [wiki on the Internet]. [United Kingdom]: [publisher unknown]. [date unknown] -   [modified 2007 May 4; cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.ganfyd.org/. GANFYD stands for Get A Note From Your Doctor.

WikiOmics: open bioinformatics [Internet]. [place unknown]: Wikiomics. 2005 Nov -   [cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://wikiomics.org/. Funded by the Godzik lab at the Burnham Institute for Medical Research in San Diego, CA.

OpenWetWare [wiki on the Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division. 2005 May -   [modified 2007 Mar 4; cited 2007 May 4]. Available from: http://openwetware.org/. Current support from the National Science Foundation Biological Databases & Informatics Program and MIT's Cell Decision Process Center.

RxWiki [Internet]. Proctor KA, Staffa E, Roberts B, editors. Alexandria (VA): Community MTM Services, Inc. [2007?] -   [cited 2007 May 23]. Available from: http://www.rxwiki.com/. Content accepted only from licensed pharmacists.

Radiopaedia.org [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]. 2005 Dec 6 -   [cited 2007 May 5]. Available from: http://www.radiopaedia.org/. Formerly called Wikiradiology.

25. A contribution to a wiki with authorship given

McEvoy D. The symptoms of IBS. c2006 [cited 2007 May 14]. In: WIKISURGERY [Internet]. London: Surgical Associates Ltd. 2006 -   . [5 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.wikisurgery.com/index.php?title=The_symptoms_of_IBS

with author affiliation

Gardner PP (Molecular Evolution Group, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark). RNA phylogenetics. 2006 Sep 11 [modified 2006 Oct 4; cited 2007 May 14]. In: WikiOmics: open bioinformatics [Internet]. [place unknown]: Wikiomics. 2005 Nov -   . [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://wikiomics.org/wiki/RNA_phylogenetics

26. A contribution to a wiki without authorship given

RxWiki [Internet]. Proctor KA, Staffa E, Roberts B, editors. Alexandria (VA): Community MTM Services, Inc. [2007?] -   . Celecoxib; [modified 2007 May 9; cited 2007 May 23]; [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://www.rxwiki.com/~medicati/index.php?title=Celebrex