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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 13Letters and Other Personal Communication

Created: .

See also:

Chapter 14 Manuscripts

Chapter 26 Electronic Mail and Discussion Forums

Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Letters and Other Personal Communication

The general format for a reference to a letter or other type of personal communication, including punctuation:

- letter:

Illustration for the general format for a reference to a letter.

- other personal communication:

Illustration for the general format for a reference to other type of personal communication.

Examples of Citations to Letters and Other Personal Communication

Documents generally available to scholars in an archive or a depository can usually be included in a reference list. However, many publishers do not permit placing any form of unpublished material in the end references. Most authorities recommend placing references to personal communications such as letters and conversations within the running text, not as formal end references. Include the nature and source of the cited information, using a term or terms to indicate clearly that no corresponding citation is in the reference list. Place the source information in parentheses. For example:

… and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see "Notes") while the few that …

Unless the letter resides in a library or other public archive, the author of a publication citing a letter must provide written permission from the cited person (if living) to the publisher or from the cited organization if it is carried in a document such as in internal memorandum that is not accessible to scholars. Acknowledge such permission in an "Acknowledgments" or a "Notes" section following the text of an article or at the end of a book's main text. Such statements may include additional details, such as the reason for the communication.

The rules below apply when a letter is included in a reference list rather than within the text as described above. Letters are similar to manuscripts in that they contain little information from which to construct a citation. They lack titles, and have no place of publication or publisher. References to letters differ from manuscripts in that they have a formal structure applied to clearly identify the author (initiator) and the recipient (receiver) of the communication. Because of the lack of other information to include in a citation to a letter, providing the full names for both author and recipient is recommended as well as any clarifying notes on its content.

For information on citing collections of letters, see Chapter 14 Manuscripts. For information on citing letters to the editors of journals, see Chapter 1A Journal Articles.

Most examples for citations to letters provided in this chapter are taken from the Modern Manuscripts Collection of the National Library of Medicine. Since the Collection is housed organizationally within the Library's History of Medicine Division, many items are historical in nature. However, the rules provided are applicable to contemporary material. Other types of personal communication, such as conversations, are not included in the examples for this chapter because they are so rarely seen in a reference list.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Letters and Other Personal Communication.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Letters and Other Personal Communication.

Citation Rules with Examples for Letters and Other Personal Communication

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Connective Phrase (R) | Recipient (R) | Recipient Affiliation (O) | Date (R) | Pagination (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author for Personal Communication (required)

General Rules for Author

  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for the person initiating the communication
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the document cited. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Follow the surname with a comma and a space
  • Enter the given (first) name and any middle name or initials; follow initials with periods
  • End author information with a period unless the Author Affiliation is given, then use a space

Specific Rules for Author

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton   becomes   Palmer-Canton, Estelle Ahmed El-Assmy   becomes   El-Assmy, (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit   becomes   Al Bassit, Lama Jiddeke M. van de Kamp   becomes   van de Kamp, Jiddeke M. Gerard (more...)

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Keep hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot   becomes   Lagrot, Jean-Louis Keep prefixes, prepositions, (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   Reed, James A. Kristine Schmidt, (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the given (first) name and any middle name or initials End initials and Jr or Sr with periods Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent T. (more...)

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Organization as author. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may serve as an author. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society   becomes   American (more...)

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Title of author given. If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Example: Blue, Rupert (Surgeon General, Bureau of the Public Health Service, Treasury Department, Washington, DC). Letter to: Wm. H. Welch (American Red (more...)

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Options for author names. The following format is not NLM practice for citing authors of letters, but is an acceptable option: Given (first) and middle names of authors may be reduced to initials. See Chapter 1 for instructions on handling names in this (more...)

Author Affiliation for Personal Communication (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the affiliation
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a period placed outside the parentheses

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for (more...)

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E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the letter Place the e-mail address inside the closing parenthesis for the author affiliation (more...)

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Titles in affiliations. If the author's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Example: Blue, Rupert (Surgeon General, Bureau of the Public Health Service, Treasury Department, Washington, DC). Letter to: Wm. H. Welch (American (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian province (see Appendix E), and the country name or ISO country (more...)

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Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries whenever possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

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No affiliation found. If no affiliation is found or the affiliation is incomplete but it can be determined from elsewhere in the letter or from knowledge of the writer, put the place name in square brackets Examples: Nightingale, Florence (115 Park Street, (more...)

Connective Phrase for Personal Communication (required)

General Rules for Connective Phrase

  • Use the phrase "Letter to", "Conversation with", or "Telephone conversation with" as appropriate
  • End the phrase with a colon and a space

Recipient for Personal Communication (required)

General Rules for Recipient

  • Enter the given (first) name and any middle name or initials of the person receiving the communication; follow initials with periods
  • Give the surname (family or last name)
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the document cited. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • End recipient information with a period unless the Recipient Affiliation is given, then use a space

Specific Rules for Recipient

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them. Keep hyphens in surnames Estelle Palmer-Canton Ahmed El-Assmy Keep particles, such as O', D', and L' Alan D. O'Brien James O. L'Esperance U. S'adeh Keep all other punctuation in surnames Charles (more...)

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Other surname rules. Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit Jiddeke M. van de Kamp Gerard de Pouvourville Keep compound surnames even if no hyphen appears Sergio Lopez Moreno Jaime Mier y Teran Virginie Halley des Fontaines Ignore diacritics, accents, (more...)

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle. Keep hyphens joining given (first or middle) names Jean-Louis Lagrot Keep prefixes, prepositions, or other particles D'Arcy Hart W. St. John Patterson De la Broquerie Fortier (more...)

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name. Omit degrees, titles, and honors such as M.D. following a personal name James A. Reed, M.D., F.R.C.S.   becomes   James A. Reed Kristine Schmidt, (more...)

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III. Place family designations of rank after the surname Omit any commas between the surname and the designation Follow Jr or Sr with a period Convert roman numerals to arabic ordinals Examples: Vincent (more...)

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Box 21

Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another (more...)

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Titles in recipient names. If the recipient's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Letter to: Rupert Blue (Surgeon General, Bureau of the Public Health Service, Treasury Department, Washington, DC). If the recipient's title is (more...)

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Organization as recipient. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may serve as the recipient of a letter. Omit "The" preceding an organizational name The American Cancer Society    (more...)

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Options for recipient names. The following format is not NLM practice for citing recipients, but is an acceptable option: Given (first) and middle names of recipients may be reduced to initials. See Chapter 1 for instructions on converting names to initials. Y (more...)

Recipient Affiliation for Personal Communication (optional)

General Rules for Recipient Affiliation

  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the affiliation in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from the recipient by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a period placed outside the parentheses

Specific Rules for Recipient Affiliation

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Box 25

Abbreviations in affiliations. Abbreviate commonly used words in affiliations, if desired. Follow all abbreviated words with a period. Examples: Acad. for Academy Assoc. for Association Co. for Company Coll. for College Corp. for Corporation Dept. for (more...)

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Box 26

E-mail address included. Follow the US state, Canadian province, or country of the author with a period and a space Insert the e-mail address as it appears in the letter Place the e-mail address within the closing parenthesis for the author affiliation (more...)

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Title in affiliations. If the recipient's title is given, place it at the beginning of the affiliation Letter to: Rupert Blue (Surgeon General, Bureau of the Public Health Service, Treasury Department, Washington, DC). If the recipient's title is given (more...)

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English. Begin with the department and name of the organization, followed by the city, the two-letter abbreviation for the US state or Canadian province (see Appendix E), and the country name or ISO country (more...)

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Box 29

Names for cities and countries not in English. Use the English form for names of cities and countries whenever possible. However, the name as found on the publication may always be used. Moskva   becomes   Moscow (more...)

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No affiliation found. If no affiliation is found or the affiliation is incomplete but it can be determined from elsewhere in the letter or from knowledge of the recipient, put the place name in square brackets Examples: Wells, Horace (Hartford, CT). (more...)

Date for Personal Communication (required)

General Rules for Date

  • Begin with the year
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month after the year, such as 2004 Mar
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters
  • Include the day after the month, such as 2004 Mar 3
  • End date information with a period

Specific Rules for Date

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Non-US forms for dates. Dates in US letters usually appear in the format month day, year. For example: August 23, 2005. Dates in other countries may appear in a variety of formats 2004/12/02 30.07.2004 2004-10-02 14 June 2004 15/06/2005 Enter the year (more...)

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Non-English names for months. Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Translate names of months into English

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Seasons instead of months. Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Translate names of seasons into English

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No date can be found. If a date cannot be found, but a date can be estimated from the content of the letter or in accompanying material, place a question mark after the estimated date and place date information in square brackets Bell, John ([Edinburgh, (more...)

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Options for date. It is not NLM policy, but the following is an acceptable option: The date for the personal communication may follow the author names in the list of references when the name-year system of in-text references is used.

Pagination for Personal Communication (optional)

General Rules for Pagination

  • If the pages of a letter are numbered, provide the total number of pages
  • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p
  • If the pages of a letter are not numbered, provide the total number of sheets of paper on which the letter appears
  • Follow the page total with the word leaf or leaves
  • End pagination information in both cases with a period

Specific Rules for Pagination

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Roman numerals used as page numbers. If the pages of a letter have roman numerals instead of the usual arabic numbers: Convert the roman numeral on the last page of the text to an arabic number Follow the number by "p." Place the number and "p." in square (more...)

Language for Personal Communication (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of communication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Examples for Language

Notes for Personal Communication (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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Name and location of a public archive. Information on a library or other public archive where the letter may be seen is helpful to the reader. Enter the phrase "Located at" followed by a colon and a space Give the name of the library or archive, preceded (more...)

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Restrictions on use. A library or other archive may place a variety of types of restrictions on the use of letters. For example, letters may only be available with an appointment or to scholars at the doctorate level. This information may be provided (more...)

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Other types of material to include in notes. Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself. Examples include: information on any material accompanying the letter Blue, Rupert (Surgeon General, US Public (more...)

Examples of Citations to Letters and Other Personal Communication

1. Standard citation to a letter

Anfinsen, Christian B. (Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD). Letter to: Cyril Ponnamperuma (University of Maryland, College Park, MD). 1991 Apr 23. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS C 496, Box 8, Folder 3.

Reed, Walter (Army Medical Museum, Washington, DC). Letter to: W.S. Halstead (Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD). 1985 Apr 10. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 200.

2. Letter with optional initials for author and recipient

Reed W. (Army Medical Museum, Washington, DC). Letter to: W.S. Halstead (Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD). 1985 Apr 10. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 200.

3. Letter providing only initials for author and recipient

Colt, P. (Rome, NY). Letter to: M. Goshall (Hartford, CT). 1809 Mar 4. 4 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 312.

4. Letter with a title for the recipient rather than a name

Mayard, T.F. (Department of State, Washington, DC). Letter to: Secretary of War (Washington, DC). 1888 Feb 16. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 269.

Wells, Horace (Hartford, CT). Letter to: Dr. Morton ([Boston, MA]). 1846 Oct 20. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 176.

with name added as title

Mayard, T.F. (Department of State, Washington, DC). Letter to: Secretary of War [William Endicott] (Washington, DC). 1888 Feb 16. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 269.

Wells, Horace (Hartford, CT). Letter to: Dr. Morton [William Thomas Morton] ([Boston, MA]). 1846 Oct 20. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 176.

5. Letter with organization as author

Mason Chemical Company (Philadelphia, PA). Letter to: Abram Claude (Annapolis, MD). 1897 Dec 24. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 283.

Joseph Eastman Sanitorium (Indianapolis, IN). Letter to: Wm. E. Lybrook (Young America, IN). 1904 Nov 17. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 358.

6. Letter with author's title included in affiliation

Blue, Rupert (Surgeon General, Bureau of the Public Health Service, Treasury Department, Washington, DC). Letter to: Wm. H. Welch (American Red Cross, Paris, FR). 1919 Mar 18. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS C 211.

Loper, Richard L. (General Manager, Guarantors Liability Indemnity Company of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA). Letter to: Dear Sirs. 1 leaf. [1895?]. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 274.

7. Letter with place inferred

Nightingale, Florence (115 Park Street, W, [London, GB]). Letter to: Marquis Townshend. 1864 Jul 27. 4 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 179.

Pina, Luciano (Santiago, Chile). Letter to: D.M. Arroyo de Veracruz ([Mexico]). 1845 Jun 26. 4 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 196. Spanish.

8. Letter with standard date

Wheaton, Levi (Providence, RI). Letter to: Moses Younglove (Cornwall, CT). 1800 Dec 18. 3 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 293.

9. Letter with date estimated

Bell, John ([Edinburgh, Scotland]). Letter to: Cadell and Davies, Book Sellers ([London, England]). [1793?]. 8 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 291.

Loper, Richard L. (General Manager, Guarantors Liability Indemnity Company of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA). Letter to: Dear Sirs. 1 leaf. [1895?]. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 274.

10. Letter with unnumbered pages

Wheaton, Levi (Providence, RI). Letter to: Moses Younglove (Cornwall, CT). 1800 Dec 18. 3 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 293.

11. Letter with numbered pages

Kerr, J. Auston (Chevy Chase, MD). Letter to: Ramon Cordoba Palacio (Medellin, Colombia). 1974 Nov 11. 11 p. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS C 456.

12. Letter in a language other than English

de Lucretiis, Gaetano (San Severo, Italy). Letter to: D. Biagio Michetelli (Puglia, Italy). 1807 Nov 13. 9 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS C 214. Italian.

Pina, Luciano (Santiago, Chile). Letter to: D.M. Arroyo de Veracruz ([Mexico]). 1845 Jun 26. 4 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 196. Spanish.

13. Letter with an accompaniment

Blue, Rupert (Surgeon General, US Public Health Service, Washington, DC). Letter to: Wm. H. Welch (American Red Cross, Paris, FR). 1919 Mar 18. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS C 211. Accompanied by: Blue's "Memorandum Relative to the Development of National and International Programs of Public Health."

Mayard, T.F. (Department of State, Washington, DC). Letter to: Secretary of War [William Endicott] (Washington, DC). 1888 Feb 16. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 269. Accompanied by: El Comerrio newsclipping written by Dr. David Matto.

14. Letter with note

Reed, Walter (Army Medical Museum, Washington, DC). Letter to: W.S. Halstead (Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD). 1985 Apr 10. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 200. Letter asking if Halsted could perform a hernia operation on the carpenter of the Army Medical Museum.

Wheaton, Levi (Providence, RI). Letter to: Moses Younglove (Cornwall, CT). 1800 Dec 18. 3 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 293. Wheaton thanks Younglove for a cowpox sample and describes his experiments with smallpox.

Kerr, J. Auston (Chevy Chase, MD). Letter to: Ramon Cordoba Palacio (Medellin, Colombia). 1974 Nov 11. 11 p. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS C 456. Contains reminiscences of Kerr's experiences in Colombia studying yellow fever for the Rockefeller Foundation in its laboratories from 1932 to 1938.

Nightingale, Florence (115 Park Street, W, [London, GB]). Letter to: Marquis Townshend. 1864 Jul 27. 4 leaves. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 179. Nightingale responds to Townshend's request on behalf of a Mrs. Montague for funds to support old nurses.

Wells, Horace (Hartford, CT). Letter to: Dr. Morton [William Thomas Morton] ([Boston, MA]). 1846 Oct 20. 1 leaf. Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 176. Comments on the first use of Morton's anesthesia device.

Hennen, John (Edinburgh, Scotland). Letter to: Dr. Duncan. [date unknown]. 9 p. Located at: History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W6 P3 v.1575. Observations on the cure of syphilis without mercury.

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