NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Obesity in Adults (US). Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 1998 Sep.

Cover of Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults

Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report.

Show details

Reference List

1.
Kuczmarski R J, Carrol M D, Flegal K M, Troiano R P. Varying body mass index cutoff points to describe overweight prevalence among U.S. adults: NHANES III (1988 to 1994) Obes Res. 1997;5:542–548. [PubMed: 9449138]
2.
Brown CD, Donato KA, Obarzanek, E, et al. Body mass index and prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Obes Res. 1998; submitted for publication.
3.
Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors of America. Society of Actuaries. Blood Pressure Study, 1979. Chicago: The Society; 1980.
4.
Stamler R, Stamler J, Riedlinger W F, Algera G, Roberts R H. Weight and blood pressure. Findings in hypertension screening of 1 million Americans. JAMA. 1978;240:1607–1610. [PubMed: 691146]
5.
Criqui M H, Mebane I, Wallace R B, Heiss G, Holdbrook M J. Multivariate correlates of adult blood pressures in nine North American populations: The Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Study. Prev Med. 1982;11:391–402. [PubMed: 7122431]
6.
Dyer A R, Elliott P. The INTERSALT study: relations of body mass index to blood pressure. INTERSALT Co-operative Research Group. J Hum Hypertens. 1989;3:299–308. [PubMed: 2810326]
7.
Westlund K, Nicolaysen R. Ten-year mortality and morbidity related to serum cholesterol. A follow-up of 3,751 men aged 40–49. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 1972;127:1–24. [PubMed: 4640618]
8.
Lew E A, Garfinkel L. Variations in mortality by weight among 750,000 men and women. J Chronic Dis. 1979;32:563–576. [PubMed: 468958]
9.
Larsson B, Bjorntorp P, Tibblin G. The health consequences of moderate obesity. Int J Obes. 1981;5:97–116. [PubMed: 6971814]
10.
Medalie J H, Papier C, Herman J B. et al. Diabetes mellitus among 10,000 adult men. I. 5-year incidence and associated variables. Isr J Med Sci. 1974;10:681–697. [PubMed: 4851353]
11.
Hubert H B, Feinleib M, McNamara P M, Castelli W P. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1983;67:968–977. [PubMed: 6219830]
12.
Rexrode K M, Hennekens C H, Willett W C. et al. A prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of stroke in women. JAMA. 1997;277:1539–1545. [PubMed: 9153368]
13.
Walker S P, Rimm E B, Ascherio A, Kawachi I, Stampfer M J, Willett W C. Body size and fat distribution as predictors of stroke among US men. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144:1143–1150. [PubMed: 8956626]
14.
Stampfer M J, Maclure K M, Colditz G A, Manson J E, Willett W C. Risk of symptomatic gallstones in women with severe obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:652–658. [PubMed: 1550039]
15.
Khare M, Everhart J E, Maurer K R, Hill M C. Association of ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) with gallstone disease in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141:S69.
16.
Cicuttini F M, Baker J R, Spector T D. The association of obesity with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in women: a twin study. J Rheumatol. 1996;23:1221–1226. [PubMed: 8823696]
17.
Hart D J, Spector T D. The relationship of obesity, fat distribution, and osteoarthritis in women in the general population: the Chingford Study. J Rheumatol. 1993;20:331–335. [PubMed: 8474072]
18.
Hochberg M C, Lethbridge-Cejku M, Scott W W Jr, Reichle R, Plato C C, Tobin J D. The association of body weight, body fatness and body fat distribution with osteoarthritis of the knee: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Rheumatol. 1995;22:488–493. [PubMed: 7783067]
19.
Millman R P, Carlisle C C, McGarvey S T, Eveloff S E, Levinson P D. Body fat distribution and sleep apnea severity in women. Chest. 1995;107:362–366. [PubMed: 7842762]
20.
Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1230–1235. [PubMed: 8464434]
21.
Shepard J W Jr. Hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and stroke in relation to obstructive sleep apnea. Clin Chest Med. 1992;13:437–458. [PubMed: 1521412]
22.
Bostick R M, Potter J D, Kushi L H. et al. Sugar, meat, and fat intake, and nondietary risk factors for colon cancer incidence in Iowa women (United States) Cancer Causes Control. 1994;5:38–52. [PubMed: 8123778]
23.
Chute C G, Willett W C, Colditz G A. et al. A prospective study of body mass, height, and smoking on the risk of colorectal cancer in women. Cancer Causes Control. 1991;2:117–124. [PubMed: 1873436]
24.
Garland C, Shekelle R B, Barrett-Connor E, Criqui M H, Rossof A H, Paul O. Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer: a 19-year prospective study in men. Lancet. 1985;1:307–309. [PubMed: 2857364]
25.
McGinnis J M, Foege W H. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993;270:2207–2212. [PubMed: 8411605]
26.
Broussard B A, Sugarman J R, Bachman-Carter K. et al. Toward comprehensive obesity prevention programs in Native American communities. Obes Res. 1995;3:2895–2975. [PubMed: 8581789]
27.
Najjar M F, Kuczmarski R J. Anthropometric data and prevalence of overweight for Hispanics: 1982-1984. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat [11] 1989;239:1–106. [PubMed: 2786659]
28.
World Health Organization. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1995;854:1– 452. [PubMed: 8594834]
29.
VanItallie TB, Lew EA. Overweight and Underweight. In: Lew EA, Gajewski J, eds. Medical Risks: Trends in Mortality by Age and Timed Elapsed. Vol 1. New York: Praeger; 1990: Chapter 13.
30.
VanItallie T B. Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:983–988. [PubMed: 4062130]
31.
Manson J E, Stampfer M J, Hennekens C H, Willett W C. Body weight and longevity. A reassessment. JAMA. 1987;257:353–358. [PubMed: 3795418]
32.
Troiano R P, Frongillo E A Jr, Sobal J, Levitsky D A. The relationship between body weight and mortality: a quantitative analysis of combined information from existing studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:63–75. [PubMed: 8788324]
33.
National Research Council. Committee on Diet and Health. Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1989.
34.
Forster J L, Jeffery R W, Schmid T L, Kramer F M. Preventing weight gain in adults: a pound of prevention. Health Psychol. 1988;7:515–525. [PubMed: 3215160]
35.
Lenfant C. NHLBI Clinical Guidelines: another look. Circulation. 1995;91:617–618. [PubMed: 7828283]
36.
Dickersin K, Min Y I, Meinert C L. Factors influencing publication of research results. Follow-up of applications submitted to two institutional review boards. JAMA. 1992;267:374–378. [PubMed: 1727960]
37.
Dickersin K. The existence of publication bias and risk factors for its occurrence. JAMA. 1990;263:1385–1389. [PubMed: 2406472]
38.
Dickersin K, Min Y I. Publication bias: the problem that won't go away. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993;703:135–146. [PubMed: 8192291]
39.
Allison D B, Faith M S, Gorman B S. Publication bias in obesity treatment trials? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:931–937. [PubMed: 8910098]
40.
Bray GA. Obesity in Perspective: a Conference. John E. Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences. Washington, DC: Govt Print Office; 1975. DHEW publication no. (NIH) 75–708.
41.
Bray G A. Obesity in America. An overview of the Second Fogarty International Center conference on obesity. Int J Obes. 1979;3:363–375. [PubMed: 43296]
42.
Health implications of obesity. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:1073–1077. [PubMed: 4062128]
43.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives: Washington, DC: Public Health Service; 1991. DHHS publication no. (PHS) 91–50213.
44.
Thomas PR, ed. Weighing the Options. Criteria for Evaluating Weight-Management Programs. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1995.
45.
Najjar M F, Rowland M. Anthropometric reference data and prevalence of overweight, United States, 1976-80. Vital Health Stat [11] 1987;238:1–73. [PubMed: 3424692]
46.
Wolf A M, Colditz G A. Social and economic effects of body weight in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:466S–469S. [PubMed: 8615344]
47.
Flynn M A, Nolph G B, Baker A S, Krause G. Aging in humans: a continuous 20-year study of physiologic and dietary parameters. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992;11:660–672. [PubMed: 1460180]
48.
Flegal K M, Carroll M D, Kuczmarski R J, Johnson C L. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:39–47. [PubMed: 9481598]
49.
Centers for Disease Control. Prevalence of overweight among adolescents—United States, 1988-91. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994;43:818–821. [PubMed: 7968998]
50.
McGarvey S T. Obesity in Samoans and a perspective on its etiology in Polynesians. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1586S–1594S. [PubMed: 2031491]
51.
Klatsky A L, Armstrong M A. Cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans living in northern California. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:1423–1428. [PMC free article: PMC1405692] [PubMed: 1951798]
52.
Welty T K, Lee E T, Yeh J. et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among American Indians. The Strong Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:269–287. [PubMed: 7631631]
53.
Leigh J P, Fries J F, Hubert H B. Gender and race differences in the correlation between body mass and education in the 1971-1975 NHANES I. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1992;46:191–196. [PMC free article: PMC1059548] [PubMed: 1645069]
54.
Kuczmarski R J. Prevalence of overweight and weight gain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:495S–502S. [PubMed: 1733118]
55.
Kuczmarski R J, Flegal K M, Campbell S M, Johnson C L. Increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991. JAMA. 1994;272:205–211. [PubMed: 8022039]
56.
Pi-Sunyer F X. Medical hazards of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:655–660. [PubMed: 8363192]
57.
Seidell J C. The impact of obesity on health status: some implications for health care costs. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19(Suppl 6):S13–S16. [PubMed: 8581114]
58.
Wolf A M, Colditz G A. Current estimates of the economic costs of obesity in the United States. Obes Res. 1998;6:97–106. [PubMed: 9545015]
59.
Wolf A M, Colditz G A. The cost of obesity: the U.S. perspective. Pharmacoeconomics. 1994;5:34–37. [PubMed: 10147247]
60.
Colditz G A. Economic costs of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:503S–507S. [PubMed: 1733119]
61.
Levy E, Levy P, Le Pen C, Basdevant A. The economic cost of obesity: the French situation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:788–792. [PubMed: 8589779]
62.
Segal L, Carter R, Zimmet P. The cost of obesity - the Australian perspective. Pharmacoeconomics. 1994;5:45–52. [PubMed: 10147249]
63.
Seidell J C. Obesity in Europe. Obes Res. 1995;3:89S–93S. [PubMed: 8581793]
64.
National Task Force on Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Towards Prevention of Obesity: Research Directions. Obes Res. 1994;2:571–584. [PubMed: 16355518]
65.
World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation of Obesity. Geneva, 3–5 June 1997.
66.
Winkleby M A, Feldman H A, Murray D M. Joint analysis of three U.S. community intervention trials for reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50:645–658. [PubMed: 9250263]
67.
Carleton R A, Lasater T M, Assaf A R, Feldman H A, McKinlay S. The Pawtucket Heart Health Program: community changes in cardiovascular risk factors and projected disease risk. Am J Public Health. 1995;85:777–785. [PMC free article: PMC1615494] [PubMed: 7762709]
68.
Davis SM. Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project. American Indian Program Recaptures Past to Improve Children's Future (Pathways). Heartmemo (Special Edition). 1996:25–27.
69.
Epstein L H, Valoski A, Wing R R, McCurley J. Ten-year followup of behavioral, family-based treatment for obese children. JAMA. 1990;264:2519–2523. [PubMed: 2232019]
70.
Pan X R, Li G W, Hu Y H. et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:537–544. [PubMed: 9096977]
71.
James W P. A public health approach to the problem of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19(Suppl 3):S37–S45. [PubMed: 8581075]
72.
Jeffery R W. Population perspectives on the prevention and treatment of obesity in minority populations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(6 Suppl):1621S–1624S. [PubMed: 2031496]
73.
Lewin-Epstein N. Determinants of regular source of health care in Black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and non-Hispanic White population. Med Care. 1991;29:543–557. [PubMed: 2046408]
74.
O'Hare WP. America's Minorities—The demographics of diversity. Population Bulletin. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, Inc.; 1992:47:4.
75.
Link B G, Phelan J C. Understanding sociodemographic differences in health—the role of fundamental social causes. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:471–473. [PMC free article: PMC1380543] [PubMed: 8604773]
76.
Ballantyne D, Devine B L, Fife R. Interrelation of age, obesity, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. BMJ. 1978;1:880–881. [PMC free article: PMC1603708] [PubMed: 638505]
77.
Brennan P J, Simpson J M, Blacket R B, McGilchrist C A. The effects of body weight on serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum urate, and systolic blood pressure. Aust N Z J Med. 1980;10:15–20. [PubMed: 6929670]
78.
Havlik R J, Hubert H B, Fabsitz R R, Feinleib M. Weight and hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98:855–859. [PubMed: 6847025]
79.
Loggie J M, Horan M J, Hohn A R, Gruskin A B, Dunbar J B, Havlik R J. Juvenile hypertension: highlights of a workshop. J Pediatr. 1984;104:657–663. [PubMed: 6716214]
80.
MacMahon S W, Blacket R B, Macdonald G J, Hall W. Obesity, alcohol consumption and blood pressure in Australian men and women. The National Heart Foundation of Australia Risk Factor Prevalence Study. J Hypertens. 1984;2:85–91. [PubMed: 6530540]
81.
Colditz G A, Willett W C, Stampfer M J. et al. Weight as a risk factor for clinical diabetes in women. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132:501–513. [PubMed: 2389754]
82.
Chan J M, Rimm E B, Colditz G A, Stampfer M J, Willett W C. Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:961–969. [PubMed: 7988316]
83.
Colditz G A, Willett W C, Rotnitzky A, Manson J E. Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122:481–486. [PubMed: 7872581]
84.
Ford E S, Williamson D F, Liu S. Weight change and diabetes incidence: findings from a national cohort of US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146:214–222. [PubMed: 9247005]
85.
Despres J P, Nadeau A, Tremblay A. et al. Role of deep abdominal fat in the association between regional adipose tissue distribution and glucose tolerance in obese women. Diabetes. 1989;38:304–309. [PubMed: 2645187]
86.
Haffner S M, Mitchell B D, Hazuda H P, Stern M P. Greater influence of central distribution of adipose tissue on incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in women than men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1312–1317. [PubMed: 2021139]
87.
Sparrow D, Borkan G A, Gerzof S G, Wisniewski C, Silbert C K. Relationship of fat distribution to glucose tolerance. Results of computed tomography in male participants of the Normative Aging Study. Diabetes. 1986;35:411–415. [PubMed: 3956878]
88.
Lundgren H, Bengtsson C, Blohme G, Lapidus L, Sjostrom L. Adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in relation to incidence of diabetes in women: results from a prospective population study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Int J Obes. 1989;13:413–423. [PubMed: 2793297]
89.
Ohlson L O, Larsson B, Svardsudd K. et al. The influence of body fat distribution on the incidence of diabetes mellitus. 13.5 years of follow-up of the participants in the study of men born in 1913. Diabetes. 1985;34:1055–1058. [PubMed: 4043554]
90.
Willett W C, Manson J E, Stampfer M J. et al. Weight, weight change, and coronary heart disease in women. Risk within the ‘normal’ weight range. JAMA. 1995;273:461–465. [PubMed: 7654270]
91.
Carman W J, Sowers M, Hawthorne V M, Weissfeld L A. Obesity as a risk factor for osteoarthritis of the hand and wrist: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139:119–129. [PubMed: 8296779]
92.
Felson D T, Anderson J J, Naimark A, Walker A M, Meenan R F. Obesity and knee osteoarthritis. The Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109:18–24. [PubMed: 3377350]
93.
Felson D T, Zhang Y, Anthony J M, Naimark A, Anderson J J. Weight loss reduces the risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women. The Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:535–539. [PubMed: 1543306]
94.
Felson D T. Weight and osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol Suppl. 1995;43:7–9. [PubMed: 7752143]
95.
McGoey B V, Deitel M, Saplys R J, Kliman M E. Effect of weight loss on musculoskeletal pain in the morbidly obese. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1990;72-B:322–323. [PubMed: 2138158]
96.
Chua W, Chediak A D. Obstructive sleep apnea. Treatment improves quality of life—and may prevent death Postgrad Med 1994. 95 123–126, 131, 135–138. [PubMed: 8309856]
97.
Loube D I, Loube A A, Mitler M M. Weight loss for obstructive sleep apnea: the optimal therapy for obese patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 1994;94:1291–1295. [PubMed: 7963174]
98.
Davies R J, Stradling J R. The relationship between neck circumference, radiographic pharyngeal anatomy, and the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Eur Respir J. 1990;3:509–514. [PubMed: 2376247]
99.
Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm E B, Colditz G A, Stampfer M J, Willett W C. Physical activity, obesity, and risk for colon cancer and adenoma in men. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122:327–334. [PubMed: 7847643]
100.
Graham S, Marshall J, Haughey B. et al. Dietary epidemiology of cancer of the colon in western New York. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128:490–503. [PubMed: 2843038]
101.
Klatsky A L, Armstrong M A, Friedman G D, Hiatt R A. The relations of alcoholic beverage use to colon and rectal cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128:1007–1015. [PubMed: 3189277]
102.
Lee I M, Paffenbarger R S Jr. Quetelet's index and risk of colon cancer in college alumni. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84:1326–1331. [PubMed: 1495102]
103.
Le Marchand L, Wilkens L R, Mi M P. Obesity in youth and middle age and risk of colorectal cancer in men. Cancer Causes Control. 1992;3:349–354. [PubMed: 1617122]
104.
Martinez ME, Giovannucci E, Spiegelman D, et al. Physical activity, body size, and colorectal cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol. 1996:146-S73.
105.
Must A, Jacques P F, Dallal G E, Bajema C J, Dietz W H. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:1350–1355. [PubMed: 1406836]
106.
Phillips R L, Snowdon D A. Dietary relationships with fatal colorectal cancer among Seventh-Day Adventists. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1985;74:307–317. [PubMed: 3856044]
107.
Giovannucci E, Colditz G A, Stampfer M J, Willett W C. Physical activity, obesity, and risk of colorectal adenoma in women (United States) Cancer Causes Control. 1996;7:253– 263. [PubMed: 8740738]
108.
Giovannucci E. Insulin and colon cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1995;6:164–179. [PubMed: 7749056]
109.
Chu S Y, Lee N C, Wingo P A, Senie R T, Greenberg R S, Peterson H B. The relationship between body mass and breast cancer among women enrolled in the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44:1197–1206. [PubMed: 1941014]
110.
Helmrich S P, Shapiro S, Rosenberg L. et al. Risk factors for breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1983;117:35–45. [PubMed: 6823951]
111.
Rosenberg L, Palmer J R, Miller D R, Clarke E A, Shapiro S. A case-control study of alcoholic beverage consumption and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;131:6–14. [PubMed: 2293754]
112.
Willett W C, Browne M L, Bain C. et al. Relative weight and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122:731–740. [PubMed: 4050766]
113.
Hunter D J, Willett W C. Diet, body size, and breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev. 1993;15:110–132. [PubMed: 8405195]
114.
Huang Z, Hankinson S E, Colditz G A. et al. Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. JAMA. 1997;278:1407–1411. [PubMed: 9355998]
115.
Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
116.
Hartz A J, Barboriak P N, Wong A, Katayaa K P, Rimm A A. The association of obesity with infertility and related menstrual abnormalities in women. Int J Obes. 1979;3:57–73. [PubMed: 528119]
117.
Rich-Edwards J W, Goldman M B, Willett W C. et al. Adolescent body mass index and infertility caused by ovulatory disorder. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;171:171–177. [PubMed: 8030695]
118.
Dunaif A. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992.
  • Garbaciak J A Jr, Richter M, Miller S, Barton J J. Maternal weight and pregnancy complications. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;152:238–245. [PubMed: 4003470]
  • 120.
    Keppel K G, Taffel S M. Pregnancy-related weight gain and retention: implications of the 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Am J Public Health. 1993;83:1100–1103. [PMC free article: PMC1695171] [PubMed: 8342716]
    121.
    Smith D E, Lewis C E, Caveny J L, Perkins L L, Burke G L, Bild D E. Longitudinal changes in adiposity associated with pregnancy. The CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. JAMA. 1994;271:1747–1751. [PubMed: 8196117]
    122.
    Johnson S R, Kolberg B H, Varner M W, Railsback L D. Maternal obesity and pregnancy. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1987;164:431–437. [PubMed: 3576419]
    123.
    Prentice A, Goldberg G. Maternal obesity increases congenital malformations. Nutr Rev. 1996;54:146–152. [PubMed: 8783881]
    124.
    Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA. Psychological aspects of human obesity. In: Bjorntorp P, Brodoff BN, eds. Obesity. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1992:352–360.
    125.
    Brownell KD, Fairburn C. Psychosocial consequences of obesity. In: Stunkard AJ, Sobal JG, eds. Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook. New York: Guilford Press; 1995:417–421.
    126.
    Wadden TA, Stunkard AJ. Psychosocial consequences of obesity and dieting-research and clinical findings. In: Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA, eds. Obesity Theory and Therapy. New York: Raven Press; 1993:163–177.
    127.
    Faith MS, Allison DB. Assessment of psychological status among obese persons. In: Thompson JK, ed. Body Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity: An Integrative Guide For Assessment and Treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1996:365–387.
    128.
    Allon N. The stigma of overweight in everyday life. In: Wolman BB, DeBerry S, eds. Psychological Aspects of Obesity: A Handbook. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1982:130–174.
    129.
    Feinleib M. Epidemiology of obesity in relation to health hazards. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:1019–1024. [PubMed: 4062117]
    130.
    Garrison R J, Castelli W P. Weight and 30-year mortality of men in the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:1006–1009. [PubMed: 4062116]
    131.
    Rabkin S W, Mathewson F A, Hsu P H. Relation of body weight to development of ischemic heart disease in a cohort of young North American men after a 26 year observation period: the Manitoba Study. Am J Cardiol. 1977;39:452–458. [PubMed: 842466]
    132.
    Cutler JA, Psaty BM, MacMahon S, Furberg CD. Public health issues in hypertension control: what has been learned from clinical trials. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, eds. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. New York: Raven Press; 1995:253–270.
    133.
    Denke M A, Sempos C T, Grundy S M. Excess body weight. An underrecognized contributor to high blood cholesterol levels in white American men. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1093–1103. [PubMed: 8481076]
    134.
    Denke M A, Sempos C T, Grundy S M. Excess body weight. An underrecognized contributor to dyslipidemia in white American women. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:401– 410. [PubMed: 8117172]
    135.
    Ashley F W Jr, Kannel W B. Relation of weight change to changes in atherogenic traits: the Framingham Study. J Chronic Dis. 1974;27:103–114. [PubMed: 4830839]
    136.
    Hershcopf R J, Elahi D, Andres R. et al. Longitudinal changes in serum cholesterol in man: an epidemiologic search for an etiology. J Chronic Dis. 1982;35:101–114. [PubMed: 7056835]
    137.
    Shekelle R B, Shryock A M, Paul O. et al. Diet, serum cholesterol, and death from coronary heart disease. The Western Electric study. N Engl J Med. 1981;304:65–70. [PubMed: 7442730]
    138.
    Manson J E, Colditz G A, Stampfer M J. et al. A prospective study of obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:882–889. [PubMed: 2314422]
    139.
    Reeder B A, Angel A, Ledoux M, Rabkin S W, Young T K, Sweet L E. Obesity and its relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in Canadian adults. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group. CMAJ. 1992;146:2009–2019. [PMC free article: PMC1490327] [PubMed: 1596850]
    140.
    Carlson L A, Lindstedt S. The Stockholm prospective study. 1. The initial values for plasma lipids. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1968;493:1–135. [PubMed: 5257749]
    141.
    Mann J I, Lewis B, Shepherd J. et al. Blood lipid concentrations and other cardiovascular risk factors: distribution, prevalence, and detection in Britain. BMJ. 1988;296:1702–1706. [PMC free article: PMC2546090] [PubMed: 3135884]
    142.
    National Cholesterol Education Program. Second Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel II) Circulation. 1994;89:1333–1445. [PubMed: 8124825]
    143.
    Glueck C J, Taylor H L, Jacobs D, Morrison J A, Beaglehole R, Williams O D. Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: association with measurements of body mass. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation. 1980;62(IV):62–69. [PubMed: 7418145]
    144.
    Garrison R J, Wilson P W, Castelli W P, Feinleib M, Kannel W B, McNamara P M. Obesity and lipoprotein cholesterol in the Framingham offspring study. Metabolism. 1980;29:1053–1060. [PubMed: 7432169]
    145.
    Anderson K M, Wilson P W F, Garrison R J, Castelli W P. Longitudinal and secular trends in lipoprotein cholesterol measurements in a general population sample: The Framingham offspring study. Atherosclerosis. 1987;68:59–66. [PubMed: 3500729]
    146.
    Law M R, Wald N J, Thompson S G. By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ. 1994;308:367–773. [PMC free article: PMC2539460] [PubMed: 8043072]
    147.
    Rydker P M, Hennekens C H, Stampfer M J. A prospective study of lipoprotein (a) and the risk for myocardial infarction. JAMA. 1993;270:2195–2199. [PubMed: 8411602]
    148.
    Miller B D, Alderman E L, Haskell W L, Fair J M, Krauss R M. Predominance of dense low-density lipoprotein particles predicts angiograpic benefit of therapy in the Stanford coronary risk intervention study. Circulation. 1996;94:2146–2153. [PubMed: 8901665]
    149.
    Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Moorjani S. et al. Small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles as a predictor of the risk of ischemic heart disease in men. Prospective results from the Quebec Cardiovascular Study. Circulation. 1997;95:69–75. [PubMed: 8994419]
    150.
    Reaven G M, Chen Y D, Jeppesen J, Maheux P, Krauss R M. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in individuals with small, dense low density lipoprotein particles. J Clin Invest. 1993;92:141–146. [PMC free article: PMC293550] [PubMed: 8325978]
    151.
    Selby J V, Austin M A, Newman B. et al. LDL subclass phenotypes and the insulin resistance syndrome in women. Circulation. 1993;88:381–387. [PubMed: 8339401]
    152.
    Tchernof A, Lamarche B, Prud'Homme D. et al. The dense LDL phenotype: association with plasma lipoprotein levels, visceral obesity, and hyperinsulinemia in men. Diabetes Care. 1996;19:629–637. [PubMed: 8725863]
    153.
    Knowler W C, Pettitt D J, Savage P J, Bennett P H. Diabetes incidence in Pima Indians: contributions of obesity and parental diabetes. Am J Epidemiol. 1981;113:144–156. [PubMed: 7468572]
    154.
    Lee E T, Howard B V, Savage P J. et al. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in three American Indian populations aged 45–74 years. The Strong Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:599–610. [PubMed: 8585996]
    155.
    Higgins M, Kannel W, Garrison R, Pinsky J, Stokes J. Hazards of obesity—the Framingham experience. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1988;723:23–36. [PubMed: 3164971]
    156.
    Donahue R P, Abbott R D. Central obesity and coronary heart disease in men. Lancet. 1987;2:1215. [PubMed: 2890843]
    157.
    Ducimetiere P, Richard J L. The relationship between subsets of anthropometric upper versus lower body measurements and coronary heart disease risk in middle-aged men. The Paris Prospective Study I. Int J Obes. 1989;13:111–121. [PubMed: 2703290]
    158.
    Lapidus L, Bengtsson C, Larsson B, Pennert K, Rybo E, Sjostrom L. Distribution of adipose tissue and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: a 12 year follow up of participants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. BMJ. 1984;289:1257–1261. [PMC free article: PMC1443498] [PubMed: 6437507]
    159.
    Larsson B, Svardsudd K, Welin L, Wilhelmsen L, Bjorntorp P, Tibblin G. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity, and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13 year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913. BMJ. 1984;288:1401–1404. [PMC free article: PMC1441047] [PubMed: 6426576]
    160.
    Bjorntorp P. The associations between obesity, adipose tissue distribution, and disease. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1988;723:121–134. [PubMed: 3293356]
    161.
    Fujioka S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, Tarui S. Contribution of intra-abdominal fat accumulation to the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in human obesity. Metabolism. 1987;36:54–59. [PubMed: 3796297]
    162.
    Shaper A G, Wannamethee S G, Walker M. Body weight: implications for the prevention of coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus in a cohort study of middle aged men. BMJ. 1997;314:1311–1317. [PMC free article: PMC2126570] [PubMed: 9158466]
    163.
    Tokunaga K, Matsuzawa Y, Kotani K. et al. Ideal body weight estimated from the body mass index with the lowest morbidity. Int J Obes. 1991;15:1–5. [PubMed: 2010254]
    164.
    Jousilahti P, Tuomilehto J, Vartiainen E, Pekkanen J, Puska P. Body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary mortality. 15-year follow-up of middle-aged men and women in eastern Finland. Circulation. 1996;93:1372–1379. [PubMed: 8641026]
    165.
    DiBianco R. The changing syndrome of heart failure: an annotated review as we approach the 21st century. J Hypertens Suppl. 1994;12:S73–S87. [PubMed: 7965278]
    166.
    Kannel W B, Cupples A. Epidemiology and risk profile of cardiac failure. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1988;2(Suppl 1):387–395. [PubMed: 3154646]
    167.
    Savage M P, Krolewski A S, Kenien G G, Lebeis M P, Christlieb A R, Lewis S M. Acute myocardial infarction in diabetes mellitus and significance of congestive heart failure as a prognostic factor. Am J Cardiol. 1988;62:665–669. [PubMed: 3421162]
    168.
    Eriksson H, Svardsudd K, Larsson B. et al. Risk factors for heart failure in the general population: the study of men born in 1913. Eur Heart J. 1989;10:647–656. [PubMed: 2788575]
    169.
    Eriksson H, Wilhelmsen L, Caidahl K, Svardsudd K. Epidemiology and prognosis of heart failure. Z Kardiol. 1991;80(Suppl 8):1–6. [PubMed: 1796625]
    170.
    Shimizu M, Isogai Y. Heart failure due to metabolic heart disorders. Nippon Rinsho. 1993;51:1362–1366. [PubMed: 8331805]
    171.
    Urbina E M, Gidding S S, Bao W, Pickoff A S, Berdusis K, Berenson G S. Effect of body size, ponderosity, and blood pressure on left ventricular growth in children and young adults in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Circulation. 1995;91:2400–2406. [PubMed: 7729027]
    172.
    Alpert M A, Hashimi M W. Obesity and the heart. Am J Med Sci. 1993;306:117–123. [PubMed: 8362892]
    173.
    Garavaglia G E, Messerli F H, Nunez B D, Schmieder R E, Grossman E. Myocardial contractility and left ventricular function in obese patients with essential hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 1988;62:594–597. [PubMed: 3414551]
    174.
    Ritter M M, Schraudolph M, Richter W O, Herbert M, Wiebecke B, Schwandt P. Obesity, heart failure and pulmonary insufficiency in a 26-year-old female. Med Klin. 1990;85:371–375. [PubMed: 2377148]
    175.
    Huang C, Ross P D, Lydick E, Wasnich R D. Factors associated with joint pain among postmenopausal women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:349–354. [PubMed: 9152735]
    176.
    Williams R A, Foulsham B M. Weight reduction in osteoarthritis using phentermine. Practitioner. 1981;225:231–232. [PubMed: 7022428]
    177.
    Garfinkel L. Overweight and mortality. Cancer. 1986;58:1826–1829. [PubMed: 3756807]
    178.
    Williamson D F, Madans J, Pamuk E, Flegal K M, Kendrick J S, Serdula M K. A prospective study of childbearing and 10-year weight gain in US white women 25 to 45 years of age. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:561–569. [PubMed: 7951478]
    179.
    Cnattingius S, Bergstrom R, Lipworth L, Kramer M S. Prepregnancy weight and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:147–152. [PubMed: 9428815]
    180.
    Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1994.
    181.
    Cogswell M E, Serdula M K, Hungerford D W, Yip R. Gestational weight gain among average-weight and overweight women—what is excessive? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:705–712. [PubMed: 7856711]
    182.
    Institute of Medicine. Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I, Weight Gain: Part II, Nutrient Supplements. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990.
    183.
    O'Neil PM, Jarrell MP. Psychological aspects of obesity and dieting. In: Wadden TA, Van Itallie TB, eds. Treatment Of The Seriously Obese Patient. New York: Guilford Press; 1992:252-270.
    184.
    Jarvie G J, Lahey B B, Graziano W, Framer E. Childhood obesity and social stigma: what we know and what we don't know. Dev Rev. 1983;3:237–273.
    185.
    DeJong W, Kleck RE. The Social Psychological Effects of Overweight. In: Herman CP, Zanna MP, Higgins ET, eds. Physical Appearance, Stigma, and Social Behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum; 1986:65–88.
    186.
    Goodman N, Dornbusch S M, Richardson S A, Hastof A H. Variant reactions to physical disabilities. Amer Sociolo Rev. 1963;28:429–435.
    187.
    Lerner R M, Gellert E. Body build identification, preference, and aversion in children. Dev Psychol. 1969;5:456–462.
    188.
    Richardson S A, Hastorf A H, Goodman N, Dornbusch S M. Cultural uniformity in reaction to physical disabilities. Am Soc Rev. 1961;26:241–247.
    189.
    Staffieri J R. Body build and behavioral expectancies in young females. Dev Psychol. 1972;6:125–127.
    190.
    Staffieri J R. A study of social stereotype of body image in children. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1967;7:101–104. [PubMed: 6052651]
    191.
    Lerner R M, Korn S J. The development of body build stereotypes in males. Child Dev. 1972;43:908–920. [PubMed: 5056613]
    192.
    Blumberg P, Mellis L P. Medical students' attitudes toward the obese and the morbidly obese. Int J Eat Disord. 1985;4:169–175.
    193.
    Maddox G L, Liederman V. Overweight as a social disability with medical implications. J Med Educ. 1969;44:214–220. [PubMed: 5774591]
    194.
    Rand C S, Macgregor A M. Morbidly obese patients' perceptions of social discrimination before and after surgery for obesity. South Med J. 1990;83:1390–1395. [PubMed: 2251527]
    195.
    Crandall C S, Biernat M. The ideology of anti-fat attitudes. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1990;20:227–243.
    196.
    Maddox G L, Back K W, Liederman W R. Overweight as social deviance and disability. J Health Soc Behav. 1968;9:287–298. [PubMed: 5706544]
    197.
    Larkin J C, Pines H A. No fat persons need apply: experimental studies of the overweight stereotype and hiring preference. Sociology of Work and Occupations. 1979;6:312–327.
    198.
    Pingitore R, Dugoni B L, Tindale R S, Spring B. Bias against overweight job applicants in a simulated employment interview. J Appl Psychol. 1994;79:909–917. [PubMed: 7852208]
    199.
    Roe D A, Eickwort K R. Relationships between obesity and associated health factors with unemployment among low income women J Am Med Womens Assoc 1976. 31 193–194, 198–199, 203–204. [PubMed: 180078]
    200.
    Canning H, Mayer J. Obesity: its possible effect on college acceptance. N Eng J Med. 1966;275:1172–1174.
    201.
    Crandall C S. Do heavy-weight students have more difficulty paying for college? Personality Soc Psychol Bull. 1991;17:606–611.
    202.
    Sargent J D, Blanchflower D G. Obesity and stature in adolescence and earnings in young adulthood. Analysis of a British birth cohort. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:681– 687. [PubMed: 8019620]
    203.
    Karris L. Prejudice against obese renters. J Soc Psych. 1977;101:159–160.
    204.
    Gortmaker S L, Must A, Perrin J M, Sobol A M, Dietz W H. Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1008–1012. [PubMed: 8366901]
    205.
    Massara E B, Stunkard A J. A method of quantifying cultural ideals of beauty and the obese. Int J Obes. 1979;3:149–152. [PubMed: 528126]
    206.
    Crandall C S, Martinez R. Culture, ideology, and antifat attitudes. Personality Soc Psychol Bull. 1996;22:1165–1176.
    207.
    Striegel-Moore R, Rodin J. The influences of psychological variables in obesity. In: Brownell KD, Foreyt JP, eds. Handbook of Eating Disorders: Physiology, Psychology, and Treatment of Obesity, Anorexia, and Bulimia. New York: Basic Books; 1986:99–121.
    208.
    Wadden T A, Stunkard A J. Psychopathology and obesity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987;499:55–65. [PubMed: 3300493]
    209.
    Lapidus L, Bengtsson C, Hallstrom T, Bjorntorp P. Obesity, adipose tissue distribution and health in women—results from a population study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Appetite. 1989;12:25–35. [PubMed: 2789494]
    210.
    Lissau I, Sorensen T I. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood. Lancet. 1994;343:324–327. [PubMed: 7905145]
    211.
    Sullivan M, Karlsson J, Sjostrom L. et al. Swedish obese subjects (SOS)—an intervention study of obesity. Baseline evaluation of health and psychosocial functioning in the first 1743 subjects examined. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:503–512. [PubMed: 8220652]
    212.
    Friedman M A, Brownell K D. Psychological correlates of obesity: moving to the next research generation. Psychol Bull. 1995;117:3–20. [PubMed: 7870862]
    213.
    Stunkard A J, Rush J. Dieting and depression reexamined. A critical review of reports of untoward responses during weight reduction for obesity. Ann Intern Med. 1974;81:526– 533. [PubMed: 4606433]
    214.
    Prather R C, Williamson D A. Psychopathology associated with bulimia, binge eating, and obesity. Int J Eat Disord. 1988;7:177–184.
    215.
    Fitzgibbon M L, Stolley M R, Kirschenbaum D S. Obese people who seek treatment have different characteristics than those who do not seek treatment. Health Psychol. 1993;12:342–345. [PubMed: 8223357]
    216.
    Gormally J, Black S, Daston S, Rardin D. The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addict Behav. 1982;7:47–55. [PubMed: 7080884]
    217.
    Loro A D Jr, Orleans C S. Binge eating in obesity: preliminary findings and guidelines for behavioral analysis and treatment. Addict Behav. 1981;6:155–166. [PubMed: 6943912]
    218.
    Marcus M D, Wing R R, Fairburn C G. Cognitive treatment of binge eating versus behavioral weight control in the treatment of binge eating disorder. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1995;17:S090.
    219.
    Spitzer R L, Devlin M, Walsh B T. et al. Binge eating disorder: a multisite field trial of the diagnostic criteria. Int J Eat Disord. 1992;11:191–203.
    220.
    Yanovski S Z, Gormally J F, Leser M S, Gwirtsman H E, Yanovski J A. Binge eating disorder affects outcome of comprehensive very-low-calorie diet treatment. Obes Res. 1994;2:205–212. [PubMed: 16353422]
    221.
    Spitzer R L, Yanovski S, Wadden T. et al. Binge eating disorder: its further validation in a multisite study. Int J Eat Disord. 1993;13:137–153. [PubMed: 8477283]
    222.
    Wilfley D E, Agras W S, Telch C F. et al. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy and group interpersonal psychotherapy for the nonpurging bulimic individual: a controlled comparison. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993;61:296–305. [PubMed: 8473584]
    223.
    Wilfley D E, Cohen L R. Psychological treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1997;33:437–453. [PubMed: 9550890]
    224.
    Yanovski S Z. Binge eating disorder: Current knowledge and future directions. Obes Res. 1993;1:306–324. [PubMed: 16350580]
    225.
    Yanovski S Z, Nelson J E, Dubbert B K, Spitzer R L. Association of binge eating disorder and psychiatric comorbidity in obese subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:1472–1479. [PubMed: 8379549]
    226.
    Wilfley D E, Pike K M, Striegel-Moore R. Toward an integrated model of risk for binge eating disorder. J Gender Cult Health. 1997;2:1–32.
    227.
    Fairburn CG, Wilson GT. Binge Eating: Nature, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: Guilford Press; 1993.
    228.
    Castonguay L G, Eldredge K L, Agras W S. Binge eating disorder: current state and future directions. Clini Psychol Rev. 1995;15:865–890.
    229.
    Striegel-Moore R H, Wilson G T, Wilfley D E, Elder K A, Brownell K D. Binge eating in an obese community sample. Int J Eat Disord. 1998;23:27–37. [PubMed: 9429916]
    230.
    Telch C F, Agras W S, Rossiter E M. Binge eating increases with increasing adiposity. Int J Eat Disord. 1988;7:115–119.
    231.
    Kenardy J, Arnow B, Agras W S. The aversiveness of specific emotional states associated with binge-eating in obese subjects. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1996;30:839–844. [PubMed: 9034475]
    232.
    Marcus M D, Wing R R, Ewing L, Kern E, Gooding W, McDermott M. Psychiatric disorders among obese binge eaters. Int J Eat Disord. 1990;9:69–77.
    233.
    Marcus M D, Wing R R, Hopkins J. Obese binge eaters: affect, cognitions, and response to behavioral weight control. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:433–439. [PubMed: 3397436]
    234.
    Molinari E, Ragazzoni P, Morosin A. Psychopathology in obese subjects with and without binge-eating disorder and in bulimic subjects. Psychol Rep. 1997;80:1327–1335. [PubMed: 9246897]
    235.
    Mussell M P, Mitchell J E, de Zwaan M, Crosby R D, Seim H C, Crow S J. Clinical characteristics associated with binge eating in obese females: a descriptive study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:324–331. [PubMed: 8680459]
    236.
    Specker S, de Zwaan M, Raymond N, Mitchell J. Psychopathology in subgroups of obese women with and without binge eating disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1994;35:185–190. [PubMed: 8045108]
    237.
    Brody M L, Walsh B T, Devlin M J. Binge eating disorder: reliability and validity of a new diagnostic category. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1994;62:381–386. [PubMed: 8201077]
    238.
    de Zwaan M, Nutzinger D O, Schoenbeck G. Binge eating in overweight women. Compr Psychiatry. 1992;33:256–261. [PubMed: 1643867]
    239.
    Kuehnel R H, Wadden T A. Binge eating disorder, weight cycling, and psychopathology. Int J Eat Disord. 1994;15:321–329. [PubMed: 8032347]
    240.
    Keefe P H, Wyshogrod D, Weinberger E, Agras W S. Binge eating and outcome of behavioral treatment of obesity: a preliminary report. Behav Res Ther. 1984;22:319–321. [PubMed: 6590036]
    241.
    Garner D M, Wooley S C. Confronting the failure of behavioral and dietary treatments for obesity. Clinl Psychol Rev. 1991;11:729–780.
    242.
    Telch C F, Agras W S. The effects of a very low-calorie diet on binge eating. Behav Therapy. 1993;24:177–194.
    243.
    Yanovski S Z, Sebring N G. Recorded food intake of obese women with binge eating disorder before and after weight loss. Int J Eat Disord. 1994;15:135–150. [PubMed: 8173559]
    244.
    Cash T F, Hicks K L. Being fat versus thinking fat: relationships with body image, eating behaviors, and well-being. Cogni Ther Res. 1990;14:327–341.
    245.
    Collins J K. Methodology for the objective measurement of body image. Int J Eat Disord. 1987;6:393–399.
    246.
    Collins J K, Beumont P J, Touyz S W, Krass J. et al. Variability in body shape, perception in anorexic, bulimic, obese, and control subjects. Int J Eat Disord. 1987;6:633–638.
    247.
    Gardner R M, Martinez R, Sandoval Y. Obesity and body image: an evaluation of sensory and non-sensory components. Psychol Med. 1987;17:927–932. [PubMed: 3432466]
    248.
    Glucksman M L, Hirsch J. The response of obese patients to weight reduction. 3. The perception of body size. Psychosom Med. 1969;31:1–7. [PubMed: 5775853]
    249.
    Garner D M, Garfinkel P E, Stancer H C, Moldofsky H. Body image disturbances in anorexia nervosa and obesity. Psychosom Med. 1976;38:327–336. [PubMed: 981491]
    250.
    Grilo C M, Wilfley D E, Brownell K D, Rodin J. Teasing, body image, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of obese women. Addict Behav. 1994;19:443–450. [PubMed: 7992678]
    251.
    Mussell M P, Peterson C B, Weller C L, Crosby R D, de Zwaan M, Mitchell J E. Differences in body image and depression among obese women with and without binge eating disorder. Obes Res. 1996;4:431–439. [PubMed: 8885207]
    252.
    Stunkard A, Mendelson M. Obesity and the body image. I. Characteristics of disturbances in the body image of some obese persons. Am J Psychiatry. 1967;123:1296–1300. [PubMed: 6021701]
    253.
    Stunkard A, Burt V. Obesity and the body image. II. Age at onset of disturbances in the body image. Am J Psychiatry. 1967;123:1443–1447. [PubMed: 6067060]
    254.
    Cash TF. The psychology of physical appearance: aesthetics, attributes, and images. In: Cash TF, Pruzinsky T, eds. Body Images: Development, Deviance, and Change. New York: Guilford Press, 1990:51–79.
    255.
    Tiggemann M, Rothblum E D. Gender differences in social consequences of perceived overweight in the United States and Australia. Sex Roles. 1988;18:75–86.
    256.
    Rosen JC. Improving body image in obesity. In: Thompson JK, ed. Body Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1996:425–440.
    257.
    Kumanyika SK, Morssink CB. Cultural appropriateness of weight management programs. In: Dalton S, ed. Overweight and Weight Management: The Health Professional's Guide To Understanding and Practice. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers; 1997:69–103.
    258.
    Childress A C, Brewerton T D, Hodges E L, Jarrell M P. The Kids' Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS): a study of middle school students. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1993;32:843–850. [PubMed: 8340308]
    259.
    Kumanyika S, Wilson J F, Guilford-Davenport M. Weight-related attitudes and behaviors of black women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93:416–422. [PubMed: 8454809]
    260.
    Powell A D, Kahn A S. Racial differences in women's desires to be thin. Int J Eat Disord. 1995;17:191–195. [PubMed: 7757101]
    261.
    Striegel-Moore R H, Schreiber G B, Pike K M, Wilfley D E, Rodin J. Drive for thinness in black and white preadolescent girls. Int J Eat Disord. 1995;18:59–69. [PubMed: 7670444]
    262.
    Desmond S M, Price J H, Hallinan C, Smith D. Black and white adolescents' perceptions of their weight. J Sch Health. 1989;59:353–358. [PubMed: 2811315]
    263.
    Kemper K A, Sargent R G, Drane J W, Valois R F, Hussey J W. Black and white females' preceptions of ideal body size and social norms. Obes Res. 1994;2:117–126. [PubMed: 16353613]
    264.
    Rand C S, Kuldau J M. Morbid obesity: a comparison between a general population and obesity surgery patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:657–661. [PubMed: 8281224]
    265.
    Stevens J, Kumanyika S K, Keil J E. Attitudes toward body size and dieting: differences between elderly black and white women. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:1322–1325. [PMC free article: PMC1615469] [PubMed: 8059896]
    266.
    Wilfley D E, Schreiber G B, Pike K M, Striegel-Moore R H, Wright D J, Rodin J. Eating disturbance and body image: a comparison of a community sample of adult black and white women. Int J Eat Disord. 1996;20:377–387. [PubMed: 8953325]
    267.
    Rucker C E, Cash T F. Body images, body-size perceptions, and eating behaviors among African-American and white college women. Int J Eating Disord. 1992;12:291–300.
    268.
    Schreiber G G, Robins M, Striegel-Moore R, Obarzanek E, Morrison J A, Wright D J. Weight modification efforts reported by black and white preadolescent girls: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Pediatrics. 1996;98:63–70. [PubMed: 8668414]
    269.
    Rosen J C, Gross J. Prevalence of weight reducing and weight gaining in adolescent girls and boys. Health Psychol. 1987;6:131–147. [PubMed: 3470177]
    270.
    Gittelsohn J, Harris S B, Thorne-Lyman A L, Hanley A J, Barnie A, Zinman B. Body image concepts differ by age and sex in an Ojibway-Cree community in Canada. J Nutr. 1996;126:2990–3000. [PubMed: 9001366]
    271.
    Cooper R S, Ford E. Comparability of risk factors for coronary heart disease among blacks and whites in the NHANES-I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Ann Epidemiol. 1992;2:637–645. [PubMed: 1342315]
    272.
    Folsom A R, Burke G L, Byers C L. et al. Implications of obesity for cardiovascular disease in blacks: the CARDIA and ARIC studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1604S–1611S. [PubMed: 2031493]
    273.
    Fujimoto W Y, Newell-Morris L L, Grote M, Bergstrom R W, Shuman W P. Visceral fat obesity and morbidity: NIDDM and atherogenic risk in Japanese-American men and women. Int J Obes. 1991;15(Suppl2):41–44. [PubMed: 1794937]
    274.
    Galanis D J, McGarvey S T, Sobal J, Bausserman L, Levinson P D. Relations of body fat and fat distribution to the serum lipid, apolipoprotein and insulin concentrations of Samoan men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:731–738. [PubMed: 8589767]
    275.
    Haffner S M, Diehl A K, Stern M P, Hazuda H P. Central adiposity and gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129:587–595. [PubMed: 2916552]
    276.
    Havas S, Fujimoto W, Close N, McCarter R, Keller J, Sherwin R. The NHLBI workshop on Hypertension in Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and Asian/Pacific Islander Americans. Public Health Rep. 1996;111:451–458. [PMC free article: PMC1381791] [PubMed: 8837635]
    277.
    Howard B V, Lee E T, Cowan L D. et al. Coronary heart disease prevalence and its relation to risk factors in American Indians. The Strong Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:254–268. [PubMed: 7631630]
    278.
    Lipton R B, Liao Y, Cao G, Cooper R S, McGee D. Determinants of incident non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among blacks and whites in a national sample. The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;138:826–839. [PubMed: 8237971]
    279.
    Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Life Sciences Research. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: Interagency Board for Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research; 1995.
    280.
    Ettinger W H, Wahl P W, Kuller L H. et al. Lipoprotein lipids in older people. Results from the Cardiovascular Health Study. The CHS Collaborative Research Group. Circulation. 1992;86:858–869. [PubMed: 1516198]
    281.
    Neser W B, Thomas J, Semenya K, Thomas D J, Gillum R F. Obesity and hypertension in a longitudinal study of black physicians: the Meharry Cohort Study. J Chronic Dis. 1986;39:105–113. [PubMed: 3944222]
    282.
    Schmidt-Nowara W W, Coultas D B, Wiggins C, Skipper B E, Samet J M. Snoring in a Hispanic-American population. Risk factors and association with hypertension and other morbidity. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:597–601. [PubMed: 2310278]
    283.
    Warne D K, Charles M A, Hanson R L. et al. Comparison of body size measurements as predictors of NIDDM in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:435–439. [PubMed: 7497850]
    284.
    Wei M, Gaskill S P, Haffner S M, Stern M P. Waist circumference as the best predictor of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) compared to body mass index, waist/hip ratio, and other anthropometric measurements in Mexican Americans—a 7-year prospective study. Obes Res. 1997;5:16–23. [PubMed: 9061711]
    285.
    Lee I M, Manson J E, Hennekens C H, Paffenbarger R S Jr. Body weight and mortality. A 27-year follow-up of middle-aged men. JAMA. 1993;270:2823–2828. [PubMed: 8133621]
    286.
    Allison D B, Faith M S, Heo M, Kotler D P. Hypothesis concerning the U-shaped relation between body mass index and mortality. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146:339–349. [PubMed: 9270413]
    287.
    Stevens J, Cai J, Pamuk E R, Williamson D F, Thun M J, Wood J L. The effect of age on the association between body-mass index and mortality. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1–7. [PubMed: 9414324]
    288.
    Diehr P, Bild D E, Harris T B, Duxbury A, Siscovick D, Rossi M. Body mass index and mortality in nonsmoking older adults: The cardiovascular health study. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:623–629. [PMC free article: PMC1508430] [PubMed: 9551005]
    289.
    Cornoni-Huntley J C, Harris T B, Everett D F. et al. An overview of body weight of older persons, including the impact on mortality. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I—Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44:743–753. [PubMed: 1941025]
    290.
    Harris T, Cook E F, Garrison R, Higgins M, Kannel W, Goldman L. Body mass index and mortality among nonsmoking older persons. The Framingham Heart Study. JAMA. 1988;259:1520–1524. [PubMed: 3339789]
    291.
    Baumgartner R N, Heymsfield S B, Roche A F. Human body composition and the epidemiology of chronic disease. Obes Res. 1995;3:73–95. [PubMed: 7712363]
    292.
    Losonczy K G, Harris T B, Cornoni-Huntley J. et al. Does weight loss from middle age to old age explain the inverse weight mortality relation in old age? Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141:312–321. [PubMed: 7840109]
    293.
    Fried L P, Kronmal R A, Newman A B. et al. Risk factors for 5-year mortality in older adults (for the Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group) JAMA. 1998;279:585–592. [PubMed: 9486752]
    294.
    Folsom A R, Kaye S A, Sellers T A. et al. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women. JAMA. 1993;269:483–487. [PubMed: 8419667]
    295.
    Willett W C, Stampfer M, Manson J, VanItallie T. New weight guidelines for Americans: justified or injudicious? Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1102–1103. [PubMed: 2021120]
    296.
    Roche A F. Sarcopenia: a critical review of its measurements and health-related significance in the middle-aged and elderly. Am J Hum Biol. 1994;6:33–42.
    297.
    Durazo-Arvizu R A, McGee D L, Cooper R S, Liao Y, Luke A. Mortality and optimal body mass index in a sample of the U.S. population. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147:739–749. [PubMed: 9554415]
  • Sorkin J D ,, Zonderman A B, Costa P T J r ,, Andres R. Twenty year follow-up of the NHANES I cohort: tests of methodologic hypotheses. Obes Res. 1996;4(Suppl 1):M46.
  • 299.
    Stern M P, Patterson J K, Mitchell B D, Haffner S M, Hazuda H P. Overweight and mortality in Mexican Americans. Int J Obes. 1990;14:623–629. [PubMed: 2228397]
    300.
    Johnson J L, Heineman E F, Heiss G, Hames C G, Tyroler H A. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and mortality among black women and white women aged 40–64 years in Evans County, Georgia. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;123:209–220. [PubMed: 3946371]
    301.
    Stevens J, Keil J E, Rust P F, Tyroler H A, Davis C E, Gazes P C. Body mass index and body girths as predictors of mortality in black and white women. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:1257–1262. [PubMed: 1599355]
    302.
    Tyroler H A, Knowles M G, Wing S B. et al. Ischemic heart disease risk factors and 20-year mortality in middle-age Evans County black males. Am Heart J. 1984;108:738–746. [PubMed: 6475743]
    303.
    Wienpahl J, Ragland D R, Sidney S. Body mass index and 15-year mortality in a cohort of black men and women. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43:949–960. [PubMed: 2213083]
    304.
    Durazo-Arvizu R, Cooper R S, Luke A, Prewitt T E, Liao Y, McGee D L. Relative weight and mortality in U.S. blacks and whites: findings from representative national population samples. Ann Epidemiol. 1997;7:383–395. [PubMed: 9279447]
    305.
    Hodge A M, Dowse G K, Collins V R, Zimmet P Z. Mortality in Micronesian Nauruans and Melanesian and Indian Fijians is not associated with obesity. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143:442–455. [PubMed: 8610659]
    306.
    Hanson R L, McCance D R, Jacobsson L T. et al. The U-shaped association between body mass index and mortality: relationship with weight gain in a Native-American population. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48:903–916. [PubMed: 7782799]
    307.
    Pettitt D J, Lisse J R, Knowler W C, Bennett P H. Mortality as a function of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol. 1982;115:359–366. [PubMed: 7064971]
    308.
    Andres R, Muller D C, Sorkin J D. Long-term effects of change in body weight on all-cause mortality. A review. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:737–743. [PubMed: 8363208]
    309.
    Weight cycling. National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. JAMA. 1994;272:1196–1202. [PubMed: 7741844]
    310.
    Williamson D F, Pamuk E R. The association between weight loss and increased longevity. A review of the evidence. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:731–736. [PubMed: 8363207]
    311.
    Williamson D F. “Weight cycling” and mortality: how do the epidemiologists explain the role of intentional weight loss? J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15:6–13. [PubMed: 8632117]
    312.
    Williamson D F. Intentional weight loss: patterns in the general population and its association with morbidity and mortality. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21(Suppl 1):S14–S19. [PubMed: 9130036]
    313.
    French S A, Jeffery R W, Folsom A R, Williamson D F, Byers T. Weight variability in a population-based sample of older women: reliability and intercorrelation of measures. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:22–29. [PubMed: 7719387]
    314.
    French S A, Jeffery R W, Folsom A R, Williamson D F, Byers T. History of intentional and unintentional weight loss in a population-based sample of women aged 55 to 69 years. Obes Res. 1995;3:163–170. [PubMed: 7719962]
    315.
    French S A, Jeffery R W, Folsom A R, Williamson D F, Byers T. Relation of weight variability and intentionality of weight loss to disease history and health-related variables in a population-based sample of women aged 55–69 years. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:1306–1314. [PubMed: 7503051]
    316.
    Meltzer A A, Everhart J E. Unintentional weight loss in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:1039–1046. [PubMed: 7485049]
    317.
    Singh R B, Rastogi S S, Verma R. et al. Randomised controlled trial of cardioprotective diet in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction: results of 1-year follow up. BMJ. 1992;304:1015–1019. [PMC free article: PMC1881705] [PubMed: 1586782]
    318.
    Williamson D F, Pamuk E, Thun M, Flanders D, Byers T, Heath C. Prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in never-smoking overweight US white women aged 40–64 years. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141:1128–1141. [PubMed: 7771451]
    319.
    Williamson DF, Pamuk E, Thun M, et al. Prospective study of international weight loss and mortality in overweight men aged 40–64 years. Obes Res. 1997;5:94S. [abstract].
    320.
    Sjostrom L, Larsson B, Backman L. et al. Swedish obese subjects (SOS). Recruitment for an intervention study and a selected description of the obese state. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:465–479. [PubMed: 1322873]
    321.
    Sjostrom C D, Lissner L, Sjostrom L. Relationships between changes in body composition and changes in cardiovascular risk factors: the SOS intervention study. Obes Res. 1997;5:519–530. [PubMed: 9449135]
    322.
    Sjostrom L. Natural history of massive obesity. Obes Res. 1995;3:317S. [abstract].
    323.
    Sobal J, Stunkard A J. Socioeconomic status and obesity: A review of the literature. Psychol Bull. 1989;105:260–275. [PubMed: 2648443]
    324.
    Kumanyika S K. Obesity in minority populations: An epidemiologic assessment. Obes Res. 1994;2:166–182. [PubMed: 16353618]
    325.
    Ravussin E, Valencia M E, Esparza J, Bennett P H, Schultz L O. Effects of a traditional lifestyle on obesity in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:1067–1074. [PubMed: 7988310]
    326.
    Kawate R, Yamakido M, Nishimoto Y. Migrant studies among the Japanese in Hiroshima and Hawaii. Proc 10th Congr Int Diabetes Federation. 1980:526–531.
    327.
    Kawate R, Yamakido M, Nishimoto Y. Diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications in Japanese migrants on the Island of Hawaii. Diabetes Care. 1979;29:161–170. [PubMed: 520120]
    328.
    Taylor R, Bennett P, Uili R, Joffres N, Levey S, Zimmet P. Diabetes in Wallis Polynesians: a comparison of residents of Wallis Island and first generation migrants of Noumea. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1985;1:169–178. [PubMed: 3836104]
    329.
    Bouchard C, Perusse L, Leblanc C, Tremblay A, Theriault G. Inheritance of the amount and distribution of human body fat. Int J Obes. 1988;12:205–215. [PubMed: 3391737]
    330.
    Tambs K, Moum T, Eaves L. et al. Genetics and environmental contributions to the variance of the body mass index in a Norwegian sample of first-degree and second-degree relatives. Am J Human Biology. 1991;3:257–268.
    331.
    Vogler G P, Sorensen T I, Stunkard A J, Srinivasan M R, Rao D C. Influences of genes and shared family environment on adult body mass index assessed in an adoption study by a comprehensive path model. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:40–45. [PubMed: 7719389]
    332.
    Stunkard A J, Harris J R, Pedersen N L, McClearn G E. The body-mass index of twins who have been reared apart. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1483–1487. [PubMed: 2336075]
    333.
    Allison D B, Kaprio J, Korkeila M, Koskenvuo M, Neale M C, Hayakawa K. The heritability of body mass index among an international sample of monozygotic twins reared apart. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:501–506. [PubMed: 8782724]
    334.
    Maes H H M, Neale M C, Eaves L J. Genetic and environmental factors in relative body weight and human adiposity. Behav Genet. 1997;27:325–351. [PubMed: 9519560]
    335.
    Allison DB. Methodological issues in obesity research: examples from new directions in assessment and management. In: VanItallie TB, Simopoulos AP, eds. Obesity. Philadelphia: Charles Press; 1995:129–132.
    336.
    Allison DB, Pi-Sunyer FX. Obesity Treatment: Establishing Goals, Improving Outcomes, and Reviewing the Research Agenda. New York: Plenum Press; 1995.
    337.
    Allison D B, Faith M S, Nathan J S. Risch's lambda values for human obesity. Int J Obes. 1996;20:990–999. [PubMed: 8923155]
    338.
    Lee J H, Reed D R, Price R A. Familial risk ratios for extreme obesity: implications for mapping human obesity genes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:935–940. [PubMed: 9347413]
    339.
    Perusse L, Chagnon Y C, Dionne F T, Bouchard C. The human obesity gene map: the 1996 update. Obes Res. 1997;5:49–61. [PubMed: 9061716]
    340.
    Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman J M. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature. 1994;372:425–432. [PubMed: 7984236]
    341.
    Tartaglia L A, Dembski M, Weng X. et al. Identification and expression cloning of leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell. 1995;83:1263–1271. [PubMed: 8548812]
    342.
    Montague C T, Farooqi I S, Whitehead J P. et al. Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in humans. Nature. 1997;387:903–908. [PubMed: 9202122]
    343.
    Bouchard C, Perusse L, Rice T, Rao DC. The genetics of human obesity. In: Bray GA, Bouchard C, James WPT, eds. Handbook of Obesity. New York: M. Dekker; 1998: Chapter 10.
    344.
    Bouchard C, Tremblay A. Genetic effects in human energy expenditure components. Int J Obes. 1990;14(Suppl 1):49–55. [PubMed: 2228417]
    345.
    Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres J P. et al. The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1477–1482. [PubMed: 2336074]
    346.
    Anderssen S, Holme I, Urdal P, Hjermann I. Diet and exercise intervention have favourable effects on blood pressure in mild hypertensives: the Oslo Diet and Exercise Study (ODES) Blood Press. 1995;4:343–349. [PubMed: 8746601]
    347.
    Croft P R, Brigg D, Smith S, Harrison C B, Branthwaite A, Collins M F. How useful is weight reduction in the management of hypertension? J R Coll Gen Pract. 1986;36:445–448. [PMC free article: PMC1960639] [PubMed: 3440987]
    348.
    Davis B R, Blaufox M D, Oberman A. et al. Reduction in long-term antihypertensive medication requirements. Effects of weight reduction by dietary intervention in overweight persons with mild hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1773–1782. [PubMed: 8333814]
    349.
    Fagerberg B, Andersson O K, Isaksson B, Bjorntorp P. Blood pressure control during weight reduction in obese hypertensive men: separate effects of sodium and energy restriction. BMJ. 1984;288:11–14. [PMC free article: PMC1444105] [PubMed: 6418295]
    350.
    Grimm R H Jr, Cohen J D, Smith W M, Falvo-Gerard L, Neaton J D. Hypertension management in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). 6-year intervention results for men in special intervention and usual care groups. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145:1191–1199. [PubMed: 3893343]
    351.
    Haynes R B, Harper A C, Costley S R. et al. Failure of weight reduction to reduce mildly elevated blood pressure: a randomized trial. J Hypertens. 1984;2:535–539. [PubMed: 6397541]
    352.
    Heyden S. The workingman's diet. II. Effect of weight reduction in obese patients with hypertension, diabetes, hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia. Nutr Metab. 1978;22:141–159. [PubMed: 634508]
    353.
    Kumanyika SK, Bahnson J, Bottom J, et al. Race and sex influences on the efficacy of non-pharmologic step-down therapy in hypertensive older adults. Can J Cardiol. 1997;13 (Suppl B):369B [abstract].
    354.
    Langford H G, Blaufox M D, Oberman A. et al. Dietary therapy slows the return of hypertension after stopping prolonged medication. JAMA. 1985;253:657–664. [PubMed: 3881608]
    355.
    Langford H G, Davis B R, Blaufox D. et al. Effect of drug and diet treatment of mild hypertension on diastolic blood pressure. The TAIM Research Group. Hypertension. 1991;17:210–217. [PubMed: 1671380]
    356.
    MacMahon S W, Macdonald G J, Bernstein L, Andrews G, Blacket R B. A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction and metoprolol in the treatment of hypertension in young overweight patients. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1985;12:267–271. [PubMed: 3896595]
    357.
    Ramsay L E, Ramsay M H, Hettiarachchi J, Davies D L, Winchester J. Weight reduction in a blood pressure clinic. BMJ. 1978;2:244–245. [PMC free article: PMC1606357] [PubMed: 678886]
    358.
    Reisin E, Abel R, Modan M, Silverberg D S, Eliahou H E, Modan B. Effect of weight loss without salt restriction on the reduction of blood pressure in overweight hypertensive patients. N Engl J Med. 1978;298:1–6. [PubMed: 337144]
    359.
    Stamler R, Stamler J, Grimm R. et al. Nutritional therapy for high blood pressure. Final report of a 4-year randomized controlled trial—the Hypertension Control Program. JAMA. 1987;257:1484–1491. [PubMed: 3546747]
    360.
    Wassertheil-Smoller S, Langford H G, Blaufox M D. et al. Effective dietary intervention in hypertensives: sodium restriction and weight reduction. J Am Diet Assoc. 1985;85:423–430. [PubMed: 3884691]
    361.
    Whelton PK, Applegate WB, Ettiger WH, et al. Efficacy of weight loss and reduced sodium intake in the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). Circulation. 1996;94 (Suppl I):I-178 [abstract].
    362.
    Agurs-Collins T D, Kumanyika S K, Have T R, Adams-Campbell L L. A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction and exercise for diabetes management in older African-American subjects. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:1503–1511. [PubMed: 9314625]
    363.
    Fortmann S P, Haskell W L, Wood P D. Effects of weight loss on clinic and ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive men. Am J Cardiol. 1988;62:89–93. [PubMed: 3381757]
    364.
    Hakala P, Karvetti R L. Weight reduction on lactovegetarian and mixed diets. Changes in weight, nutrient intake, skinfold thicknesses and blood pressure. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1989;43:421–430. [PubMed: 2743965]
    365.
    Hellenius M L, de Faire U, Berglund B, Hamsten A, Krakau I. Diet and exercise are equally effective in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. Results of a randomized controlled study in men with slightly to moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis. 1993;103:81–91. [PubMed: 8280188]
    366.
    Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. The Hypertension Prevention Trial: three-year effects of dietary changes on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:153–162. [PubMed: 2404477]
    367.
    Jeffery R W, Wing R R, Thorson C. et al. Strengthening behavioral interventions for weight loss: a randomized trial of food provision and monetary incentives. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993;61:1038–1045. [PubMed: 8113481]
    368.
    Karvetti R L, Hakala P. A 7-year follow-up of a weight reduction programme in Finnish primary health care. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992;46:743–752. [PubMed: 1425528]
    369.
    Katzel L I, Bleecker E R, Colman E G, Rogus E M, Sorkin J D, Goldberg A P. Effects of weight loss vs aerobic exercise training on risk factors for coronary disease in healthy, obese, middle-aged and older men. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1995;274:1915–1921. [PubMed: 8568984]
    370.
    Puddey I B, Parker M, Beilin L J, Vandongen R, Masarei J R. Effects of alcohol and caloric restrictions on blood pressure and serum lipids in overweight men. Hypertension. 1992;20:533–541. [PubMed: 1356922]
    371.
    Reid C M, Dart A M, Dewar E M, Jennings G L. Interactions between the effects of exercise and weight loss on risk factors, cardiovascular haemodynamics and left ventricular structure in overweight subjects. J Hypertens. 1994;12:291–301. [PubMed: 8021483]
    372.
    Rocchini A P, Katch V, Schork A, Kelch R P. Insulin and blood pressure during weight loss in obese adolescents. Hypertension. 1987;10:267–273. [PubMed: 3305355]
    373.
    Simkin-Silverman L, Wing R R, Hansen D H. et al. Prevention of cardiovascular risk factor elevations in healthy premenopausal women. Prev Med. 1995;24:509–517. [PubMed: 8524727]
    374.
    Stamler R, Stamler J, Gosch F C. et al. Primary prevention of hypertension by nutritional-hygienic means. Final report of a randomized, controlled trial. JAMA. 1989;262:1801–1807. [PubMed: 2778913]
    375.
    Stefanick M L, Mackey S, Sheehan M, Ellsworth N, Haskell W L, Wood P D. Effects of the NCEP Step 2 diet and exercise on lipoprotein in postmenopausal women and men with low HDL-cholesterol and high LDL-cholesterol. New Engl J Med. 1998;339:12–20. [PubMed: 9647874]
    376.
    Stevens V J, Corrigan S A, Obarzanek E. et al. Weight loss intervention in phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. The TOHP Collaborative Research Group. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:849–858. [PubMed: 8466377]
    377.
    Svendsen O L, Hassager C, Christiansen C. Effect of an energy-restrictive diet, with or without exercise, on lean tissue mass, resting metabolic rate, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone in overweight postmenopausal women. Am J Med. 1993;95:131–140. [PubMed: 8356979]
    378.
    The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels. Results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase I. JAMA. 1992;267:1213–1220. [PubMed: 1586398]
    379.
    Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:657–667. [PubMed: 9080920]
    380.
    Wood P D, Stefanick M L, Williams P T, Haskell W L. The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:461–466. [PubMed: 1852180]
    381.
    MacMahon S, Cutler J, Brittain E, Higgins M. Obesity and hypertension: epidemiological and clinical issues. Eur Heart J. 1987;8(Suppl B):57–70. [PubMed: 3301356]
    382.
    Whelton P K, Appel L J, Espeland M A. et al. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: A randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE) JAMA. 1998;279:839–846. [PubMed: 9515998]
    383.
    Cutler J A. Randomized clinical trials of weight reduction in nonhypertensive persons. Ann Epidemiol. 1991;1:363–370. [PubMed: 1669517]
    384.
    Svendsen O L, Hassager C, Christiansen C. Six months' follow-up on exercise added to a short-term diet in overweight postmenopausal women—effects on body composition, resting metabolic rate, cardiovascular risk factors and bone. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:692–698. [PubMed: 7866465]
    385.
    Steven VJ. Weight loss and blood pressure changes over three years: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) Phase II. In: Cardiovascular Health: Coming Together for the 21st Century. A National Conference. 1998 Feb 19–21; San Francisco, CA: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 1998. Abstract R.6F.
    386.
    Bremer J M, Scott R S, Lintott C J. Dexfenfluramine reduces cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:199–205. [PubMed: 8044193]
    387.
    Ditschuneit H H, Flechtner-Mors M, Adler G. The effects of dexfenfluramine on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors in female patients with upper and lower body obesity. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1996;3:397–403. [PubMed: 8946272]
    388.
    Bone HG, Reedy KR, Sherwin RS. FDA Orlistat Transcript. Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting # 67. 1997.
    389.
    Bone HG, Reedy KR, Colley CA. FDA Sibutramine Transcript. Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting # 64. 1996.
    390.
    Mathus-Vliegen E M, van de Voorde K, Kok A M, Res A M. Dexfenfluramine in the treatment of severe obesity: a placebo-controlled investigation of the effects on weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors, food intake and eating behaviour. J Intern Med. 1992;232:119–127. [PubMed: 1506807]
    391.
    Mathus-Vliegen E M. Prolonged surveillance of dexfenfluramine in severe obesity. Neth J Med. 1993;43:246–253. [PubMed: 8107932]
    392.
    O'Connor H T, Richman R M, Steinbeck K S, Caterson I D. Dexfenfluramine treatment of obesity: a double blind trial with posttrial followup. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:181–189. [PubMed: 7780494]
    393.
    Pfohl M, Luft D, Blomberg I, Schmulling R M. Long-term changes of body weight and cardiovascular risk factors after weight reduction with group therapy and dexfenfluramine. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:391–395. [PubMed: 8081430]
    394.
    Swinburn B A, Carmichael H E, Wilson M R. Dexfenfluramine as an adjunct to a reduced-fat, ad libitum diet: effects on body composition, nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:1033–1040. [PubMed: 8923161]
    395.
    Weintraub M, Sundaresan P R, Madan M. et al. Long-term weight control study. I (weeks 0 to 34). The enhancement of behavior modification, caloric restriction, and exercise by fenfluramine plus phentermine versus placebo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992;51:586–594. [PubMed: 1587072]
    396.
    Arroll B, Beaglehole R. Exercise for hypertension. Lancet. 1993;341:1248–1249. [PubMed: 8098398]
    397.
    Fagard R H. Physical fitness and blood pressure. J Hypertens Suppl. 1993;11 Suppl 5:S47–S52. [PubMed: 8158433]
    398.
    Kelley G, Tran Z V. Aerobic exercise and normotensive adults: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27:1371–1377. [PubMed: 8531607]
    399.
    Dengel J L, Katzel L I, Goldberg A P. Effect of an American Heart Association diet, with or without weight loss, on lipids in obese middle-aged and older men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:715–721. [PubMed: 7572698]
    400.
    Jalkanen L. The effect of a weight reduction program on cardiovascular risk factors among overweight hypertensives in primary health care. Scand J Soc Med. 1991;19:66–71. [PubMed: 1925430]
    401.
    King A C, Haskell W L, Taylor C B, Kraemer H C, DeBusk R F. Group- vs home-based exercise training in healthy older men and women. A community-based clinical trial. JAMA. 1991;266:1535–1542. [PubMed: 1880885]
    402.
    Marniemi J, Seppanen A, Hakala P. Long-term effects on lipid metabolism of weight reduction on lactovegetarian and mixed diet. Int J Obes. 1990;14:113–125. [PubMed: 2111292]
    403.
    Nilsson P M, Lindholm L H, Schersten B F. Lifestyle changes improve insulin resistance in hyperinsulinaemic subjects: a 1-year intervention study of hypertensives and normotensives in Dalby. J Hypertens. 1992;10:1071–1078. [PubMed: 1328367]
    404.
    Ronnemaa T, Marniemi J, Puukka P, Kuusi T. Effects of long-term physical exercise on serum lipids, lipoproteins and lipid metabolizing enzymes in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetes Res. 1988;7:79–84. [PubMed: 3396267]
    405.
    Schuler G, Hambrecht R, Schlierf G. et al. Regular physical exercise and low-fat diet. Effects on progression of coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1992;86:1–11. [PubMed: 1617762]
    406.
    Wood P D, Stefanick M L, Dreon D M. et al. Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight men during weight loss through dieting as compared with exercise. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:1173–1179. [PubMed: 3173455]
    407.
    Drent M L, van der Veen E A. Lipase inhibition: a novel concept in the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:241–244. [PubMed: 8387973]
    408.
    O'Kane M, Wiles P G, Wales J K. Fluoxetine in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 1994;11:105–110. [PubMed: 8181239]
    409.
    Emery E M, Schmid T L, Kahn H S, Filozof P P. A review of the association between abdominal fat distribution, health outcome measures, and modifiable risk factors. Am J Health Promot. 1993;7(5):342–353. [PubMed: 10148711]
    410.
    Bjorntorp P. Abdominal fat distribution and disease: an overview of epidemiological data. Ann Med. 1992;24:15–18. [PubMed: 1575956]
    411.
    Leon AS. Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health: A National Consensus. IL: Human Kinetics; 1997.
    412.
    Hjermann I, Leren P, Norman N, Helgeland A, Holme I. Serum insulin response to oral glucose load during a dietary intervention trial in healthy coronary high risk men: the Oslo study. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1980;40:89–94. [PubMed: 6988933]
    413.
    Heller S R, Clarke P, Daly H. et al. Group education for obese patients with type 2 diabetes: greater success at less cost. Diabet Med. 1988;5:552–556. [PubMed: 2974778]
    414.
    Manning R M, Jung R T, Leese G P, Newton R W. The comparison of four weight reduction strategies aimed at overweight diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 1995;12:409–415. [PubMed: 7648803]
    415.
    Colman E, Katzel L I, Rogus E, Coon P, Muller D, Goldberg A P. Weight loss reduces abdominal fat and improves insulin action in middle-aged and older men with impaired glucose tolerance. Metabolism. 1995;44:1502–1508. [PubMed: 7476341]
    416.
    Fujioka S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K. et al. Improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism associated with selective reduction of intra-abdominal visceral fat in premenopausal women with visceral fat obesity. Int J Obes. 1991;15:853–859. [PubMed: 1794928]
    417.
    Marks S J, Moore N R, Clark M L, Strauss B J, Hockaday T D. Reduction of visceral adipose tissue and improvement of metabolic indices: effect of dexfenfluramine in NIDDM. Obes Res. 1996;4:1–7. [PubMed: 8787932]
    418.
    van der Merwe M T, Wing J R, Celgow L H. et al. Metabolic indices in relation to body composition changes during weight loss on dexfenfluramine in obese women from two South African ethnic groups. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:768–776. [PubMed: 8856402]
    419.
    Ronnemaa T, Mattila K, Lehtonen A, Kallio V. A controlled randomized study on the effect of long-term physical exercise on the metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Acta Med Scand. 1986;220:219–224. [PubMed: 3535397]
    420.
    Han T S, van Leer E M, Seidell J C, Lean M E. Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. BMJ. 1995;311:1401–1405. [PMC free article: PMC2544423] [PubMed: 8520275]
    421.
    Pouliot M C, Despres J P, Lemieux S. et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol. 1994;73:460–468. [PubMed: 8141087]
    422.
    van der Kooy K, Leenen R, Seidell J C, Deurenberg P, Droop A, Bakker C J. Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:327–333. [PubMed: 8438766]
    423.
    Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres J P. et al. The response to exercise with constant energy intake in identical twins. Obes Res. 1994;2:400–410. [PubMed: 16358397]
    424.
    Leenen R, van der Kooy K, Deurenberg P. et al. Visceral fat accumulation in obese subjects: relation to energy expenditure and response to weight loss. Am J Physiol. 1992;263:E913–E919. [PubMed: 1443124]
    425.
    Stallone D D, Stunkard A J, Wadden T A, Foster G D, Boorstein J, Arger P. Weight loss and body fat distribution: a feasibility study using computed tomography. Int J Obes. 1991;15:775–780. [PubMed: 1778662]
    426.
    Ross R, Rissanen J, Pedwell H, Clifford J, Shragge P. Influence of diet and exercise on skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue in men. J Appl Physiol. 1996;81:2445–2455. [PubMed: 9018491]
    427.
    Ross R, Rissanen J. Mobilization of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in response to energy restriction and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:695–703. [PubMed: 7942575]
    428.
    van der Kooy K, Leenen R, Seidell J C, Deurenberg P, Hautvast J G. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58:853–857. [PubMed: 8249866]
    429.
    Dowling H J, Pi-Sunyer F X. Race-dependent health risks of upper body obesity. Diabetes. 1993;42:537–543. [PubMed: 8454103]
    430.
    Kissebah A H, Vydelingum N, Murray R. et al. Relation of body fat distribution to metabolic complications of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982;54:254–260. [PubMed: 7033275]
    431.
    Berglund A, Andersson O K, Berglund G, Fagerberg B. Antihypertensive effect of diet compared with drug treatment in obese men with mild hypertension. BMJ. 1989;299:480– 485. [PMC free article: PMC1837358] [PubMed: 2507028]
    432.
    Frey-Hewitt B, Vranizan K M, Dreon D M, Wood P D. The effect of weight loss by dieting or exercise on resting metabolic rate in overweight men. Int J Obes. 1990;14:327–334. [PubMed: 2361810]
    433.
    Oberman A, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Langford H G. et al. Pharmacologic and nutritional treatment of mild hypertension: changes in cardiovascular risk status. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:89–95. [PubMed: 1967210]
    434.
    Hammer R L, Barrier C A, Roundy E S, Bradford J M, Fisher A G. Calorie-restricted low-fat diet and exercise in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:77–85. [PubMed: 2912014]
    435.
    Marks B L, Ward A, Morris D H, Castellani J, Rippe J M. Fat-free mass is maintained in women following a moderate diet and exercise program. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27:1243–1251. [PubMed: 8531622]
    436.
    Wadden T A, Sternberg J A, Letizia K A, Stunkard A J, Foster G D. Treatment of obesity by very low calorie diet, behavior therapy, and their combination: a five-year perspective. Int J Obes. 1989;13(Suppl 2):39–46. [PubMed: 2613427]
    437.
    Wadden T A, Foster G D, Letizia K A. One-year behavioral treatment of obesity: comparison of moderate and severe caloric restriction and the effects of weight maintenance therapy. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1994;62:165–171. [PubMed: 8034818]
    438.
    Wadden T A, Foster G D, Letizia K A, Mullen J L. Long-term effects of dieting on resting metabolic rate in obese outpatients. JAMA. 1990;264:707–711. [PubMed: 2374273]
    439.
    Wing R R, Blair E H, Bononi P, Marcus M D, Watanabe R, Bergman R N. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:30–36. [PubMed: 8112186]
    440.
    de Bont A J, Baker I A, St. Leger A S. et al. A randomised controlled trial of the effect of low-fat diet advice on dietary response in insulin-independent diabetic women. Diabetologia. 1981;21:529–533. [PubMed: 7040142]
    441.
    Jeffery R W, Hellerstedt W L, French S A, Baxter J E. A randomized trial of counseling for fat restriction versus calorie restriction in the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:132–137. [PubMed: 7735340]
    442.
    Schlundt D G, Hill J O, Pope-Cordle J, Arnold D, Virts K L, Katahn M. Randomized evaluation of a low fat ad libitum carbohydrate diet for weight reduction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:623–629. [PubMed: 8281220]
    443.
    Shah M, McGovern P, French S, Baxter J. Comparison of a low-fat, ad libitum complex-carbohydrate diet with a low-energy diet in moderately obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:980–984. [PubMed: 8172104]
    444.
    Sheppard L, Kristal A R, Kushi L H. Weight loss in women participating in a randomized trial of low-fat diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:821–828. [PubMed: 1951152]
    445.
    Bertram S R, Venter I, Stewart R I. Weight loss in obese women—exercise vs. dietary education. S Afr Med J. 1990;78:15–18. [PubMed: 2363076]
    446.
    Verity L S, Ismail A H. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease risk in women with NIDDM. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1989;6:27–35. [PubMed: 2649339]
    447.
    King A C, Haskell W L, Young D R, Oka R K, Stefanick M L. Long-term effects of varying intensities and formats of physical activity on participation rates, fitness, and lipoproteins in men and women aged 50 to 65 years. Circulation. 1995;91:2596–2604. [PubMed: 7743622]
    448.
    Gordon N F, Scott C B, Levine B D. Comparison of single versus multiple lifestyle interventions: are the antihypertensive effects of exercise training and diet-induced weight loss additive? Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:763–767. [PubMed: 9070555]
    449.
    Garrow J S, Summerbell C D. Meta-analysis: effect of exercise, with or without dieting, on the body composition of overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:1–10. [PubMed: 7713045]
    450.
    Miller W C, Lindeman A K, Wallace J, Niederpruem M. Diet composition, energy intake, and exercise in relation to body fat in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:426–430. [PubMed: 2393005]
    451.
    Fitzgerald S J, Kriska A M, Pereira M A, de Courten M P. Associations among physical activity, television watching, and obesity in adult Pima Indians. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:910–915. [PubMed: 9243490]
    452.
    Klesges R C, Eck L H, Isbell T R, Fulliton W, Hanson C L. Physical activity, body composition, and blood pressure: a multimethod approach. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23:759–765. [PubMed: 1886487]
    453.
    Tremblay A, Despres J P, Leblanc C. et al. Effect of intensity of physical activity on body fatness and fat distribution. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:153–157. [PubMed: 2305702]
    454.
    French S A, Jeffery R W, Forster J L, McGovern P G, Kelder S H, Baxter J E. Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults: the Healthy Worker Project. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:145–154. [PubMed: 8186811]
    455.
    Williams P T. Evidence for the incompatibility of age-neutral overweight and age- neutral physical activity standards from runners. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:1391–1396. [PubMed: 9129467]
    456.
    Ewbank P P, Darga L L, Lucas C P. Physical activity as a predictor of weight maintenance in previously obese subjects. Obes Res. 1995;3:257–263. [PubMed: 7627774]
    457.
    Klesges R C, Klesges L M, Haddock C K, Eck L H. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of dietary intake and physical activity on weight change in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:818–822. [PubMed: 1550064]
    458.
    Ching P L, Willett W C, Rimm E B, Colditz G A, Gortmaker S L, Stampfer M J. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:25–30. [PMC free article: PMC1380355] [PubMed: 8561237]
    459.
    Williamson D F, Madans J, Anda R F, Kleinman J C, Kahn H S, Byers T. Recreational physical activity and ten-year weight change in a US national cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:279–286. [PubMed: 8389337]
    460.
    Kawachi I, Troisi R J, Rotnitzky A G, Coakley E H, Colditz G A. Can physical activity minimize weight gain in women after smoking cessation? Am J Public Health. 1996;86:999–1004. [PMC free article: PMC1380442] [PubMed: 8669525]
    461.
    Bild D E, Sholinsky P, Smith D E, Lewis C E, Hardin J M, Burke G L. Correlates and predictors of weight loss in young adults: the CARDIA study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:47–55. [PubMed: 8788322]
    462.
    Kayman S, Bruvold W, Stern J S. Maintenance and relapse after weight loss in women: behavioral aspects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:800–807. [PubMed: 2239754]
    463.
    Grodstein F, Levine R, Troy L, Spencer T, Colditz G A, Stampfer M J. Three-year follow-up of participants in a commercial weight loss program. Can you keep it off? Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:1302–1306. [PubMed: 8651838]
    464.
    Seidell J C. Environmental influences on regional fat distribution. Int J Obes. 1991;15:31–35. [PubMed: 1794935]
    465.
    Kaye S A, Folsom A R, Prineas R J, Potter J D, Gapstur S M. The association of body fat distribution with lifestyle and reproductive factors in a population study of postmenopausal women. Int J Obes. 1990;14:583–591. [PubMed: 2228393]
    466.
    Slattery M L, McDonald A, Bild D E. et al. Associations of body fat and its distribution with dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking in blacks and whites. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:943–949. [PubMed: 1570801]
    467.
    Troisi R J, Heinold J W, Vokonas P S, Weiss S T. Cigarette smoking, dietary intake, and physical activity: effects on body fat distribution—the Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1104–1111. [PubMed: 1850574]
    468.
    Wing R R, Matthews K A, Kuller L H, Meilahn E N, Plantinga P. Waist-to-hip ratio in middle-aged women. Associations with behavioral and psychological factors and with changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Arterioscler Thromb. 1991;11:1250–1257. [PubMed: 1911710]
    469.
    Andersen R E, Wadden T A, Bartlett S J, Vogt R A, Weinstock R S. Relation of weight loss to changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:350–357. [PubMed: 7625342]
    470.
    Blonk M C, Jacobs M A, Biesheuvel E H, Weeda-Mannak W L, Heine R J. Influences on weight loss in type 2 diabetic patients: little long-term benefit from group behaviour therapy and exercise training. Diabet Med. 1994;11:449–457. [PubMed: 8088122]
    471.
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Kaufmann N A, Berry E M. Physical activity within a community-based weight control program: program evaluation and predictors of success. Public Health Rev. 1995;23:237–251. [PubMed: 8559961]
    472.
    Sweeney M E, Hill J O, Heller P A, Baney R, DiGirolamo M. Severe vs moderate energy restriction with and without exercise in the treatment of obesity: efficiency of weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:127–134. [PubMed: 8424379]
    473.
    Wing R R, Epstein L H, Paternostro-Bayles M, Kriska A, Nowalk M P, Gooding W. Exercise in a behavioural weight control programme for obese patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia. 1988;31:902–909. [PubMed: 3071485]
    474.
    Kaplan R M, Hartwell S L, Wilson D K, Wallace J P. Effects of diet and exercise interventions on control and quality of life in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Gen Intern Med. 1987;2:220–228. [PubMed: 3302144]
    475.
    Leighton R F, Repka F J, Birk T J. et al. The Toledo Exercise and Diet Study. Results at 26 weeks. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1016–1020. [PubMed: 2184789]
    476.
    Long C G, Simpson C M, Allott E A. Psychological and dietetic counselling combined in the treatment of obesity: a comparative study in a hospital outpatient clinic. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1983;37:94–102. [PubMed: 6408031]
    477.
    Wadden T A, Stunkard A J. Controlled trial of very low calorie diet, behavior therapy, and their combination in the treatment of obesity. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1986;54:482–488. [PubMed: 3528252]
    478.
    Craighead L W, Stunkard A J, O'Brien R M. Behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for obesity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981;38:763–768. [PubMed: 7247639]
    479.
    Bennett G A. An evaluation of self-instructional training in the treatment of obesity. Addict Behav. 1986;11:125–134. [PubMed: 3739798]
    480.
    Bennett G A. Cognitive rehearsal in the treatment of obesity: a comparison against cue avoidance and social pressure. Addict Behav. 1986;11:225–237. [PubMed: 3739810]
    481.
    Forster J L, Jeffery R W, Sullivan S, Snell M K. A work-site weight control program using financial incentives collected through payroll deduction. J Occup Med. 1985;27:804–808. [PubMed: 4067685]
    482.
    Glasgow R E, Toobert D J, Hampson S E, Brown J E, Lewinsohn P M, Donnelly J. Improving self-care among older patients with type II diabetes: the Sixty Something… Study. Patient Educ Couns. 1992;19:61–74. [PubMed: 1298950]
    483.
    Jeffery R W, Hellerstedt W L, Schmid T L. Correspondence programs for smoking cessation and weight control: a comparison of two strategies in the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Health Psychol. 1990;9:585–598. [PubMed: 2226387]
    484.
    Lovibond S H, Birrell P C, Langeluddecke P. Changing coronary heart disease risk-factor status: the effects of three behavioral programs. J Behav Med. 1986;9:415–437. [PubMed: 3540308]
    485.
    Muchmore D B, Springer J, Miller M. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in overweight type 2 diabetic patients. Acta Diabetol. 1994;31:215–219. [PubMed: 7888692]
    486.
    Perri M G, Nezu A M, Patti E T, McCann K L. Effect of length of treatment on weight loss. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;57:450–452. [PubMed: 2500466]
    487.
    Perri M G, McAllister D A, Gange J J, Jordan R C, McAdoo G, Nezu A M. Effects of four maintenance programs on the long-term management of obesity. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:529–534. [PubMed: 2848874]
    488.
    Rosenthal B, Allen G J, Winter C. Husband involvement in the behavioral treatment of overweight women: initial effects and long-term follow-up. Int J Obes. 1980;4:165–173. [PubMed: 7399805]
    489.
    Smith D E, Heckemeyer C M, Kratt P P, Mason D A. Motivational interviewing to improve adherence to a behavioral weight-control program for older obese women with NIDDM. A pilot study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:52–54. [PubMed: 9028693]
    490.
    Uusitupa M, Laitinen J, Siitonen O, Vanninen E, Pyorala K. The maintenance of improved metabolic control after intensified diet therapy in recent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1993;19:227–238. [PubMed: 8319521]
    491.
    Wadden T A, Berkowitz R I, Vogt R A, Steen S N, Stunkard A J, Foster G D. Lifestyle modification in the pharmacologic treatment of obesity: a pilot investigation of a potential primary care approach. Obes Res. 1997;5:218–226. [PubMed: 9192396]
    492.
    Wing R R, Marcus M D, Epstein L H, Jawad A. A “family-based” approach to the treatment of obese Type II diabetic patients. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991;59:156–162. [PubMed: 2002132]
    493.
    Wing R R, Epstein L H, Nowalk M P, Scott N, Koeske R, Hagg S. Does self-monitoring of blood glucose levels improve dietary compliance for obese patients with Type II diabetes? Am J Med. 1986;81:830–836. [PubMed: 3535493]
    494.
    Eldredge K L, Agras W S, Arnow B. et al. The effects of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder among initial treatment nonresponders. Int J Eat Disord. 1997;21:347–352. [PubMed: 9138046]
    495.
    Agras W S, Berkowitz R I, Arnow B A. et al. Maintenance following a very-low-calorie diet. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64:610–613. [PubMed: 8698956]
    496.
    Sobal J, Devin C. Social aspects of obesity. In: Dalton S, ed. Overweight and Weight Management: The Health Professional's Guide To Understanding and Practice. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers; 1997:312–331.
    497.
    Brown PJ; Cultural perspectives on the etiology and treatment of obesity. In: Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA, eds. Obesity Theory and Therapy. New York: Raven Press; 1993:179–195.
    498.
    Foster G D, Wadden T A, Vogt R A. Resting energy expenditure in obese African American and Caucasian women. Obes Res. 1997;5:1–8. [PubMed: 9061709]
    499.
    Yanovski S Z, Reynolds J C, Boyle A J, Yanovski J A. Resting metabolic rate in African-American and Caucasian girls. Obes Res. 1997;5:321–325. [PubMed: 9285838]
    500.
    Albu J B, Murphy L, Frager D H, Johnson J A, Pi-Sunyer F X. Visceral fat and race-dependent health risks in obese nondiabetic premenopausal women. Diabetes. 1997;46:456–462. [PubMed: 9032103]
    501.
    Allison D B, Edlen-Nezin L, Clay-Williams G. Obesity among African American women: prevalence, consequences, causes, and developing research. Women's Health. 1997;3:243–274. [PubMed: 9426496]
    502.
    Andersson B, Seidell J, Terning K, Bjorntorp P. Influence of menopause on dietary treatment of obesity. J Intern Med. 1990;227:173–181. [PubMed: 2313225]
    503.
    Kumanyika S K, Obarzanek E, Stevens V J, Hebert P R, Whelton P K. Weight-loss experience of black and white participants in NHLBI- sponsored clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1631S–1638S. [PubMed: 2031498]
    504.
    Wing R R, Anglin K. Effectiveness of a behavioral weight control program for blacks and whites with NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1996;19:409–413. [PubMed: 8732700]
    505.
    Wylie-Rosett J, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Blaufox M D. et al. Trial of antihypertensive intervention and management: greater efficacy with weight reduction than with a sodium-potassium intervention. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93:408–415. [PubMed: 8454808]
    506.
    Andersen T, Astrup A, Quaade F. Dexfenfluramine as adjuvant to a low-calorie formula diet in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:35–40. [PubMed: 1314242]
    507.
    Guy-Grand B, Apfelbaum M, Crepaldi G, Gries A, Lefebvre P, Turner P. International trial of long-term dexfenfluramine in obesity. Lancet. 1989;2:1142–1145. [PubMed: 2572857]
    508.
    Finer N. Body weight evolution during dexfenfluramine treatment after initial weight control. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16(Suppl 3):S25–S29. [PubMed: 1338319]
    509.
    Williams R A, Foulsham B M. Weight reduction in osteoarthritis using phentermine. Practitioner. 1981;225:231–232. [PubMed: 7022428]
    510.
    Bray G A, Ryan D H, Gordon D, Heidingsfelder S, Cerise F, Wilson K. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of sibutramine. Obes Res. 1996;4:263–270. [PubMed: 8732960]
    511.
    Weintraub M, Ginsberg G, Stein E C. et al. Phenylpropanolamine OROS (Acutrim) vs. placebo in combination with caloric restriction and physician-managed behavior modification. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1986;39:501–509. [PubMed: 3516509]
    512.
    Schteingart D E. Effectiveness of phenylpropanolamine in the management of moderate obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:487–493. [PubMed: 1323545]
    513.
    Jones SP, Smith IG, Kelly F, Gray JA. Long term weight loss with sibutramine. Int J Obes. 1995;19 (Suppl 2):41 [abstract 071].
    514.
    Weintraub M, Sundaresan P R, Schuster B. et al. Long-term weight control study. IV (weeks 156 to 190). The second double-blind phase. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992;51:608–614. [PubMed: 1587075]
    515.
    Andersen T, Backer O G, Stokholm K H, Quaade F. Randomized trial of diet and gastroplasty compared with diet alone in morbid obesity. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:352–356. [PubMed: 6690963]
    516.
    Andersen T, Backer O G, Astrup A, Quaade F. Horizontal or vertical banded gastroplasty after pretreatment with very-low-calorie formula diet: a randomized trial. Int J Obes. 1987;11:295–304. [PubMed: 3312050]
    517.
    Brolin R E, Kenler H A, Gorman J H, Cody R P. Long-limb gastric bypass in the superobese. a prospective randomized study. Ann Surg. 1992;215:387–395. [PMC free article: PMC1242457] [PubMed: 1558421]
    518.
    Naslund I. The size of the gastric outlet and the outcome of surgery for obesity. Acta Chir Scand. 1986;152:205–210. [PubMed: 3716740]
    519.
    Hall J C, Watts J M, O'Brien P E. et al. Gastric surgery for morbid obesity. The Adelaide Study. Ann Surg. 1990;211:419–427. [PMC free article: PMC1358027] [PubMed: 2181950]
    520.
    Laws H L, Piantadosi S. Superior gastric reduction procedure for morbid obesity: a prospective, randomized trial. Ann Surg. 1981;193:334–340. [PMC free article: PMC1345071] [PubMed: 7212793]
    521.
    Lechner G W, Callender A K. Subtotal gastric exclusion and gastric partitioning: a randomized prospective comparison of one hundred patients. Surgery. 1981;90:637–644. [PubMed: 7025315]
    522.
    Pories W J, Flickinger E G, Meelheim D, Van Rij A M, Thomas F T. The effectiveness of gastric bypass over gastric partition in morbid obesity: consequence of distal gastric and duodenal exclusion. Ann Surg. 1982;196:389–399. [PMC free article: PMC1352695] [PubMed: 7125726]
    523.
    Gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:615S–619S. [PubMed: 1733140]
    524.
    Busetto L, Perini P, Giantin V. et al. Relationship between energy expenditure and visceral fat accumulation in obese women submitted to adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB) Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:227–233. [PubMed: 7627245]
    525.
    Zumoff B, Strain G W, Miller L K. et al. Plasma free and non-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-bound testosterone are decreased in obese men in proportion to their degree of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990;71:929–931. [PubMed: 2401718]
    526.
    Gallagher D, Visser M, Sepulveda D, Pierson R N, Harris T, Heymsfield S B. How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143:228–239. [PubMed: 8561156]
    527.
    Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Heshka S, Pierson RN Jr. Assessment of human body composition. In: Allison DB, ed. Handbook of Assessment Methods For Eating Behavior and Weight Related Problems: Measures, Theory, and Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1995:515–560.
    528.
    Matz R. Calculating body mass index. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:232. [PubMed: 8417648]
    529.
    Abate N, Garg A, Peshock R M, Stray-Gundersen J, Adams-Huet B, Grundy S M. Relationship of generalized and regional adiposity to insulin sensitivity in men with NIDDM. Diabetes. 1996;45:1684–1693. [PubMed: 8922352]
    530.
    Lean M E, Han T S, Morrison C E. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ. 1995;311:158–161. [PMC free article: PMC2550221] [PubMed: 7613427]
    531.
    Sjostrom L, Kvist H, Cederblad A, Tylen U. Determination of total adipose tissue and body fat in women by computed tomography, 40K, and tritium. Am J Physiol. 1986;250:E736–E745. [PubMed: 3717334]
    532.
    Jensen M D, Kanaley J A, Reed J E, Sheedy P F. Measurement of abdominal and visceral fat with computed tomography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:274–278. [PubMed: 7840063]
    533.
    Despres J P, Moorjani S, Ferland M. et al. Adipose tissue distribution and plasma lipoprotein levels in obese women. Importance of intra-abdominal fat. Arteriosclerosis. 1989;9:203–210. [PubMed: 2923576]
    534.
    Pouliot M C, Despres J P, Nadeau A. et al. Visceral obesity in men. Associations with glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels. Diabetes. 1992;41:826–834. [PubMed: 1612197]
    535.
    Abate N, Garg A, Peshock R M, Stray-Gundersen J, Grundy S M. Relationships of generalized and regional adiposity to insulin sensitivity in men. J Clin Invest. 1995;96:88–98. [PMC free article: PMC185176] [PubMed: 7615840]
    536.
    Goodpaster B H, Thaete F L, Thaete J A, Simoneau, Kelley D E. Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat. Diabetes. 1997;46:1579–1585. [PubMed: 9313753]
    537.
    Lemieux S, Prud'homme D, Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres J. A single threshold value of waist girth identifies normal-weight and overweight subjects with excess visceral adipose tissue. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:685–693. [PubMed: 8901786]
    538.
    National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES III Anthropometric Procedures Video. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996. Stock Number 017-022-01335-5.
    539.
    Gordon T, Doyle J T. Weight and mortality in men: the Albany Study. Int J Epidemiol. 1988;17:77–81. [PubMed: 3384553]
    540.
    Hamm P, Shekelle R B, Stamler J. Large fluctuations in body weight during young adulthood and 25-year risk of coronary death in men. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129:312–318. [PubMed: 2912043]
    541.
    Lindsted K, Tonstad S, Kuzma J W. Body mass index and patterns of mortality among Seventh-day Adventist men. Int J Obes. 1991;15:397–406. [PubMed: 1885263]
    542.
    Norgan N G, Jones P R. The effect of standardising the body mass index for relative sitting height. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:206–208. [PubMed: 7780498]
    543.
    Conway J M, Yanovski S Z, Avila N A, Hubbard V S. Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:765–771. [PubMed: 7702017]
    544.
    Potts J, Simmons D. Sex and ethnic group differences in fat distribution in young United Kingdom South Asians and Europids. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47:837–841. [PubMed: 7730886]
    545.
    Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (JNC VI) Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:2413–2446. [PubMed: 9385294]
    546.
    American Diabetes Association. ADA Clinical Practice Recommendations 1998. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(Suppl 1):S1–S93.
    547.
    Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SF. Smoking Cessation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, PHS, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1996. Clinical Practice Guidelines No. 18. (Bookshelf)
    548.
    Paffenbarger R S Jr, Hyde R T, Wing A L, Lee I M, Jung D L, Kampert J B. The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:538–545. [PubMed: 8426621]
    549.
    NIH Consensus Conference. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and coronary heart disease. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Triglyceride, High-Density Lipoprotein, and Coronary Heart Disease. JAMA. 1993;269:505–510. [PubMed: 8419671]
    550.
    Wadden TA, Wingate BJ. Behavioral assessment and treatment of markedly obese patients. In: Wadden TA, VanItallie TB, eds. Treatment of the Seriously Obese Patient. New York: Guilford Press; 1992:290–330.
    551.
    Stunkard AJ. Talking with patients. In: Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA, eds. Obesity Theory and Therapy. New York: Raven Press; 1993:355–363.
    552.
    Wadden TA, Wingate BJ. Compassionate treatment of the obese individual. In: Brownell KD, Fairburn CG, eds. Eating Disorders and Obesity. New York: Basic Books; 1995:564–571.
    553.
    Foster G D, Wadden T A, Vogt R A, Brewer G. What is a reasonable weight loss? Patients' expectations and evaluations of obesity treatment outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65:79–85. [PubMed: 9103737]
    554.
    Williamson D F, Serdula M K, Anada R F, Levy A, Byers T. Weight loss attempts in adults: goals, duration, and rate of weight loss. Am J Pub Health. 1992;82:1251–1257. [PMC free article: PMC1694328] [PubMed: 1503167]
    555.
    Wing R R, Blair E, Marcus M, Epstein L H H, Harvey J. Year-long weight loss treatment for obese patients with type II diabetes: does including an intermittent very-low-calorie diet improve outcome? Am J Med. 1994;97:354–362. [PubMed: 7942937]
    556.
    VanItallie T B, Yang M -U. Current concepts in nutrition: diets and weight loss. N Engl J Med. 1977;297:1158–1161. [PubMed: 917044]
    557.
    Yang M, VanItallie TB. Effect of energy restriction on body composition and nitrogen balance in obese individuals. In: Wadden TA, VanItallie TB, eds. Treatment of the Seriously Obese Patient. New York: Guilford Press; 1992:83–106.
    558.
    National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity, National Institutes of Health. Very low-calorie diets. JAME. 1993;270:967–974. [PubMed: 8345648]
    559.
    Tremblay A, Buemann B, Theriault G, Bouchard C. Body fatness in active individuals reporting low lipid and alcohol intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:824–831. [PubMed: 8557020]
    560.
    Gruchow H W, Sobocinski K A, Barboriak J J, Scheller J G. Alcohol consumption, nutrient intake and relative body weight among US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:289–295. [PubMed: 4025199]
    561.
    de Castro J M, Orozco S. Moderate alcohol intake and spontaneous eating patterns of humans: evidence of unregulated supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:246–253. [PubMed: 2375290]
    562.
    Veenstra J, Schenkel J A, van Erp-Baart A M. et al. Alcohol consumption in relation to food intake and smoking habits in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1993;47:482–489. [PubMed: 8404783]
    563.
    Tremblay A, Wouters E, Wenker M, St-Pierre S, Bouchard C, Despres J P. Alcohol and a high-fat diet: a combination favoring overfeeding. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:639–644. [PubMed: 7661127]
    564.
    Tremblay A, St-Pierre S. The hyperphagic effect of a high-fat diet and alcohol intake persists after control for energy density. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:479–482. [PubMed: 8599309]
    565.
    Poppitt S D, Eckhardt J W, McGonagle J, Murgatroyd P R, Prentice A M. Short-term effects of alcohol consumption on appetite and energy intake. Physiol Behav. 1996;60:1063–1070. [PubMed: 8884934]
    566.
    Foltin R W, Kelly T H, Fischman M W. Ethanol as an energy source in humans: comparison with dextrose-containing beverages. Appetite. 1993;20:95–110. [PubMed: 8507071]
    567.
    Butrum R R, Clifford C K, Lanza E. NCI dietary guidelines: rationale. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48(3 Suppl):888–895. [PubMed: 3046317]
    568.
    United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. Nutrition and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1988:192.
    569.
    NIH Consensus Conference. Optimal calcium intake. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Optimal Calcium Intake. JAMA. 1994;272:1942–1948. [PubMed: 7990248]
    570.
    Wadden TA, Letizia KA. Predictors of attrition and weight loss in patients treated by moderate and severe caloric restriction. In: Wadden TA, VanItallie TB, eds. Treatment of the Seriously Obese Patient. New York: Guilford Press; 1992:383–410.
    571.
    Foreyt J P, Goodrick G K. Factors common to successful therapy for the obese patient. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23:292–297. [PubMed: 2020266]
    572.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 1996.
    573.
    Blair S N, Kampert J B, Kohl H W III. et al. Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. JAMA. 1996;276:205–210. [PubMed: 8667564]
    574.
    Kohl H W, Gordon N F, Villegas J A, Blair S N. Cardiorespiratory fitness, glycemic status, and mortality risk in men. Diabetes Care. 1992;15:184–192. [PubMed: 1547675]
    575.
    Tremblay A, Nadeau A, Despres J P, St-Jean L, Theriault G, Bouchard C. Long-term exercise training with constant energy intake. 2: effect on glucose metabolism and resting energy expenditure. Int J Obes. 1990;14:75–84. [PubMed: 2179148]
    576.
    Wing R R, Marcus M D, Blair E H, Burton L R. Psychological responses of obese Type II diabetic subjects to very low-calorie diet. Diabetes Care. 1991;14:596–599. [PubMed: 1914801]
    577.
    Pate R R, Pratt M, Blair S N. et al. Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 1995;273:402–407. [PubMed: 7823386]
    578.
    NIH Consensus Conference. Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health. JAMA. 1996;276:241–246. [PubMed: 8667571]
    579.
    Wadden TA, Foster GD. Behavioral assessment and treatment of markedly obese patients. In: Wadden TA, VanItallie TB, eds. Treatment of the Seriously Obese Patient. New York: Guilford Press; 1992:290–330.
    580.
    Wadden TA. The treatment of obesity. In: Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA, eds. Obesity: Theory and Therapy. New York: Raven Press; 1993:197–217.
    581.
    Wilson GT, Fairborn CG. Treatments of eating disorders. In: Nathan PE, Gorman JM, eds. A Guide To Treatments That Work. New York: Oxford University Press; 1997:501–530.
    582.
    Schlundt D G, Hill J O, Pope-Cordle J, Arnold D, Virts K L, Katahn M. Randomized evaluation of a low fat ad libitum carbohydrate diet for weight reduction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17:623–629. [PubMed: 8281220]
    583.
    Tremblay A, Almeras N, Boer J, Kranenbarg E K, Despres J P. Diet composition and postexercise energy balance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:975–979. [PubMed: 8172103]
    584.
    King N A, Blundell J E. High-fat foods overcome the energy expenditure induced by high-intensity cycling or running. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:114–123. [PubMed: 7743984]
    585.
    NIH Technology Assessment Conference Panel. Methods for voluntary weight loss and control. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:942–949. [PubMed: 1580453]
    586.
    Atanassoff P G, Weiss B M, Schmid E R, Tornic M. Pulmonary hypertension and dexfenfluramine. Lancet. 1992;339:436. [PubMed: 1346703]
    587.
    Brenot F, Herve P, Petitpretz P, Parent F, Duroux P, Simonneau G. Primary pulmonary hypertension and fenfluramine use. Br Heart J. 1993;70:537–541. [PMC free article: PMC1025385] [PubMed: 8280518]
    588.
    Voelker R. Obesity drug renews toxicity debate. JAMA. 1994;272:1087–1088. [PubMed: 7933303]
    589.
    Food and Drug Administration. Draft Guidance Clinical Evaluation of Weight Control Drug. Rockville, MD: FDA; 1996.
    590.
    Bray G A. Use and abuse of appetite-suppressant drugs in the treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:707–713. [PubMed: 8363202]
    591.
    Galloway S M, Farquhar D L, Munro J F. The current status of antiobesity drugs. Postgrad Med J. 1984;60(Suppl 3):19–26. [PubMed: 6393107]
    592.
    National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Long-term pharmacotherapy in the management of obesity. JAMA. 1996;276:1907–1915. [PubMed: 8968018]
    593.
    Weintraub M, Bray G A. Drug treatment of obesity. Med Clin North Am. 1989;73:237–249. [PubMed: 2643006]
    594.
    MacDonald K G Jr, Long S D, Swanson M S. et al. The gastric bypass operation reduces the progression and mortality of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Gastrointest Surg. 1997;1:213–220. [PubMed: 9834350]
    595.
    Pories W J, Swanson M S, MacDonald K G Jr. et al. Who would have thought it? An operation proves to be the most effective therapy for adult-onset diabetes mellitus Ann Surg 1995. 222 339–350; discussion 350–352. [PMC free article: PMC1234815] [PubMed: 7677463]
    596.
    Harris T B, Savage P J, Tell G S, Haan M, Kumanyika S, Lynch J C. Carrying the burden of cardiovascular risk in old age: associations of weight and weight change with prevalent cardiovascular disease, risk factors, and health status in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:837–844. [PubMed: 9322558]
    597.
    Tayback M, Kumanyika S, Chee E. Body weight as a risk factor in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1065–1072. [PubMed: 2331187]
    598.
    Galanos A N, Pieper C F, Cornoni-Huntley J C, Bales C W, Fillenbaum G G. Nutrition and function: is there a relationship between body mass index and the functional capabilities of community-dwelling elderly? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994;42:368–373. [PubMed: 8144820]
    599.
    Keil J E, Gazes P C, Sutherland S E, Rust P F, Branch L G, Tyroler H A. Predictors of physical disability in elderly blacks and whites of the Charleston Heart Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42:521–529. [PubMed: 2525608]
    600.
    Launer L J, Harris T, Rumpel C, Madans J. Body mass index, weight change, and risk of mobility disability in middle-aged and older women. The epidemiologic follow-up study of NHANES I. JAMA. 1994;271:1093–1098. [PubMed: 8151851]
    601.
    Willett W C. Weight loss in the elderly: cause or effect of poor health? Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:737–738. [PubMed: 9322545]
    602.
    Galanis D J, Harris T, Sharp D S, Petrovitch H. Relative weight, weight change, and risk of coronary heart disease in the Honolulu Heart Program. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147:379–386. [PubMed: 9508105]
    603.
    Chaturvedi N, Fuller J H. Mortality risk by body weight and weight change in people with NIDDM. The WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:766–774. [PubMed: 7555501]
    604.
    Iribarren C, Sharp D S, Burchfiel C M, Petrovitch H. Association of weight loss and weight fluctuation with mortality among Japanese-American men. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:686–692. [PubMed: 7637745]
    605.
    Pamuk E R, Williamson D F, Madans J, Serdula M K, Kleinman J C, Byers T. Weight loss and mortality in a national cohort of adults, 1971-1987. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;136:686–697. [PubMed: 1442735]
    606.
    Rumpel C, Harris T B, Madans J. Modification of the relationship between the Quetelet index and mortality by weight-loss history among older women. Ann Epidemiol. 1993;3:343–350. [PubMed: 8275209]
    607.
    Wallace J I, Schwartz R S, LaCroix A Z, Uhlmann R F, Pearlman R A. Involuntary weight loss in older outpatients: incidence and clinical significance. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43:329–337. [PubMed: 7706619]
    608.
    Ensrud K E, Cauley J, Lipschutz R, Cummings S R. Weight change and fractures in older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:857–863. [PubMed: 9129545]
    609.
    Langlois J A, Harris T, Looker A C, Madans J. Weight change between age 50 years and old age is associated with risk of hip fracture in white women aged 67 years and older. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:989–994. [PubMed: 8624179]
    610.
    Shapses SA, Heymsfield SB, Ricci TA. Voluntary weight reduction increases bone turnover and loss. In: Burckhardt P, Heaney R, Dawson-Hughes B, eds. Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1998.
    611.
    Michel B A, Lane N E, Bloch D A, Jones H H, Fries J F. Effect of changes in weight-bearing exercise on lumbar bone mass after age fifty. Ann Med. 1991;23:397–401. [PubMed: 1930935]
    612.
    Marcus R, Drinkwater B, Dalsky G. et al. Osteoporosis and exercise in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(Suppl 6):S301–S307. [PubMed: 1625555]
    613.
    Gerace T A, Hollis J, Ockene J K, Svendsen K. Smoking cessation and change in diastolic blood pressure, body weight, and plasma lipids. MRFIT Research Group. Prev Med. 1991;20:602–620. [PubMed: 1758841]
    614.
    Klesges R C, Meyers A W, Klesges L M, La Vasque M E. Smoking, body weight, and their effects on smoking behavior: a comprehensive review of the literature. Psychol Bull. 1989;106:204–230. [PubMed: 2678202]
    615.
    Williamson D F, Madans J, Anda R F, Kleinman J C, Giovino G A, Byers T. Smoking cessation and severity of weight gain in a national cohort. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:739–745. [PubMed: 1997840]
    616.
    Pirie P L, Murray D M, Luepker R V. Gender differences in cigarette smoking and quitting in a cohort of young adults. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:324–327. [PMC free article: PMC1405015] [PubMed: 1994740]
    617.
    Pomerleau C S, Kurth C L. Willingness of female smokers to tolerate postcessation weight gain. J Subst Abuse. 1996;8:371–378. [PubMed: 8934441]
    618.
    Hall S M, Tunstall C D, Vila K L, Duffy J. Weight gain prevention and smoking cessation: cautionary findings. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:799–803. [PMC free article: PMC1694191] [PubMed: 1585959]
    619.
    Spring B, Pingotore R, Kesler K. Cigarette smoking and body weight: strategies to minimize weight gain after smoking cessation. Int J Obes. 1992;16:S19–S23. [PubMed: 1338318]
    620.
    Perkins K A, Epstein L H, Marks B L, Stiller R L, Jacob R G. The effect of nicotine on energy expenditure during light physical activity. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:898–903. [PubMed: 2927460]
    621.
    Stamford B A, Matter S, Fell R D, Papanek P. Effects of smoking cessation on weight gain, metabolic rate, caloric consumption, and blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;43:486–494. [PubMed: 3962901]
    622.
    Gilbert R M, Pope M A. Early effects of quitting smoking. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1982;78:121–127. [PubMed: 6817366]
    623.
    Spring B, Wurtman J, Gleason R, Wurtman R, Kessler K. Weight gain and withdrawal symptoms after smoking cessation: a preventive intervention using d-fenfluramine. Health Psychol. 1991;10:216–223. [PubMed: 1879394]
    624.
    Gross J, Stitzer M L, Maldonado J. Nicotine replacement: effects of postcessation weight gain. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;57:87–92. [PubMed: 2925978]
    625.
    Klesges R C, Klesges L M, Meyers A W, Klem M L, Isbell T. The effects of phenylpropanolamine on dietary intake, physical activity, and body weight after smoking cessation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1990;47:747–754. [PubMed: 2357868]
    626.
    Hurt R D, Sachs D P L, Clover E D. et al. A comparison of sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1195–1202. [PubMed: 9337378]
    627.
    Perri M G, Lauer J B, Yancey D Z. et al. Effects of peer support and therapist contact on long-term weight loss. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1987;55:615–617. [PubMed: 3624623]
    628.
    Broussard B A, Johnson A, Himes J H. et al. Prevalence of obesity in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1535S–1542S. [PubMed: 2031484]
    629.
    Hodge A M, Dowse G K, Toelupe P, Collins V R, Imo T, Zimmet P Z. Dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity in western Samoa over the 13 year period 1978-1991. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:419–428. [PubMed: 8081434]
    630.
    Health Care Financing Administration. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey: 1991. Percentage of medicare beneficiaries who are overweight, by race, gender, and education. Published Data. 1991.
    631.
    Avila P, Hovell M F. Physical activity training for weight loss in Latinas: a controlled trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:476–482. [PubMed: 7920873]
    632.
    Cousins J H, Rubovits D S, Dunn J K, Reeves R S, Ramirez A G, Foreyt J P. Family versus individually oriented intervention for weight loss in Mexican-American women. Public Health Rep. 1992;107:549–555. [PMC free article: PMC1403697] [PubMed: 1410236]
    633.
    Daniel E L. A multi-intervention weight management program for low-income rural women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1989;89:1310–1311. [PubMed: 2768749]
    634.
    Domel S B, Alford B B, Cattlett H N, Gench B E. Weight control for black women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1992;92:346–348. [PubMed: 1552136]
    635.
    Domel S B, Alford B B, Cattlett H N, Rodriguez M L, Gench B E. A pilot weight control program for Hispanic women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1992;92:1270–1271. [PubMed: 1401669]
    636.
    Fox R A, Haniotes H, Rotatori A. A streamlined weight loss program for moderately retarded adults in a sheltered workshop setting. Appl Res Ment Retard. 1984;5:69–79. [PubMed: 6721482]
    637.
    Heath G W, Wilson R H, Smith J, Leonard B E. Community-based exercise and weight control: diabetes risk reduction and glycemic control in Zuni Indians. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1642S–1646S. [PubMed: 2031500]
    638.
    Kanders B S, Ullmann-Joy P, Foreyt J P. et al. The black American lifestyle intervention (BALI): the design of a weight loss program for working-class African-American women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1994;94:310–312. [PubMed: 8120297]
    639.
    Kumanyika SK, Brancato J, Brewer A, et al. Interventions in the Trials of Nonpharmacologic Intervention in the Elderly. Effective approaches to weight and sodium reduction among older adults. Circulation. 1996;94:I-690.
    640.
    Kumanyika S K, Charleston J B. Lose weight and win: a church-based weight loss program for blood pressure control among black women. Patient Educ Couns. 1992;19:19–32. [PubMed: 1298945]
    641.
    Lasco R A, Curry R H, Dickson V J, Powers J, Menes S, Merritt R K. Participation rates, weight loss, and blood pressure changes among obese women in a nutrition-exercise program. Public Health Rep. 1989;104:640–646. [PMC free article: PMC1580152] [PubMed: 2511599]
    642.
    McNabb W, Quinn M, Kerver J, Cook S, Karrison T. The PATHWAYS church-based weight loss program for urban African-American women at risk for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:1518–1523. [PubMed: 9314627]
    643.
    McNabb W L, Quinn M T, Rosing L. Weight loss program for inner-city black women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Pathways. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93:75–77. [PubMed: 8417099]
    644.
    Mount M A, Kendrick O W, Draughon M, Stitt K R, Head D, Mount R. Group participation as a method to achieve weight loss and blood glucose control. J Nutr Educ. 1991;23:25–29.
    645.
    Mulrow C, Bailey S, Sonksen P H, Slavin B. Evaluation of an audiovisual diabetes education program: Negative results of a randomized trial of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Gen Intern Med. 1987;2:215–219. [PubMed: 2441013]
    646.
    Pleas J. Long-term effects of a lifestyle-change obesity treatment program with minorities. J Natl Med Assoc. 1988;80:747–752. [PMC free article: PMC2625791] [PubMed: 3404555]
    647.
    Shintani T T, Hughes C K, Beckham S, O'Connor H K. Obesity and cardiovascular risk intervention through an ad libitum feeding of traditional Hawaiian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1647S–1651S. [PubMed: 2031501]
    648.
    Sullivan J, Carter J P. A nutrition-physical fitness intervention program for low-income black parents. J Natl Med Assoc. 1985;77:39–43. [PMC free article: PMC2561818] [PubMed: 3968714]
    649.
    Gleadhill I C, Schwartz A R, Schubert N, Wise R A, Permutt S, Smith P L. Upper airway collapsibility in snorers and in patients with obstructive hypopnea and apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;143:1300–1303. [PubMed: 2048817]
    650.
    Gold A R, Schwartz A R, Wise R A, Smith P L. Pulmonary function and respiratory chemosensitivity in moderately obese patients with sleep apnea. Chest. 1993;103:1325–1329. [PubMed: 8486005]
    651.
    Block A J, Boysen P G, Wynne J W, Hunt L A. Sleep apnea, hypopnea, and oxygen desaturation in normal subjects. A strong male predominance. N Engl J Med. 1979;300:513–517. [PubMed: 216912]
    652.
    Guilleminault C, Dement WC. Sleep Apnea Syndromes. Conference on Sleep Apnea Syndromes. New York: Liss; 1978.
    653.
    Schmidt-Nowara W W. Cardiovascular consequences of sleep apnea. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1990;345:377–385. [PubMed: 2198598]
    654.
    Norton P G, Dunn E V. Snoring as a risk factor for disease: an epidemiological survey. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;291:630–632. [PMC free article: PMC1417471] [PubMed: 3928056]
    655.
    Jennum P, Hein H O, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F. Cardiovascular risk factors in snorers. A cross-sectional study of 3,323 men aged 54 to 74 years: the Copenhagen Male Study. Chest. 1992;102:1371–1376. [PubMed: 1424854]
    656.
    Stradling J R, Crosby J H. Predictors and prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring in 1001 middle aged men. Thorax. 1991;46:85–90. [PMC free article: PMC462949] [PubMed: 2014507]
    657.
    Guilleminault C, Quera-Salva M A, Partinen M, Jamieson A. Women and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest. 1988;93:104–109. [PubMed: 3335138]
    658.
    Connolly H M, Crary J L, McGoon M D. et al. Valvular heart disease associated with Fenfluramine—Phentermine. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:581–588. [PubMed: 9271479]
    659.
    Hedner J. Vascular function in OSA. Sleep. 1996;19(10 Suppl):S213–S217. [PubMed: 9085514]
    660.
    Tofler G H, Brezinski D, Schafer A I. et al. Concurrent morning increase in platelet aggregability and the risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:1514–1518. [PubMed: 3587281]
    661.
    He J, Kryger M H, Zorick F J, Conway W, Roth T. Mortality and apnea index in obstructive sleep apnea. Experience in 385 male patients. Chest. 1988;94:9–14. [PubMed: 3289839]
    662.
    Partinen M, Jamieson A, Guilleminault C. Long-term outcome for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. Mortality. Chest. 1988;94:1200–1204. [PubMed: 3191760]
    663.
    Harman E M, Wynne J W, Block A J. The effect of weight loss on sleep-disordered breathing and oxygen desaturation in morbidly obese men. Chest. 1982;82:291–294. [PubMed: 7105855]
    664.
    Charuzi I, Ovnat A, Peiser J, Saltz H, Weitzman S, Lavie P. The effect of surgical weight reduction on sleep quality in obesity-related sleep apnea syndrome. Surgery. 1985;97:535–538. [PubMed: 3992478]
    665.
    Peiser J, Lavie P, Ovnat A, Charuzi I. Sleep apnea syndrome in the morbidly obese as an indication for weight reduction surgery. Ann Surg. 1984;199:112–115. [PMC free article: PMC1353268] [PubMed: 6691724]
    666.
    Sugerman H J, Fairman R P, Baron P L, Kwentus J A. Gastric surgery for respiratory insufficiency of obesity. Chest. 1986;90:81–86. [PubMed: 3720390]
    667.
    Rubinstein I, Colapinto N, Rotstein L E, Brown I G, Hoffstein V. Improvement in upper airway function after weight loss in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988;138:1192–1195. [PubMed: 3202479]
    668.
    Smith P L, Gold A R, Meyers D A, Haponik E F, Bleecker E R. Weight loss in mildly to moderately obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:850–855. [PubMed: 3933396]
    669.
    Aubert-Tulkens G, Culee C, Rodenstein D O. Cure of sleep apnea syndrome after long-term nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy and weight loss. Sleep. 1989;12:216–222. [PubMed: 2662343]
    670.
    Pasquali R, Colella P, Cirignotta F. et al. Treatment of obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): effect of weight loss and interference of otorhinolaryngoiatric pathology. Int J Obes. 1990;14:207–217. [PubMed: 2341227]
    671.
    Suratt P M, McTier R F, Findley L J, Pohl S L, Wilhoit S C. Effect of very low-calorie diets with weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:182S–184S. [PubMed: 1615880]
    672.
    Schwartz A R, Gold A R, Schubert N. et al. Effect of weight loss on upper airway collapsibility in obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;144:494–498. [PubMed: 1892285]
    673.
    American Thoracic Society. Indications and standards for use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in sleep apnea syndromes. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 1994;150:1738–1745. [PubMed: 7952642]
    674.
    Andersson B, Elam M, Wallin B G, Bjorntorp P, Andersson O K. Effect of energy-restricted diet on sympathetic muscle nerve activity in obese women. Hypertension. 1991;18:783–789. [PubMed: 1743759]
    675.
    Andersson O K, Fagerberg B, Hedner T. Haemodynamic adjustment to weight reduction—separate effects of energy versus salt restriction. J Hypertens Suppl. 1983;1:35–37. [PubMed: 6599493]
    676.
    Collins R W, Anderson J W. Medication cost savings associated with weight loss for obese non-insulin-dependent diabetic men and women. Prev Med. 1995;24:369–374. [PubMed: 7479627]
    677.
    Darne B, Nivarong M, Tugaye A. et al. Hypocaloric diet and antihypertensive drug treatment. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Blood Press. 1993;2:130–135. [PubMed: 8180725]
    678.
    Gillett P A, Eisenman P A. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women. Res Nurs Health. 1987;10:383–390. [PubMed: 3423310]
    679.
    Treatment of Mild Hypertension Research Group. The treatment of mild hypertension study. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a nutritional-hygienic regimen along with various drug monotherapies. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1413–1423. [PubMed: 2064494]
    680.
    Jeffery R W, Gillum R, Gerber W M, Jacobs D, Elmer P J, Prineas R J. Weight and sodium reduction for the prevention of hypertension: a comparison of group treatment and individual counseling. Am J Public Health. 1983;73:691–693. [PMC free article: PMC1650850] [PubMed: 6846677]
    681.
    Kanaley J A, Andresen-Reid M L, Oenning L, Kottke B A, Jensen M D. Differential health benefits of weight loss in upper-body and lower-body obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:20–26. [PubMed: 8416660]
    682.
    Kumanyika S K. The impact of obesity on hypertension management in African Americans. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 1997;8:352–364. [PubMed: 9253227]
    683.
    Mellies M J, Vitale C, Jandacek R J, Lamkin G E, Glueck C J. The substitution of sucrose polyester for dietary fat in obese, hypercholesterolemic outpatients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;41:1–12. [PubMed: 3966411]
    684.
    Page R C, Harnden K E, Cook J T, Turner R C. Can lifestyles of subjects with impaired glucose tolerance be changed? A feasibility study. Diabet Med. 1992;9:562–566. [PubMed: 1643806]
    685.
    Ready A E, Drinkwater D T, Ducas J, Fitzpatrick D W, Brereton D G, Oades S C. Walking program reduces elevated cholesterol in women postmenopause. Can J Cardiol. 1995;11:905–912. [PubMed: 7489529]
    686.
    Rigaud D, Ryttig K R, Angel L A, Apfelbaum M. Overweight treated with energy restriction and a dietary fibre supplement: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Obes. 1990;14:763–769. [PubMed: 2172178]
    687.
    Rissanen A, Pietinen P, Siljamaki-Ojansuu U, Piirainen H, Reissel P. Treatment of hypertension in obese patients: efficacy and feasibility of weight and salt reduction programs. Acta Med Scand. 1985;218:149–156. [PubMed: 4061119]
    688.
    Ryttig K R, Rossner S. Weight maintenance after a very low calorie diet (VLCD) weight reduction period and the effects of VLCD supplementation. A prospective, randomized, comparative, controlled long-term trial. J Intern Med. 1995;238:299–306. [PubMed: 7595165]
    689.
    Singh R B, Niaz M A, Bishnoi I, Singh U, Begum R, Rastogi S S. Effect of low energy diet and weight loss on major risk factors, central obesity and associated disturbances in patients with essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1995;9:355–362. [PubMed: 7623373]
    690.
    Singh R B, Niaz M A, Ghosh S. Effect on central obesity and associated disturbances of low-energy, fruit- and vegetable-enriched prudent diet in north Indians. Postgrad Med J. 1994;70:895–900. [PMC free article: PMC2398005] [PubMed: 7870637]
    691.
    Singh R B, Rastogi S S, Sircar A R, Mehta P J, Sharma K K. Dietary strategies for risk-factor modification to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Nutrition. 1991;7:210–214. [PubMed: 1666320]
    692.
    Stokholm K H, Nielsen P E, Quaade F. Correlation between initial blood pressure and blood pressure decrease after weight loss: a study in patients with jejunoileal bypass versus medical treatment for morbid obesity. Int J Obes. 1982;6:307–312. [PubMed: 7118361]
    693.
    Walker K Z, O'Dea K, Nicholson G C, Muir J G. Dietary composition, body weight, and NIDDM. Comparison of high-fiber, high-carbohydrate, and modified-fat diets. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:401–403. [PubMed: 7555486]
    694.
    Wing R R, Jeffery R W, Burton L R, Thorson C, Kuller L H, Folsom A R. Change in waist-hip ratio with weight loss and its association with change in cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:1086–1092. [PubMed: 1595579]
    695.
    Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, Hein P, Quaade F. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese subjects on an energy-restricted diet. A double blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:269–277. [PubMed: 1318281]
    696.
    Connacher A A, Jung R T, Mitchell P E. Weight loss in obese subjects on a restricted diet given BRL 26830A, a new atypical beta adrenoceptor agonist. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988;296:1217–1220. [PMC free article: PMC2545702] [PubMed: 2898268]
    697.
    Daly P A, Krieger D R, Dulloo A G, Young J B, Landsberg L. Ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin: safety and efficacy for treatment of human obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993;17(Suppl 1):S73–S78. [PubMed: 8384187]
    698.
    Marin P, Holmang S, Jonsson L. et al. The effects of testosterone treatment on body composition and metabolism in middle-aged obese men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:991–997. [PubMed: 1335979]
    699.
    Rasmussen M H, Andersen T, Breum L, Gotzsche P C, Hilsted J. Cimetidine suspension as adjuvant to energy restricted diet in treating obesity. BMJ. 1993;306:1093–1096. [PMC free article: PMC1677486] [PubMed: 8388286]
    700.
    Coon P J, Bleecker E R, Drinkwater D T, Meyers D A, Goldberg A P. Effects of body composition and exercise capacity on glucose tolerance, insulin, and lipoprotein lipids in healthy older men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal intervention study. Metabolism. 1989;38:1201–1209. [PubMed: 2687639]
    701.
    Franz M J, Monk A, Barry B. et al. Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:1009–1017. [PubMed: 7657902]
    702.
    Milne R M, Mann J I, Chisholm A W, Williams S M. Long-term comparison of three dietary prescriptions in the treatment of NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:74–80. [PubMed: 8112194]
    703.
    Ready A E, Fitzpatrick D W, Boreskie S L, Hrycaiko D W. The response of obese females to low impact exercise and diet counselling. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1991;31:587–595. [PubMed: 1806739]
    704.
    Singman H S, Berman S N, Cowell C, Maslansky E, Archer M. The Anti-Coronary Club: 1957 to 1972. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980;33:1183–1191. [PubMed: 7386407]
    705.
    Suter E, Marti B, Gutzwiller F. Jogging or walking—comparison of health effects. Ann Epidemiol. 1994;4:375–381. [PubMed: 7981845]
    706.
    Viddal K O. Intestinal bypass. A randomized, prospective clinical study of end-to-side and end-to-end jejunoileal bypass. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1983;18:627–634. [PubMed: 6675183]
    707.
    Williams P T, Wood P D, Haskell W L, Vranizan K. The effects of running mileage and duration on plasma lipoprotein levels. JAMA. 1982;247:2674–2679. [PubMed: 6952022]
    708.
    Wing R R, Marcus M D, Salata R, Epstein L H, Miaskiewicz S, Blair E H. Effects of a very low-calorie diet on long-term glycemic control in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1334–1340. [PubMed: 2064484]
    709.
    Wing R R, Blair E, Marcus M, Epstein L H, Harvey J. Year-long weight loss treatment for obese patients with type II diabetes: does including an intermittent very low-calorie diet improve outcome? Am J Med. 1994;97:354–362. [PubMed: 7942937]
    710.
    Drent M L, Larsson I, William-Olsson T. et al. Orlistat (Ro 18-0647), a lipase inhibitor, in the treatment of human obesity: a multiple dose study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19:221–226. [PubMed: 7627244]
    711.
    Pedrinola F, Sztejnsznajd C, Lima N, Halpern A, Medeiros-Neto G. The addition of dexfenfluramine to fluoxetine in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Obes Res. 1996;4:549–554. [PubMed: 8946439]
    712.
    Connolly V M, Gallagher A, Kesson C M. A study of fluoxetine in obese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 1995;12:416–418. [PubMed: 7648804]
    713.
    Alpert M A, Terry B E, Lambert C R. et al. Factors influencing left ventricular systolic function in nonhypertensive morbidly obese patients, and effect of weight loss induced by gastroplasty. Am J Cardiol. 1993;71:733–737. [PubMed: 8447274]
    714.
    Cairella G, Cairella M, Marchini G. Effect of dietary fiber on weight correction after modified fasting. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49(Suppl 3):S325–S327. [PubMed: 8549559]
    715.
    Foster G D, Wadden T A, Peterson F J, Letizia K A, Bartlett S J, Conill A M. A controlled comparison of three very low-calorie diets: effects on weight, body composition, and symptoms. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:811–817. [PubMed: 1550063]
    716.
    Hakala P. Weight reduction programmes at a rehabilitation centre and a health centre based on group counselling and individual support: short- and long-term follow-up study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:483–489. [PubMed: 7920874]
    717.
    Han T S, Richmond P, Avenell A, Lean M E. Waist circumference reduction and cardiovascular benefits during weight loss in women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:127–134. [PubMed: 9043967]
    718.
    Lean M E, Han T S, Prvan T, Richmond P R, Avenell A. Weight loss with high and low carbohydrate 1200 kcal diets in free living women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51:243–248. [PubMed: 9104574]
    719.
    Miura J, Arai K, Tsukahara S, Ohno M, Ikeda Y. The long-term effectiveness of combined therapy by behavior modification and very low-calorie diet: 2 years followup. Int J Obes. 1989;13(Suppl 2):73–77. [PubMed: 2613431]
    720.
    Walker K Z, O'Dea K, Johnson L. et al. Body fat distribution and non-insulin-dependent diabetes: comparison of a fiber-rich, high-carbohydrate, low-fat (23%) diet and a 35% fat diet high in monounsaturated fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:254–260. [PubMed: 8561068]
    721.
    Foster G D, Wadden T A, Feurer I D. et al. Controlled trial of the metabolic effects of a very low-calorie diet: short-and long-term effects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:167–172. [PubMed: 2407096]
    722.
    Golay A, Allaz A F, Morel Y, de Tonnac N, Tankova S, Reaven G. Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:174–178. [PubMed: 8561057]
    723.
    Rossner S, Flaten H. VLCD versus LCD in long-term treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:22–26. [PubMed: 9023596]
    724.
    Jarrett R J, Keen H, Murrells T. Changes in blood pressure and body weight over ten years in men selected for glucose intolerance. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1987;41:145–151. [PMC free article: PMC1052600] [PubMed: 3655634]
    725.
    Gwinup G. Weight loss without dietary restriction: efficacy of different forms of aerobic exercise. Am J Sports Med. 1987;15:275–279. [PubMed: 3618879]
    726.
    Hespel P, Lijnen P, Van Hoof R. et al. Effects of physical endurance training on the plasma renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in normal man. J Endocrinol. 1988;116:443–449. [PubMed: 3280723]
    727.
    King A C, Taylor C B, Haskell W L, DeBusk R F. Influence of regular aerobic exercise on psychological health: a randomized, controlled trial of healthy middle-aged adults. Health Psychol. 1989;8:305–324. [PubMed: 2767021]
    728.
    Karvetti R L, Knuts L R. Effects of comprehensive rehabilitation on weight reduction in myocardial infarction patients. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1983;15:11–16. [PubMed: 6828828]
    729.
    Liao Y, Emidy L A, Gosch F C, Stamler R, Stamler J. Cardiovascular responses to exercise of participants in a trial on the primary prevention of hypertension. J Hypertens. 1987;5:317–321. [PubMed: 3611779]
    730.
    Darga L L, Carroll-Michals L, Botsford S J, Lucas C P. Fluoxetine's effect on weight loss in obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:321–325. [PubMed: 1858696]
    731.
    Elmer P J, Grimm R Jr, Laing B. et al. Lifestyle intervention: results of the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) Prev Med. 1995;24:378–388. [PubMed: 7479629]
    732.
    Foreyt J P, Ramirez A G, Cousins J H. Cuidando El Corazon—a weight-reduction intervention for Mexican Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1639S–1641S. [PubMed: 2031499]
    733.
    Hogan R B, Johnston J H, Long B W. et al. A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial of the gastric bubble for obesity. Gastrointest Endosc. 1989;35:381–385. [PubMed: 2792672]
    734.
    Marcus M D, Wing R R, Ewing L, Kern E, McDermott M, Gooding W. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine plus behavior modification in the treatment of obese binge-eaters and non-binge-eaters. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:876–881. [PubMed: 2192563]
    735.
    Stamler J, Briefel R R, Milas C, Grandits G A, Caggiula A W. Relation of changes in dietary lipids and weight, trial years 1–6, to changes in blood lipids in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:272S–288S. [PubMed: 8988942]
    736.
    Wing R R, Shoemaker M, Marcus M D, McDermott M, Gooding W. Variables associated with weight loss and improvements in glycemic control in type II diabetic patients in behavioral weight control programs. Int J Obes. 1990;14:495–503. [PubMed: 2401586]
    737.
    DeLucia J L, Kalodner C R, Horan J J. The effect of two nutritional software programs used as adjuncts to the behavioral treatment of obesity. J Subst Abuse. 1988-1989;1:203–208. [PubMed: 2980870]
    738.
    DeLucia J L, Kalodner C R. An individualized cognitive intervention: does it increase the efficacy of behavioral interventions for obesity? Addict Behav. 1990;15:473–479. [PubMed: 2248121]
    739.
    Heitzmann C A, Kaplan R M, Wilson D K, Sandler J. Sex differences in weight loss among adults with type II diabetes mellitus. J Behav Med. 1987;10:197–211. [PubMed: 3612778]
    740.
    Jeffery R W, Forster J L, French S A. et al. The Healthy Worker Project: a work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation. Am J Public Health. 1993;83:395– 401. [PMC free article: PMC1694637] [PubMed: 8438979]
    741.
    Jeffery R W, Forster J L, Snell M K. Promoting weight control at the worksite: a pilot program of self-motivation using payroll-based incentives. Prev Med. 1985;14:187–194. [PubMed: 4048081]
    742.
    Jones S E, Owens H M, Bennett G A. Does behaviour therapy work for dietitians? An experimental evaluation of the effects of three procedures in a weight reduction clinic. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr. 1986;40:272–281. [PubMed: 3759500]
    743.
    Kalodner C R, DeLucia J L. The individual and combined effects of cognitive therapy and nutrition education as additions to a behavior modification program for weight loss. Addict Behav. 1991;16:255–263. [PubMed: 1776542]
    744.
    Schwartz S H, Inbar-Saban N. Value self-confrontation as a method to aid in weight loss. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988;54:396–404. [PubMed: 3361417]
    745.
    Breum L, Astrup A, Andersen T. et al. The effect of long-term dexfenfluramine treatment on 24-hour energy expenditure in man. A double-blind placebo controlled study. Int J Obes. 1990;14:613–621. [PubMed: 2228396]
    746.
    Finer N, Finer S, Naoumova R P. Drug therapy after very-low-calorie diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:195S–198S. [PubMed: 1615883]
    747.
    Pasquali R, Cesari M P, Melchionda N, Stefanini C, Raitano A, Labo G. Does ephedrine promote weight loss in low-energy-adapted obese women? Int J Obes. 1987;11:163–168. [PubMed: 3301709]
    748.
    Weintraub M, Hasday J D, Mushlin A I, Lockwood D H. A double-blind clinical trial in weight control. Use of fenfluramine and phentermine alone and in combination. Arch Intern Med. 1984;144:1143–1148. [PubMed: 6375610]
    749.
    Weintraub M, Sundaresan P R, Schuster B. et al. Long-term weight control study. II (weeks 34 to 104). An open-label study of continuous fenfluramine plus phentermine versus targeted intermittent medication as adjuncts to behavior modification, caloric restriction, and exercise. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992;51:595–601. [PubMed: 1587073]
    750.
    Bitsch M, Skrumsager B K. Femoxetine in the treatment of obese patients in general practice. A randomized group comparative study with placebo. Int J Obes. 1987;11:183–190. [PubMed: 3301710]
    751.
    Fernandez-Soto M L, Gonzalez-Jimenez A, Barredo-Acedo F, Luna del Castillo J D, Escobar-Jimenez F. Comparison of fluoxetine and placebo in the treatment of obesity. Ann Nutr Metab. 1995;39:159–163. [PubMed: 7486842]
    752.
    Goldstein D J, Rampey A H Jr, Enas G G, Potvin J H, Fludzinski L A, Levine L R. Fluoxetine: a randomized clinical trial in the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:129–135. [PubMed: 8186809]
    753.
    Cook R F, Howard A N, Mills I H. Low-dose mianserin as adjuvant therapy in obese patients treated by a very-low-calorie diet. Int J Obes. 1981;5:267–272. [PubMed: 7024156]
    754.
    Steel J M, Munro J F, Duncan L J. A comparative trial of different regimens of fenfluramine and phentermine in obesity. Practitioner. 1973;211:232–236. [PubMed: 4580610]
    755.
    Sax L. Yohimbine does not affect fat distribution in men. Int J Obes. 1991;15:561–565. [PubMed: 1960007]
    756.
    Benjamin S B, Maher K A, Cattau E L Jr. et al. Double-blind controlled trial of the Garren-Edwards gastric bubble: an adjunctive treatment for exogenous obesity. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:581–588. [PubMed: 3294079]
    757.
    Mathus-Vliegen E M, Tytgat G N, Veldhuyzen-Offermans E A. Intragastric balloon in the treatment of super-morbid obesity. Double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover evaluation of 500-milliliter balloon. Gastroenterology. 1990;99:362–369. [PubMed: 2194894]
    758.
    Bray G A, Gray D S. Obesity. Part I—Pathogenesis. West J Med. 1988;149:429–441. [PMC free article: PMC1026489] [PubMed: 3067447]
    759.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Number and percentage of children and adolescents who were overweight by gender and race/ethnicity: United States NHANES III, 1988-1994. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997.
    760.
    National Center of Health Statistics. Center of Disease Prevention and Control, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase III. Prevalence of overweight in U.S. adults, by race/ethnicity, gender, and education, 1988-1991.
    761.
    Centers for Disease Control. Cardiac valvulopathy associated with exposure to Fenfluramine or Dexfenfluramine: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services interim public health recommendation, November 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46:1061–1065. [PubMed: 9385873]
    762.
    American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : DSM-IV. 4th ed. Washington, DC: The Association; 1994.
    763.
    Landin K, Stigendal L, Eriksson E. et al. Abdominal obesity is associated with an impaired fibrinolytic activity and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-I. Metabolism. 1990;39:1044–1048. [PubMed: 2215252]
    764.
    Reisin E, Frohlich E D, Messerli F H, Dreslinski G R. et al. Cardiovascular changes after weight reduction in obesity hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98:315–319. [PubMed: 6338789]
    765.
    Tuck M I, Sowers J, Dornfield L. et al. The effect of weight reduction on blood pressure plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone level in obese patients. N Engl J Med. 1981;304:930–933. [PubMed: 7010165]
    766.
    Rocchini A P, Key J, Bondie D. et al. The effect of weight loss on the sensitivity of blood pressure to sodium in obese adolescents. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:580–585. [PubMed: 2668763]
    767.
    Landsberg L, Krieger D R. Obesity, metabolism, and the sympathetic nervous system. Am J Hypertens. 1989;2:125S–132S. [PubMed: 2647103]
    768.
    Jacobs D B, Sowers J R. et al. Effects of weight reduction on cellular cation metabolism and vascular resistance. Hypertension. 1993;21:308–314. [PubMed: 8478040]
    769.
    Frohlich E D, Apstein C, Chobanian A V. et al. The heart in hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:998–1008. [PubMed: 1518549]
    PubReader format: click here to try

    Views

    • PubReader
    • Print View
    • Cite this Page
    • PDF version of this title (1.2M)

    Related information

    • PMC
      PubMed Central citations
    • PubMed
      Links to pubmed

    Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...