Table 2. Practice Guidelines for Surveillance of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1)a

Biochemical Test or ProcedureCondition Screened ForAge Screening Initiated (y) Frequency
Serum prolactin and/or insulin-like growth factor 1Pituitary tumors5Every 1 y
Fasting total serum calcium and/or ionized calcium and PTHParathyroid tumors and PHPT8 Every 1 y
Fasting serum gastrinDuodenopancreatic gastrinoma 20 Every 1 y
Chromogranin A, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, and vasointestinal polypeptidePancreatic NETs<10 Every 1 y
Fasting glucose and insulinInsulinoma5 Every 1 y
Brain MRIPituitary tumors5 Every 3–5 y based on biochemical results
Abdominal CT or MRIb [4]Pancreatic NETs20Every 3–5 y based on biochemical results
Abdominal CT, MRI, or endoscopic USb [38]Pancreatic NETs<10Every 1 y

CT = computed tomography; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; NETs = neuroendocrine tumors; PHPT = primary hyperparathyroidism; PTH = parathyroid hormone; US = ultrasound.

aAdapted from Brandi et al. [4] and Thakker et al. [38].

bThe recommendations for abdominal imaging differ between two published guidelines for the diagnosis and management of MEN1.[4,38] There is weak evidence at this time to support annual imaging before age 10 years. Imaging before age 10 years does identify disease in a high proportion of patients, but it is not clear whether this impacts prognosis.[21,59]

From: Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®)

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PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet].
Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-.

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