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National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK). Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management [Internet]. London: Royal College of Physicians (UK); 2010 Jul. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 103.)

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Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management [Internet].

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Appendix GExcluded studies (part A) and excluded studies reference list (part B)

Appendix G. Excluded Studies

Diagnostic Test Accuracy

StudyReason for exclusion
Adamis 2005Reference standard not of interest
Bergeron 2001Index test not of interest
Cacchione 2002Index test not of interest
Cameron 1987Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
de Negriros 2008Reference standard not of interest
de Rooij 2006Not relevant outcome
Hare 2008Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
Immers 2005Index test not of interest
Inouye 2005Index test not of interest
Meagher 2008Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
O’Keeffe 1994Index test not of interest
Rockwood 1996Index test not of interest
RosenReference standard not of interest
Ruffo 2002Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
Swain 2000Reference standard not of interest
Treloar 1997Index test not of interest
Trzepacz 2001Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
Voyer 2009Not relevant outcome
Wei 2008Review

Appendix G: References to excluded studies

  • Fluoroquinolones: Psychiatric Adverse Effects. Prescrire International. 2008;17(93):20. [No authors listed] [PubMed: 18383638]
  • Inhaled and Nasal Steroids: Mental Disorders. Prescrire International. 2008;17(93):20–1. [No authors listed] [PubMed: 18386394]
  • Adamis D, Morrison C, Treloar A, Macdonald AJ, Martin FC. The Performance of the Clock Drawing Test in Elderly Medical Inpatients: Does It Have Utility in the Identification of Delirium? Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology. 2005;18(3):129–33. [PubMed: 16100101]
  • Adamis D, Martin FC, Treloar A, Macdonald AJD. Capacity, Consent, and Selection Bias in a Study of Delirium. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2005;31(3):137–43. [PMC free article: PMC1734111] [PubMed: 15738432]
  • Adunsky A, Levy R, Heim M, Mizrahi E, Arad M. Meperidine Analgesia and Delirium in Aged Hip Fracture Patients. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2002;35(3):253–9. [PubMed: 14764364]
  • Agnoletti V, Ansaloni L, Catena F, Chattat R, De Cataldis A, Di Nino G, Franceschi C, Gagliardi S, Melotti RM, Potalivo A, Taffurelli M. Postoperative Delirium After Elective and Emergency Surgery: Analysis and Checking of Risk Factors. A Study Protocol. BMC Surgery. 2005;5:12. [PMC free article: PMC1156916] [PubMed: 15921527]
  • Aizawa K, Kanai T, Saikawa Y, Takabayashi T, Kawano Y, Miyazawa N, Yamamoto T. A Novel Approach to the Prevention of Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly After Gastrointestinal Surgery. Surgery Today. 2002;32(4):310–4. [PubMed: 12027195]
  • Aldemir M, Ozen S, Kara IH, Sir A, Bac B. Predisposing Factors for Delirium in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. Critical Care. 2001;5(5):265–70. [PMC free article: PMC83853] [PubMed: 11737901]
  • Amador LF. Postoperative Delirium in the Older Patient. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2005;200(5):767–73. [PubMed: 15848371]
  • Ames D, Flynn E, Harrigan S. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Inpatients of an Acute Geriatric Hospital. Australasian Journal on Ageing. 1994;13(1):8–11.
  • Andersson EM, Gustafson L, Hallberg IR. Acute Confusional State in Elderly Orthopaedic Patients: Factors of Importance for Detection in Nursing Care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2001;16(1):7–17. [PubMed: 11180480]
  • Andersson EM, Hallberg IR, Norberg A, Edberg AK. The Meaning of Acute Confusional State From the Perspective of Elderly Patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2002;17(7):652–63. [PubMed: 12112164]
  • Astaneh AN. The Multi Component Intervention to Prevent Postoperative Delirium After Open-Heart Surgery. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;23(2):188–92.
  • Balasundaram B, Holmes J. Delirium in Vascular Surgery. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 2007;34(2):131–4. [PubMed: 17498980]
  • Baldwin R, Pratt H, Goring H, Marriott A, Roberts C. Does a Nurse-Led Mental Health Liaison Service for Older People Reduce Psychiatric Morbidity in Acute General Medical Wards? A Randomised Controlled Trial. Age and Ageing. 2004;33(5):472–8. [PubMed: 15217778]
  • Beaupre LA, Cinats JG, Senthilselvan A, Lier D, Jones CA, Scharfenberger A, Johnston DW, Saunders LD. Reduced Morbidity for Elderly Patients With a Hip Fracture After Implementation of a Perioperative Evidence-Based Clinical Pathway. Quality and Safety in Health Care. 2006;15(5):375–9. [PMC free article: PMC2565826] [PubMed: 17074877]
  • Bekker AY, Weeks EJ. Cognitive Function After Anaesthesia in the Elderly, Best Practice and Research, Clinical Anaesthesiology. 2003;17(2):259–72. [PubMed: 12817919]
  • Bergeron N, Dubois MJ, Dumont M, Dial S, Skrobik Y. Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist: Evaluation of a New Screening Tool. Intensive Care Medicine. 2001;27(5):859–64. [PubMed: 11430542]
  • Bergeron N, Skrobik Y, Dubois M-J. Delirium in Critically Ill Patients. Critical Care. 2002;6(3):181–2. [PMC free article: PMC137438] [PubMed: 12133171]
  • Blass JP, Gibson GE. Cerebrometabolic Aspects of Delirium in Relationship to Dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):335–8. [PubMed: 10473934]
  • Blondell RD, Powell GE, Dodds HN, Looney SW, Lukan JK. Admission Characteristics of Trauma Patients in Whom Delirium Develops. American Journal of Surgery. 2004;187(3):332–7. [PubMed: 15006560]
  • Bond SM, Neelon VJ, Belyea MJ. Delirium in Hospitalized Older Patients With Cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2006;33(6):1075–83. [PubMed: 17149391]
  • Boockvar KS, Litke A, Penrod JD, Halm EA, Morrison RS, Silberzweig SB, Magaziner J, Koval K, Siu AL. Patient Relocation in the 6 Months After Hip Fracture: Risk Factors for Fragmented Care. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2004;52(11):1826–31. [PMC free article: PMC1447596] [PubMed: 15507058]
  • Brannstrom B. Care of the Delirious Patient. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):416–9. [PubMed: 10473950]
  • Breitbart W, Marotta R, Platt MM, Weisman H, Derevenco M, Grau C, Corbera K, Raymond S, Lund S, Jacobson P. A Double-Blind Trial of Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine, and Lorazepam in the Treatment of Delirium in Hospitalized AIDS Patients. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;153(2):231–7. [PubMed: 8561204]
  • Breitbart W, Gibson C, Tremblay A. The Delirium Experience: Delirium Recall and Delirium-Related Distress in Hospitalized Patients With Cancer, Their Spouses/Caregivers, and Their Nurses. Psychosomatics. 2002;43(3):183–94. [PubMed: 12075033]
  • Bruce AJ, Ritchie CW, Blizard R, Lai R, Raven P. The Incidence of Delirium Associated With Orthopedic Surgery: a Meta-Analytic Review. International Psychogeriatrics. 2007;19(2):197–214. [PubMed: 16973101]
  • Bruera E, Bush SH, Willey J, Paraskevopoulos T, Li Z, Palmer JL, Cohen MZ, Sivesind D, Elsayem A. Impact of Delirium and Recall on the Level of Distress in Patients With Advanced Cancer and Their Family Caregivers. Cancer. 2009;115(9):2004–12. [PMC free article: PMC2752862] [PubMed: 19241420]
  • Bryson GL, Wyand A. Evidence-Based Clinical Update: General Anesthesia and the Risk of Delirium and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2006;53(7):669–77. [PubMed: 16803914]
  • Bucht G, Gustafson Y, Sandberg O. Epidemiology of Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):315–8. [PubMed: 10473930]
  • Buis CI, Wiesner RH, Krom RA, Kremers WK, Wijdicks EF. Acute Confusional State Following Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease. Neurology. 2002;59(4):601–5. [PubMed: 12196657]
  • Cacchione PZ. Four Acute Confusion Assessment Instruments: Reliability and Validity for Use in Long-Term Care Facilities. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2002;28(1):12–9. [PubMed: 11829220]
  • Cacchione PZ, Culp K, Dyck MJ, Laing J. Risk for Acute Confusion in Sensory-Impaired, Rural, Long-Term-Care Elders. Clinical Nursing Research. 2003;12(4):340–55. [PubMed: 14620691]
  • Cacchione PZ, Culp K, Laing J, Tripp Reimer T. Clinical Profile of Acute Confusion in the Long-Term Care Setting. Clinical Nursing Research. 2003;12(2):145–58. [PubMed: 12741667]
  • Cameron DJ, Thomas RI, Mulvihill M, Bronheim H. Delirium: a Test of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III Criteria on Medical Inpatients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1987;35(11):1007–10. [PubMed: 3499457]
  • Caplan G. Does ‘Hospital in the Home’ Treatment Prevent Delirium? Aging Health. 2008;4(1):69–74.
  • Caplan JP. Haloperidol and Delirium: Management or Treatment? Critical Care Medicine. 2009;37(1):354–5. [PubMed: 19112303]
  • Cavaliere F, D’Ambrosio F, Volpe C, Masieri S. Postoperative Delirium. Current Drug Targets. 2005;6(7):807–14. [PubMed: 16305459]
  • Clark LR, Fraaza V, Schroeder S, Maddens ME. Alternative Nursing Environments: Do They Affect Hospital Outcomes? Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1995;21(11):32–8. [PubMed: 7594255]
  • Clayer M, Bruckner J. Occult Hypoxia After Femoral Neck Fracture and Elective Hip Surgery. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2000;(370):265–71. [PubMed: 10660722]
  • Cole MG. Delirium: Effectiveness of Systematic Interventions. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):406–11. [PubMed: 10473948]
  • Corsinovi L, Bo M, Ricauda AN, Marinello R, Gariglio F, Marchetto C, Gastaldi L, Fissore L, Zanocchi M, Molaschi M. Predictors of Falls and Hospitalization Outcomes in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Acute Geriatric Unit. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2009;49(1):142–5. [PubMed: 18674824]
  • Culp K, Tripp-Reimer T, Wadle K, Wakefield B, Akins J, Mobily P, Kundradt M. Screening for Acute Confusion in Elderly Long-Term Care Residents. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 1995;29(2):86–8. [PubMed: 9140844]
  • Dai Y-T. Risk Factors and Incidence of Postoperative Delirium Elderly Chinese Patients. Gerontology. 2000;46(1):28–35. [PubMed: 11111226]
  • Dasgupta M, Dumbrell AC. Preoperative Risk Assessment for Delirium After Noncardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2006;54(10):1578–89. [PubMed: 17038078]
  • Dautzenberg PL, Mulder LJ, Olde Rikkert MG, Wouters CJ, Loonen AJ. Delirium in Elderly Hospitalised Patients: Protective Effects of Chronic Rivastigmine Usage. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2004;19(7):641–4. [PubMed: 15254920]
  • de Jonghe JF, Kalisvaart KJ, Dijkstra M, van Dis H, Vreeswijk R, Kat MG, Eikelenboom P, van der PT, van Gool WA. Early Symptoms in the Prodromal Phase of Delirium: a Prospective Cohort Study in Elderly Patients Undergoing Hip Surgery. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2007;15(2):112–21. [PubMed: 17272731]
  • de Negreiros DP, Silva Meleiro AMA, Furlanetto LM, Trzepacz PT. Portuguese Version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98: Reliability and Validity. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2008;23(5):472–7. [PubMed: 17922493]
  • de Rooij SE, van Munster BC, Korevaar JC, Casteelen G, Schuurmans MJ, RC, Levi M. Delirium Subtype Identification and the Validation of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (Dutch Version) in Hospitalized Elderly Patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2006;21(9):876–82. [PubMed: 16955454]
  • Del Rosario E, Esteve N, Sernandez MJ, Batet C, Aguilar JL. Does Femoral Nerve Analgesia Impact the Development of Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly? A Retrospective Investigation. Acute Pain. 2008;10(2):59–64.
  • Demeure MJ. The Elderly Surgical Patient and Postoperative Delirium. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2006;203(5):752–7. [PubMed: 17084339]
  • Dosa D, Intrator O, McNicoll L, Cang Y, Teno J. Preliminary Derivation of a Nursing Home Confusion Assessment Method Based on Data From the Minimum Data Set. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2007;55(7):1099–105. [PubMed: 17608886]
  • Duggleby W, Lander J. Cognitive Status and Postoperative Pain: Older Adults. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 1994;9(1):19–27. [PubMed: 8169456]
  • Duppils GS, Wikblad K. Cognitive Function and Health-Related Quality of Life After Delirium in Connection With Hip Surgery. A Six-Month Follow-Up. Orthopaedic Nursing. 2004;23(3):195–203. [PubMed: 15211901]
  • Dyer CB, Ashton CM, Teasdale TA. Postoperative Delirium. A Review of 80 Primary Data-Collection Studies. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1995;155(5):461–5. [PubMed: 7864702]
  • Dyrud JE Jr. Posttransplantation Delirium: A Review. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. 2004;9(4):428–31.
  • Eeles E, Rockwood K. Delirium in the Long-Term Care Setting: Clinical and Research Challenges. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2008;9(3):157–61. [PubMed: 18294597]
  • Eikelenboom P, Hoogendijk WJ. Do Delirium and Alzheimer’s Dementia Share Specific Pathogenetic Mechanisms? Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):319–24. [PubMed: 10473931]
  • Ely EW, Stephens RK, Jackson JC, Thomason JWW, Truman B, Gordon S, Dittus RS, Bernard GR. Current Opinions Regarding the Importance, Diagnosis, and Management of Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit: A Survey of 912 Healthcare Professionals. Critical Care Medicine. 2004;32(1):106–12. [PubMed: 14707567]
  • Eriksson M, Samuelsson E, Gustafson Y, Aberg T, Engstrom KG. Delirium After Coronary Bypass Surgery Evaluated by the Organic Brain Syndrome Protocol. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. 2002;36(4):250–5. [PubMed: 12201975]
  • Eriksson S. Social and Environmental Contributants to Delirium in the Elderly. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):350–2. [PubMed: 10473938]
  • Faezah SK, Zhang D, Yin LF. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Delirium Amongst the Elderly in Acute Hospital. Singapore Nursing Journal. 2008;35(1):11–4.
  • Fainsinger RI, De Moissac D, Mancini I, Oneschuk D. Sedation for Delirium and Other Symptoms in Terminally Ill Patients in Edmonton. Journal of Palliative Care. 2000;16(2):5–10. [PubMed: 10887726]
  • Ferro JM, Caeiro L, Verdelho A. Delirium in Acute Stroke. Current Opinion in Neurology. 2002;15(1):51–5. [PubMed: 11796951]
  • Fick DM, Agostini JV, Inouye SK. Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: a Systematic Review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2002;50(10):1723–32. [PubMed: 12366629]
  • Fick DM, Kolanowski AM, Waller JL, Inouye SK. Delirium Superimposed on Dementia in a Community-Dwelling Managed Care Population: a 3-Year Retrospective Study of Occurrence, Costs, and Utilization. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2005;60A(6):748–53. [PubMed: 15983178]
  • Fisher BW, Flowerdew G. A Simple Model for Predicting Postoperative Delirium in Older Patients Undergoing Elective Orthopedic Surgery. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1995;43(2):175–8. [PubMed: 7836644]
  • Flood KL, Carroll MB, Le CV, Ball L, Esker DA, Carr DB. Geriatric Syndromes in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Oncology-Acute Care for Elders Unit. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2006;24(15):2298–303. [PubMed: 16710027]
  • Fricchione GL, Nejad SH, Esses JA, Cummings TJJ, Querques J, Cassem NH, Murray GB. Postoperative Delirium. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008;165(7):803–12. [PubMed: 18593786]
  • Gagnon P, Allard P, Mâsse B, DeSerres M. Delirium in Terminal Cancer: a Prospective Study Using Daily Screening, Early Diagnosis, and Continuous Monitoring. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2000;19(6):412–26. [PubMed: 10908822]
  • Ganai SL. Adverse Outcomes of Geriatric Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery Who Are at High Risk for Delirium. Archives of Surgery. 2007;142(11):1072–8. [PubMed: 18025336]
  • Gao R, Yang ZZ, Li M, Shi ZC, Fu Q. Probable Risk Factors for Postoperative Delirium in Patients Undergoing Spinal Surgery. European Spine Journal. 2008;17(11):1531–7. [PMC free article: PMC2583180] [PubMed: 18795347]
  • Geary SM. Intensive Care Unit Psychosis Revisited: Understanding and Managing Delirium in the Critical Care Setting. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly. 1994;17(1):51–63. [PubMed: 8180848]
  • George J, Bleasdale S, Singleton SJ. Causes and Prognosis of Delirium in Elderly Patients Admitted to a District General Hospital. Age and Ageing. 1997;26(6):423–7. [PubMed: 9466291]
  • George J, Lee S. Clinical Management. Delirium in Terminal Illness. European Journal of Palliative Care. 2005;12(5):185–7.
  • Gerdner LA. Individualized Music Intervention Protocol. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1999;25(10):10–6. [PubMed: 10776148]
  • Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Wesley EW. Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit. Critical Care. 2008;12(SUPPL 3) [PMC free article: PMC2391269] [PubMed: 18495054]
  • Hallberg IR. Impact of Delirium on Professionals. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):420–5. [PubMed: 10473951]
  • Hamann J, Bickel H, Schwaibold H, Hartung R, Forstl H. Postoperative Acute Confusional State in Typical Urologic Population: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Strategies for Prevention. Urology. 2005;65(3):449–53. [PubMed: 15780353]
  • Han CS, Kim YK. A Double-Blind Trial of Risperidone and Haloperidol for the Treatment of Delirium. Psychosomatics. 2004;45(4):297–301. [PubMed: 15232043]
  • Harari D, Martin FC, Buttery A, O’Neill S, Hopper A. The Older Persons’ Assessment and Liaison Team ‘OPAL’: Evaluation of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Acute Medical Inpatients. Age and Ageing. 2007;36(6):670–5. [PubMed: 17656421]
  • Hare M, Wynaden D, McGowan S, Speed G. Assessing Cognition in Elderly Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department. International Emergency Nursing. 2008;16(2):73–9. [PubMed: 18519057]
  • Hashimoto H, Nakamura K, Izumiyama N. Postoperative Delirium Easily Develops in Patients With Intramitochondrial Inclusion Bodies in Colonic Neurons. Aging-Clinical and Experimental Research. 1997;9(3):180–4. [PubMed: 9258376]
  • Hjermstad MJ, Loge JH, Kaasa S. Methods for Assessment of Cognitive Failure and Delirium in Palliative Care Patients: Implications for Practice and Research. Palliative Medicine. 2004;18(6):494–506. [PubMed: 15453620]
  • Hofste WJ, Linssen CA, Boezeman EH, Hengeveld JS, Leusink JA, de Boer A. Delirium and Cognitive Disorders After Cardiac Operations: Relationship to Pre- and Intraoperative Quantitative Electroencephalogram. International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing. 1997;14(1):29–36. [PubMed: 9127782]
  • Holden J, Jayathissa S, Young G. Delirium Among Elderly General Medical Patients in a New Zealand Hospital. Internal Medicine Journal. 2008;38(8):629–34. [PubMed: 18284464]
  • Holmes JD, House AO. Psychiatric Illness in Hip Fracture. Age and Ageing. 2000;29(6):537–46. [PubMed: 11191247]
  • Holroyd S, Laurie S. Correlates of Psychotic Symptoms Among Elderly Outpatients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1999;14(5):379–84. [PubMed: 10389042]
  • Hu H. Olanzapine and Haloperidol for Senile Delirium: A Randomized Controlled Observation. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2006;10(42):188–90.
  • Huang SC, Tsai SJ, Chan CH, Hwang JP, Sim CB. Characteristics and Outcome of Delirium in Psychiatric Inpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 1998;52(1):47–50. [PubMed: 9682932]
  • Hwang J-P, Yang C-H, Lee T-W, Tsai S-J. The Efficacy and Safety of Olanzapine for the Treatment of Geriatric Psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2003;23(2):113–8. [PubMed: 12640211]
  • Immers HE, Schuurmans MJ, van de Bijl JJ. Recognition of Delirium in ICU Patients: a Diagnostic Study of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale in ICU Patients. BMC Nursing. 2005;4:7. [PMC free article: PMC1352361] [PubMed: 16351715]
  • Inouye SK, Leo-Summers L, Zhang Y, Bogardus ST Jr, Leslie DL, Agostini JV. A Chart-Based Method for Identification of Delirium: Validation Compared With Interviewer Ratings Using the Confusion Assessment Method. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2005;53(2):312–8. [PubMed: 15673358]
  • Iseli RK, Brand C, Telford M, LoGiudice D. Delirium in Elderly General Medical Inpatients: a Prospective Study. Internal Medicine Journal. 2007;37(12):806–11. [PubMed: 17517079]
  • Jarrett PG, Rockwood K, Carver D, Stolee P, Cosway S. Illness Presentation in Elderly Patients. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1995;155(10):1060–4. [PubMed: 7748049]
  • Johnson J. Identifying and Recognizing Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):353–8. [PubMed: 10473939]
  • Joosten E, Lemiengre J, Nelis T, Verbeke G, Milisen K. Is Anaemia a Risk Factor for Delirium in an Acute Geriatric Population? Gerontology. 2006;52(6):382–5. [PubMed: 16914932]
  • Justic M. Does “ICU Psychosis” Really Exist? Critical Care Nurse. 2000;20(3):28–39. [PubMed: 11876211]
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  • Kawaguchi Y, Kanamori M, Ishihara H, Abe Y, Nobukiyo M, Sigeta T, Hori T, Kimura T. Postoperative Delirium in Spine Surgery. Spine Journal. 2006;6(2):164–9. [PubMed: 16517388]
  • Kelly KG, Zisselman M, Cutillo-Schmitter T, Reichard R, Payne D, Denman SJ. Severity and Course of Delirium in Medically Hospitalized Nursing Facility Residents. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2001;9(1):72–7. [PubMed: 11156755]
  • Khasraghi FA, Lee EJ, Christmas C, Wenz JF. The Economic Impact of Medical Complications in Geriatric Patients With Hip Fracture. Orthopedics. 2003;26(1):49–53. [PubMed: 12555834]
  • Kiely DK, Bergmann MA, Murphy KM, Jones RN, Orav EJ, Marcantonio ER. Delirium Among Newly Admitted Postacute Facility Patients: Prevalence, Symptoms, and Severity. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2003;58(5):M441–445. [PubMed: 12730254]
  • Kiely DK, Bergmann MA, Jones RN, Murphy KM, Orav EJ, Marcantonio ER. Characteristics Associated With Delirium Persistence Among Newly Admitted Post-Acute Facility Patients. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2004;59A(4):344–9. [PubMed: 15071077]
  • Kishi Y, Iwasaki Y, Takezawa K, Kurosawa H, Endo S. Delirium in Critical Care Unit Patients Admitted Through an Emergency Room. General Hospital Psychiatry. 1995;17(5):371–9. [PubMed: 8522152]
  • Koebrugge B, Koek HL, Van Wensen RJA, Dautzenberg PLJ, Bosscha K. Delirium After Abdominal Surgery at a Surgical Ward With a High Standard of Delirium Care: Incidence, Risk Factors and Outcomes. Digestive Surgery. 2009;26(1):63–8. [PubMed: 19169032]
  • Koponen H, Stenback U, Mattila E, Soininen H, Reinikainen K, Riekkinen PJ. Delirium Among Elderly Persons Admitted to a Psychiatric Hospital: Clinical Course During the Acute Stage and One-Year Follow-Up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1989;79(6):579–85. [PubMed: 2763853]
  • Koponen HJ. Neurochemistry and Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):339–41. [PubMed: 10473935]
  • Koster S, Hensens AG, van der PJ. The Long-Term Cognitive and Functional Outcomes of Postoperative Delirium After Cardiac Surgery. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2009;87(5):1469–74. [PubMed: 19379886]
  • Kuwahara M, Yurugi S, Mashiba K, Iioka H, Niitsuma K, Noda T. Postoperative Delirium in Plastic or Dermatologic Surgery. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2008;31(4):171–4.
  • Lam PT, Tse CY, Lee CH. Delirium in a Palliative Care Unit. Progress in Palliative Care. 2003;11(3):126–33.
  • Laurila JV, Pitkala KH, Strandberg TE, Tilvis RS. Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on Prognosis of Delirium: a Prospective Study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2004;18(3–4):240–4. [PubMed: 15286453]
  • Laurila JV, Laakkonen M-L, Timo SE, eijo TS. Predisposing and Precipitating Factors for Delirium in a Frail Geriatric Population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2008;65(3):249–54. [PubMed: 18707947]
  • Lawlor PG, Gagnon B, Mancini IL, Pereira JL, Hanson J, Suarez-Almazor ME, Bruera ED. Occurrence, Causes, and Outcome of Delirium in Patients With Advanced Cancer: a Prospective Study. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000;160(6):786–94. [PubMed: 10737278]
  • Lazarus HR, Hagens JH. Prevention of Psychosis Following Open-Heart Surgery. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1968;124(9):1190–5. [PubMed: 5637907]
  • Lepouse C, Lautner CA, Liu L, Gomis P, Leon A. Emergence Delirium in Adults in the Post-Anaesthesia Care Unit. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2006;96(6):747–53. [PubMed: 16670111]
  • Lerner AJ, Hedera P, Koss E, Stuckey J, Friedland RP. Delirium in Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. 1997;11(1):16–20. [PubMed: 9071440]
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