NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK). Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management [Internet]. London: Royal College of Physicians (UK); 2010 Jul. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 103.)

Cover of Delirium

Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management [Internet].

Show details

Appendix GExcluded studies (part A) and excluded studies reference list (part B)

Appendix G. Excluded Studies

Diagnostic Test Accuracy

StudyReason for exclusion
Adamis 2005Reference standard not of interest
Bergeron 2001Index test not of interest
Cacchione 2002Index test not of interest
Cameron 1987Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
de Negriros 2008Reference standard not of interest
de Rooij 2006Not relevant outcome
Hare 2008Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
Immers 2005Index test not of interest
Inouye 2005Index test not of interest
Meagher 2008Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
O’Keeffe 1994Index test not of interest
Rockwood 1996Index test not of interest
RosenReference standard not of interest
Ruffo 2002Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
Swain 2000Reference standard not of interest
Treloar 1997Index test not of interest
Trzepacz 2001Not a diagnostic test accuracy study
Voyer 2009Not relevant outcome
Wei 2008Review

Appendix G: References to excluded studies

  • Fluoroquinolones: Psychiatric Adverse Effects. Prescrire International. 2008;17(93):20. [No authors listed] [PubMed: 18383638]
  • Inhaled and Nasal Steroids: Mental Disorders. Prescrire International. 2008;17(93):20–1. [No authors listed] [PubMed: 18386394]
  • Adamis D, Morrison C, Treloar A, Macdonald AJ, Martin FC. The Performance of the Clock Drawing Test in Elderly Medical Inpatients: Does It Have Utility in the Identification of Delirium? Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology. 2005;18(3):129–33. [PubMed: 16100101]
  • Adamis D, Martin FC, Treloar A, Macdonald AJD. Capacity, Consent, and Selection Bias in a Study of Delirium. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2005;31(3):137–43. [PMC free article: PMC1734111] [PubMed: 15738432]
  • Adunsky A, Levy R, Heim M, Mizrahi E, Arad M. Meperidine Analgesia and Delirium in Aged Hip Fracture Patients. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2002;35(3):253–9. [PubMed: 14764364]
  • Agnoletti V, Ansaloni L, Catena F, Chattat R, De Cataldis A, Di Nino G, Franceschi C, Gagliardi S, Melotti RM, Potalivo A, Taffurelli M. Postoperative Delirium After Elective and Emergency Surgery: Analysis and Checking of Risk Factors. A Study Protocol. BMC Surgery. 2005;5:12. [PMC free article: PMC1156916] [PubMed: 15921527]
  • Aizawa K, Kanai T, Saikawa Y, Takabayashi T, Kawano Y, Miyazawa N, Yamamoto T. A Novel Approach to the Prevention of Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly After Gastrointestinal Surgery. Surgery Today. 2002;32(4):310–4. [PubMed: 12027195]
  • Aldemir M, Ozen S, Kara IH, Sir A, Bac B. Predisposing Factors for Delirium in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. Critical Care. 2001;5(5):265–70. [PMC free article: PMC83853] [PubMed: 11737901]
  • Amador LF. Postoperative Delirium in the Older Patient. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2005;200(5):767–73. [PubMed: 15848371]
  • Ames D, Flynn E, Harrigan S. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Inpatients of an Acute Geriatric Hospital. Australasian Journal on Ageing. 1994;13(1):8–11.
  • Andersson EM, Gustafson L, Hallberg IR. Acute Confusional State in Elderly Orthopaedic Patients: Factors of Importance for Detection in Nursing Care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2001;16(1):7–17. [PubMed: 11180480]
  • Andersson EM, Hallberg IR, Norberg A, Edberg AK. The Meaning of Acute Confusional State From the Perspective of Elderly Patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2002;17(7):652–63. [PubMed: 12112164]
  • Astaneh AN. The Multi Component Intervention to Prevent Postoperative Delirium After Open-Heart Surgery. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;23(2):188–92.
  • Balasundaram B, Holmes J. Delirium in Vascular Surgery. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 2007;34(2):131–4. [PubMed: 17498980]
  • Baldwin R, Pratt H, Goring H, Marriott A, Roberts C. Does a Nurse-Led Mental Health Liaison Service for Older People Reduce Psychiatric Morbidity in Acute General Medical Wards? A Randomised Controlled Trial. Age and Ageing. 2004;33(5):472–8. [PubMed: 15217778]
  • Beaupre LA, Cinats JG, Senthilselvan A, Lier D, Jones CA, Scharfenberger A, Johnston DW, Saunders LD. Reduced Morbidity for Elderly Patients With a Hip Fracture After Implementation of a Perioperative Evidence-Based Clinical Pathway. Quality and Safety in Health Care. 2006;15(5):375–9. [PMC free article: PMC2565826] [PubMed: 17074877]
  • Bekker AY, Weeks EJ. Cognitive Function After Anaesthesia in the Elderly, Best Practice and Research, Clinical Anaesthesiology. 2003;17(2):259–72. [PubMed: 12817919]
  • Bergeron N, Dubois MJ, Dumont M, Dial S, Skrobik Y. Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist: Evaluation of a New Screening Tool. Intensive Care Medicine. 2001;27(5):859–64. [PubMed: 11430542]
  • Bergeron N, Skrobik Y, Dubois M-J. Delirium in Critically Ill Patients. Critical Care. 2002;6(3):181–2. [PMC free article: PMC137438] [PubMed: 12133171]
  • Blass JP, Gibson GE. Cerebrometabolic Aspects of Delirium in Relationship to Dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):335–8. [PubMed: 10473934]
  • Blondell RD, Powell GE, Dodds HN, Looney SW, Lukan JK. Admission Characteristics of Trauma Patients in Whom Delirium Develops. American Journal of Surgery. 2004;187(3):332–7. [PubMed: 15006560]
  • Bond SM, Neelon VJ, Belyea MJ. Delirium in Hospitalized Older Patients With Cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2006;33(6):1075–83. [PubMed: 17149391]
  • Boockvar KS, Litke A, Penrod JD, Halm EA, Morrison RS, Silberzweig SB, Magaziner J, Koval K, Siu AL. Patient Relocation in the 6 Months After Hip Fracture: Risk Factors for Fragmented Care. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2004;52(11):1826–31. [PMC free article: PMC1447596] [PubMed: 15507058]
  • Brannstrom B. Care of the Delirious Patient. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):416–9. [PubMed: 10473950]
  • Breitbart W, Marotta R, Platt MM, Weisman H, Derevenco M, Grau C, Corbera K, Raymond S, Lund S, Jacobson P. A Double-Blind Trial of Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine, and Lorazepam in the Treatment of Delirium in Hospitalized AIDS Patients. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;153(2):231–7. [PubMed: 8561204]
  • Breitbart W, Gibson C, Tremblay A. The Delirium Experience: Delirium Recall and Delirium-Related Distress in Hospitalized Patients With Cancer, Their Spouses/Caregivers, and Their Nurses. Psychosomatics. 2002;43(3):183–94. [PubMed: 12075033]
  • Bruce AJ, Ritchie CW, Blizard R, Lai R, Raven P. The Incidence of Delirium Associated With Orthopedic Surgery: a Meta-Analytic Review. International Psychogeriatrics. 2007;19(2):197–214. [PubMed: 16973101]
  • Bruera E, Bush SH, Willey J, Paraskevopoulos T, Li Z, Palmer JL, Cohen MZ, Sivesind D, Elsayem A. Impact of Delirium and Recall on the Level of Distress in Patients With Advanced Cancer and Their Family Caregivers. Cancer. 2009;115(9):2004–12. [PMC free article: PMC2752862] [PubMed: 19241420]
  • Bryson GL, Wyand A. Evidence-Based Clinical Update: General Anesthesia and the Risk of Delirium and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2006;53(7):669–77. [PubMed: 16803914]
  • Bucht G, Gustafson Y, Sandberg O. Epidemiology of Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):315–8. [PubMed: 10473930]
  • Buis CI, Wiesner RH, Krom RA, Kremers WK, Wijdicks EF. Acute Confusional State Following Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease. Neurology. 2002;59(4):601–5. [PubMed: 12196657]
  • Cacchione PZ. Four Acute Confusion Assessment Instruments: Reliability and Validity for Use in Long-Term Care Facilities. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2002;28(1):12–9. [PubMed: 11829220]
  • Cacchione PZ, Culp K, Dyck MJ, Laing J. Risk for Acute Confusion in Sensory-Impaired, Rural, Long-Term-Care Elders. Clinical Nursing Research. 2003;12(4):340–55. [PubMed: 14620691]
  • Cacchione PZ, Culp K, Laing J, Tripp Reimer T. Clinical Profile of Acute Confusion in the Long-Term Care Setting. Clinical Nursing Research. 2003;12(2):145–58. [PubMed: 12741667]
  • Cameron DJ, Thomas RI, Mulvihill M, Bronheim H. Delirium: a Test of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III Criteria on Medical Inpatients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1987;35(11):1007–10. [PubMed: 3499457]
  • Caplan G. Does ‘Hospital in the Home’ Treatment Prevent Delirium? Aging Health. 2008;4(1):69–74.
  • Caplan JP. Haloperidol and Delirium: Management or Treatment? Critical Care Medicine. 2009;37(1):354–5. [PubMed: 19112303]
  • Cavaliere F, D’Ambrosio F, Volpe C, Masieri S. Postoperative Delirium. Current Drug Targets. 2005;6(7):807–14. [PubMed: 16305459]
  • Clark LR, Fraaza V, Schroeder S, Maddens ME. Alternative Nursing Environments: Do They Affect Hospital Outcomes? Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1995;21(11):32–8. [PubMed: 7594255]
  • Clayer M, Bruckner J. Occult Hypoxia After Femoral Neck Fracture and Elective Hip Surgery. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2000;(370):265–71. [PubMed: 10660722]
  • Cole MG. Delirium: Effectiveness of Systematic Interventions. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):406–11. [PubMed: 10473948]
  • Corsinovi L, Bo M, Ricauda AN, Marinello R, Gariglio F, Marchetto C, Gastaldi L, Fissore L, Zanocchi M, Molaschi M. Predictors of Falls and Hospitalization Outcomes in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Acute Geriatric Unit. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2009;49(1):142–5. [PubMed: 18674824]
  • Culp K, Tripp-Reimer T, Wadle K, Wakefield B, Akins J, Mobily P, Kundradt M. Screening for Acute Confusion in Elderly Long-Term Care Residents. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 1995;29(2):86–8. [PubMed: 9140844]
  • Dai Y-T. Risk Factors and Incidence of Postoperative Delirium Elderly Chinese Patients. Gerontology. 2000;46(1):28–35. [PubMed: 11111226]
  • Dasgupta M, Dumbrell AC. Preoperative Risk Assessment for Delirium After Noncardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2006;54(10):1578–89. [PubMed: 17038078]
  • Dautzenberg PL, Mulder LJ, Olde Rikkert MG, Wouters CJ, Loonen AJ. Delirium in Elderly Hospitalised Patients: Protective Effects of Chronic Rivastigmine Usage. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2004;19(7):641–4. [PubMed: 15254920]
  • de Jonghe JF, Kalisvaart KJ, Dijkstra M, van Dis H, Vreeswijk R, Kat MG, Eikelenboom P, van der PT, van Gool WA. Early Symptoms in the Prodromal Phase of Delirium: a Prospective Cohort Study in Elderly Patients Undergoing Hip Surgery. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2007;15(2):112–21. [PubMed: 17272731]
  • de Negreiros DP, Silva Meleiro AMA, Furlanetto LM, Trzepacz PT. Portuguese Version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98: Reliability and Validity. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2008;23(5):472–7. [PubMed: 17922493]
  • de Rooij SE, van Munster BC, Korevaar JC, Casteelen G, Schuurmans MJ, RC, Levi M. Delirium Subtype Identification and the Validation of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (Dutch Version) in Hospitalized Elderly Patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2006;21(9):876–82. [PubMed: 16955454]
  • Del Rosario E, Esteve N, Sernandez MJ, Batet C, Aguilar JL. Does Femoral Nerve Analgesia Impact the Development of Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly? A Retrospective Investigation. Acute Pain. 2008;10(2):59–64.
  • Demeure MJ. The Elderly Surgical Patient and Postoperative Delirium. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2006;203(5):752–7. [PubMed: 17084339]
  • Dosa D, Intrator O, McNicoll L, Cang Y, Teno J. Preliminary Derivation of a Nursing Home Confusion Assessment Method Based on Data From the Minimum Data Set. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2007;55(7):1099–105. [PubMed: 17608886]
  • Duggleby W, Lander J. Cognitive Status and Postoperative Pain: Older Adults. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 1994;9(1):19–27. [PubMed: 8169456]
  • Duppils GS, Wikblad K. Cognitive Function and Health-Related Quality of Life After Delirium in Connection With Hip Surgery. A Six-Month Follow-Up. Orthopaedic Nursing. 2004;23(3):195–203. [PubMed: 15211901]
  • Dyer CB, Ashton CM, Teasdale TA. Postoperative Delirium. A Review of 80 Primary Data-Collection Studies. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1995;155(5):461–5. [PubMed: 7864702]
  • Dyrud JE Jr. Posttransplantation Delirium: A Review. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. 2004;9(4):428–31.
  • Eeles E, Rockwood K. Delirium in the Long-Term Care Setting: Clinical and Research Challenges. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2008;9(3):157–61. [PubMed: 18294597]
  • Eikelenboom P, Hoogendijk WJ. Do Delirium and Alzheimer’s Dementia Share Specific Pathogenetic Mechanisms? Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):319–24. [PubMed: 10473931]
  • Ely EW, Stephens RK, Jackson JC, Thomason JWW, Truman B, Gordon S, Dittus RS, Bernard GR. Current Opinions Regarding the Importance, Diagnosis, and Management of Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit: A Survey of 912 Healthcare Professionals. Critical Care Medicine. 2004;32(1):106–12. [PubMed: 14707567]
  • Eriksson M, Samuelsson E, Gustafson Y, Aberg T, Engstrom KG. Delirium After Coronary Bypass Surgery Evaluated by the Organic Brain Syndrome Protocol. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. 2002;36(4):250–5. [PubMed: 12201975]
  • Eriksson S. Social and Environmental Contributants to Delirium in the Elderly. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):350–2. [PubMed: 10473938]
  • Faezah SK, Zhang D, Yin LF. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Delirium Amongst the Elderly in Acute Hospital. Singapore Nursing Journal. 2008;35(1):11–4.
  • Fainsinger RI, De Moissac D, Mancini I, Oneschuk D. Sedation for Delirium and Other Symptoms in Terminally Ill Patients in Edmonton. Journal of Palliative Care. 2000;16(2):5–10. [PubMed: 10887726]
  • Ferro JM, Caeiro L, Verdelho A. Delirium in Acute Stroke. Current Opinion in Neurology. 2002;15(1):51–5. [PubMed: 11796951]
  • Fick DM, Agostini JV, Inouye SK. Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: a Systematic Review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2002;50(10):1723–32. [PubMed: 12366629]
  • Fick DM, Kolanowski AM, Waller JL, Inouye SK. Delirium Superimposed on Dementia in a Community-Dwelling Managed Care Population: a 3-Year Retrospective Study of Occurrence, Costs, and Utilization. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2005;60A(6):748–53. [PubMed: 15983178]
  • Fisher BW, Flowerdew G. A Simple Model for Predicting Postoperative Delirium in Older Patients Undergoing Elective Orthopedic Surgery. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1995;43(2):175–8. [PubMed: 7836644]
  • Flood KL, Carroll MB, Le CV, Ball L, Esker DA, Carr DB. Geriatric Syndromes in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Oncology-Acute Care for Elders Unit. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2006;24(15):2298–303. [PubMed: 16710027]
  • Fricchione GL, Nejad SH, Esses JA, Cummings TJJ, Querques J, Cassem NH, Murray GB. Postoperative Delirium. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008;165(7):803–12. [PubMed: 18593786]
  • Gagnon P, Allard P, Mâsse B, DeSerres M. Delirium in Terminal Cancer: a Prospective Study Using Daily Screening, Early Diagnosis, and Continuous Monitoring. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2000;19(6):412–26. [PubMed: 10908822]
  • Ganai SL. Adverse Outcomes of Geriatric Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery Who Are at High Risk for Delirium. Archives of Surgery. 2007;142(11):1072–8. [PubMed: 18025336]
  • Gao R, Yang ZZ, Li M, Shi ZC, Fu Q. Probable Risk Factors for Postoperative Delirium in Patients Undergoing Spinal Surgery. European Spine Journal. 2008;17(11):1531–7. [PMC free article: PMC2583180] [PubMed: 18795347]
  • Geary SM. Intensive Care Unit Psychosis Revisited: Understanding and Managing Delirium in the Critical Care Setting. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly. 1994;17(1):51–63. [PubMed: 8180848]
  • George J, Bleasdale S, Singleton SJ. Causes and Prognosis of Delirium in Elderly Patients Admitted to a District General Hospital. Age and Ageing. 1997;26(6):423–7. [PubMed: 9466291]
  • George J, Lee S. Clinical Management. Delirium in Terminal Illness. European Journal of Palliative Care. 2005;12(5):185–7.
  • Gerdner LA. Individualized Music Intervention Protocol. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1999;25(10):10–6. [PubMed: 10776148]
  • Girard TD, Pandharipande PP, Wesley EW. Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit. Critical Care. 2008;12(SUPPL 3) [PMC free article: PMC2391269] [PubMed: 18495054]
  • Hallberg IR. Impact of Delirium on Professionals. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):420–5. [PubMed: 10473951]
  • Hamann J, Bickel H, Schwaibold H, Hartung R, Forstl H. Postoperative Acute Confusional State in Typical Urologic Population: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Strategies for Prevention. Urology. 2005;65(3):449–53. [PubMed: 15780353]
  • Han CS, Kim YK. A Double-Blind Trial of Risperidone and Haloperidol for the Treatment of Delirium. Psychosomatics. 2004;45(4):297–301. [PubMed: 15232043]
  • Harari D, Martin FC, Buttery A, O’Neill S, Hopper A. The Older Persons’ Assessment and Liaison Team ‘OPAL’: Evaluation of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Acute Medical Inpatients. Age and Ageing. 2007;36(6):670–5. [PubMed: 17656421]
  • Hare M, Wynaden D, McGowan S, Speed G. Assessing Cognition in Elderly Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department. International Emergency Nursing. 2008;16(2):73–9. [PubMed: 18519057]
  • Hashimoto H, Nakamura K, Izumiyama N. Postoperative Delirium Easily Develops in Patients With Intramitochondrial Inclusion Bodies in Colonic Neurons. Aging-Clinical and Experimental Research. 1997;9(3):180–4. [PubMed: 9258376]
  • Hjermstad MJ, Loge JH, Kaasa S. Methods for Assessment of Cognitive Failure and Delirium in Palliative Care Patients: Implications for Practice and Research. Palliative Medicine. 2004;18(6):494–506. [PubMed: 15453620]
  • Hofste WJ, Linssen CA, Boezeman EH, Hengeveld JS, Leusink JA, de Boer A. Delirium and Cognitive Disorders After Cardiac Operations: Relationship to Pre- and Intraoperative Quantitative Electroencephalogram. International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing. 1997;14(1):29–36. [PubMed: 9127782]
  • Holden J, Jayathissa S, Young G. Delirium Among Elderly General Medical Patients in a New Zealand Hospital. Internal Medicine Journal. 2008;38(8):629–34. [PubMed: 18284464]
  • Holmes JD, House AO. Psychiatric Illness in Hip Fracture. Age and Ageing. 2000;29(6):537–46. [PubMed: 11191247]
  • Holroyd S, Laurie S. Correlates of Psychotic Symptoms Among Elderly Outpatients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1999;14(5):379–84. [PubMed: 10389042]
  • Hu H. Olanzapine and Haloperidol for Senile Delirium: A Randomized Controlled Observation. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2006;10(42):188–90.
  • Huang SC, Tsai SJ, Chan CH, Hwang JP, Sim CB. Characteristics and Outcome of Delirium in Psychiatric Inpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 1998;52(1):47–50. [PubMed: 9682932]
  • Hwang J-P, Yang C-H, Lee T-W, Tsai S-J. The Efficacy and Safety of Olanzapine for the Treatment of Geriatric Psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2003;23(2):113–8. [PubMed: 12640211]
  • Immers HE, Schuurmans MJ, van de Bijl JJ. Recognition of Delirium in ICU Patients: a Diagnostic Study of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale in ICU Patients. BMC Nursing. 2005;4:7. [PMC free article: PMC1352361] [PubMed: 16351715]
  • Inouye SK, Leo-Summers L, Zhang Y, Bogardus ST Jr, Leslie DL, Agostini JV. A Chart-Based Method for Identification of Delirium: Validation Compared With Interviewer Ratings Using the Confusion Assessment Method. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2005;53(2):312–8. [PubMed: 15673358]
  • Iseli RK, Brand C, Telford M, LoGiudice D. Delirium in Elderly General Medical Inpatients: a Prospective Study. Internal Medicine Journal. 2007;37(12):806–11. [PubMed: 17517079]
  • Jarrett PG, Rockwood K, Carver D, Stolee P, Cosway S. Illness Presentation in Elderly Patients. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1995;155(10):1060–4. [PubMed: 7748049]
  • Johnson J. Identifying and Recognizing Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):353–8. [PubMed: 10473939]
  • Joosten E, Lemiengre J, Nelis T, Verbeke G, Milisen K. Is Anaemia a Risk Factor for Delirium in an Acute Geriatric Population? Gerontology. 2006;52(6):382–5. [PubMed: 16914932]
  • Justic M. Does “ICU Psychosis” Really Exist? Critical Care Nurse. 2000;20(3):28–39. [PubMed: 11876211]
  • Kaneko T, Takahashi S, Naka T, Hirooka Y, Inoue Y, Kaibara N. Postoperative Delirium Following Gastrointestinal Surgery in Elderly Patients. Surgery Today. 1997;27(2):107–11. [PubMed: 9017985]
  • Kawaguchi Y, Kanamori M, Ishihara H, Abe Y, Nobukiyo M, Sigeta T, Hori T, Kimura T. Postoperative Delirium in Spine Surgery. Spine Journal. 2006;6(2):164–9. [PubMed: 16517388]
  • Kelly KG, Zisselman M, Cutillo-Schmitter T, Reichard R, Payne D, Denman SJ. Severity and Course of Delirium in Medically Hospitalized Nursing Facility Residents. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2001;9(1):72–7. [PubMed: 11156755]
  • Khasraghi FA, Lee EJ, Christmas C, Wenz JF. The Economic Impact of Medical Complications in Geriatric Patients With Hip Fracture. Orthopedics. 2003;26(1):49–53. [PubMed: 12555834]
  • Kiely DK, Bergmann MA, Murphy KM, Jones RN, Orav EJ, Marcantonio ER. Delirium Among Newly Admitted Postacute Facility Patients: Prevalence, Symptoms, and Severity. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2003;58(5):M441–445. [PubMed: 12730254]
  • Kiely DK, Bergmann MA, Jones RN, Murphy KM, Orav EJ, Marcantonio ER. Characteristics Associated With Delirium Persistence Among Newly Admitted Post-Acute Facility Patients. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2004;59A(4):344–9. [PubMed: 15071077]
  • Kishi Y, Iwasaki Y, Takezawa K, Kurosawa H, Endo S. Delirium in Critical Care Unit Patients Admitted Through an Emergency Room. General Hospital Psychiatry. 1995;17(5):371–9. [PubMed: 8522152]
  • Koebrugge B, Koek HL, Van Wensen RJA, Dautzenberg PLJ, Bosscha K. Delirium After Abdominal Surgery at a Surgical Ward With a High Standard of Delirium Care: Incidence, Risk Factors and Outcomes. Digestive Surgery. 2009;26(1):63–8. [PubMed: 19169032]
  • Koponen H, Stenback U, Mattila E, Soininen H, Reinikainen K, Riekkinen PJ. Delirium Among Elderly Persons Admitted to a Psychiatric Hospital: Clinical Course During the Acute Stage and One-Year Follow-Up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1989;79(6):579–85. [PubMed: 2763853]
  • Koponen HJ. Neurochemistry and Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):339–41. [PubMed: 10473935]
  • Koster S, Hensens AG, van der PJ. The Long-Term Cognitive and Functional Outcomes of Postoperative Delirium After Cardiac Surgery. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2009;87(5):1469–74. [PubMed: 19379886]
  • Kuwahara M, Yurugi S, Mashiba K, Iioka H, Niitsuma K, Noda T. Postoperative Delirium in Plastic or Dermatologic Surgery. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2008;31(4):171–4.
  • Lam PT, Tse CY, Lee CH. Delirium in a Palliative Care Unit. Progress in Palliative Care. 2003;11(3):126–33.
  • Laurila JV, Pitkala KH, Strandberg TE, Tilvis RS. Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on Prognosis of Delirium: a Prospective Study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2004;18(3–4):240–4. [PubMed: 15286453]
  • Laurila JV, Laakkonen M-L, Timo SE, eijo TS. Predisposing and Precipitating Factors for Delirium in a Frail Geriatric Population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2008;65(3):249–54. [PubMed: 18707947]
  • Lawlor PG, Gagnon B, Mancini IL, Pereira JL, Hanson J, Suarez-Almazor ME, Bruera ED. Occurrence, Causes, and Outcome of Delirium in Patients With Advanced Cancer: a Prospective Study. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2000;160(6):786–94. [PubMed: 10737278]
  • Lazarus HR, Hagens JH. Prevention of Psychosis Following Open-Heart Surgery. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1968;124(9):1190–5. [PubMed: 5637907]
  • Lepouse C, Lautner CA, Liu L, Gomis P, Leon A. Emergence Delirium in Adults in the Post-Anaesthesia Care Unit. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2006;96(6):747–53. [PubMed: 16670111]
  • Lerner AJ, Hedera P, Koss E, Stuckey J, Friedland RP. Delirium in Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. 1997;11(1):16–20. [PubMed: 9071440]
  • Levanen J, Makela ML, Scheinin H. Dexmedetomidine Premedication Attenuates Ketamine-Induced Cardiostimulatory Effects and Postanesthetic Delirium. Anesthesiology. 1995;82(5):1117–25. [PubMed: 7741286]
  • Lindesay J. The Concept of Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):310–4. [PubMed: 10473929]
  • Liptzin B. What Criteria Should Be Used for the Diagnosis of Delirium? Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):364–7. [PubMed: 10473941]
  • Liu C-Y. Efficacy of Risperidone in Treating the Hyperactive Symptoms of Delirium. International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2004;19(3):165–8. [PubMed: 15107660]
  • Ljubisavljevic V, Kelly B. Risk Factors for Development of Delirium Among Oncology Patients. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2003;25(5):345–52. [PubMed: 12972226]
  • Lundstrom M, Edlund A, Bucht G, Karlsson S, Gustafson Y. Dementia After Delirium in Patients With Femoral Neck Fractures. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51(7):1002–6. [PubMed: 12834522]
  • Lynch EP, Lazor MA, Gellis JE, Orav J, Goldman L, Marcantonio ER. The Impact of Postoperative Pain on the Development of Postoperative Delirium. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1998;86(4):781–5. [PubMed: 9539601]
  • Macdonald AJ. Can Delirium Be Separated From Dementia? Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):386–8. [PubMed: 10473944]
  • Mador JE, Giles L, Whitehead C, Crotty M. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavior Advisory Service for Hospitalized Older Patients With Confusion. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2004;19(9):858–63. [PubMed: 15352143]
  • Marcantonio ER, Goldman L, Orav EJ, Cook EF, Lee TH. The Association of Intraoperative Factors With the Development of Postoperative Delirium. American Journal of Medicine. 1998;105(5):380–4. [PubMed: 9831421]
  • Marcantonio ER, Simon SE, Bergmann MA, Jones RN, Murphy KM, Morris JN. Delirium Symptoms in Post-Acute Care: Prevalent, Persistent, and Associated With Poor Functional Recovery. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51(1):4–9. [PubMed: 12534838]
  • Marcantonio ER, Kiely DK, Simon SE, John OE, Jones RN, Murphy KM, Bergmann MA. Outcomes of Older People Admitted to Postacute Facilities With Delirium. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2005;53(6):963–9. [PubMed: 15935018]
  • Marshall MC, Soucy MD. Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly. 2003;26(3):172–8. [PubMed: 12930032]
  • Martin H, Slyk MP, Deyman S, Cornacchione MJ. Safety Profile Assessment of Risperidone and Olanzapine in Long-Term Care Patients With Dementia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2003;4(4):183–8. [PubMed: 12837138]
  • McAlpine JN, Hodgson EJ, Abramowitz S, Richman SM, Su Y, Kelly MG, Luther M, Baker L, Zelterman D, Rutherford TJ, Schwartz PE. The Incidence and Risk Factors Associated With Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Patients Undergoing Surgery for Suspected Gynecologic Malignancies. Gynecologic Oncology. 2008;109(2):296–302. [PubMed: 18374970]
  • McAvay GJ, Van Ness PH, Bogardus ST Jr, Zhang Y, Leslie DL, Leo-Summers LS, Inouye SK. Older Adults Discharged From the Hospital With Delirium: 1-Year Outcomes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2006;54(8):1245–50. [PubMed: 16913993]
  • McCaffrey R. The Effect of Music on Acute Confusion in Older Adults After Hip or Knee Surgery. Applied Nursing Research. 2009;22(2):107–12. [PubMed: 19427572]
  • McCusker J, Cole M, Dendukuri N, Belzile E, Primeau F. Delirium in Older Medical Inpatients and Subsequent Cognitive and Functional Status: a Prospective Study. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2001;165(5):575–83. [PMC free article: PMC81415] [PubMed: 11563209]
  • McCusker J, Cole M, Abrahamowicz M, Primeau F, Belzile E. Delirium Predicts 12-Month Mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2002;162(4):457–63. [PubMed: 11863480]
  • McCusker J, Cole MG, Dendukuri N, Belzile E. Does Delirium Increase Hospital Stay? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51(11):1539–46. [PubMed: 14687382]
  • McManus J, Pathansali R, Stewart R, Macdonald A, Jackson S. Delirium Post-Stroke. Age and Ageing. 2007;36(6):613–8. [PubMed: 17965033]
  • McNicoll L. Outcomes Following Delirium in Critically Ill Older Persons: Need for Future Research. Geriatrics and Aging. 2004;7(9):30–3.
  • Meagher DJ, O’Hanlon D, O’Mahony E, Casey PR. The Use of Environmental Strategies and Psychotropic Medication in the Management of Delirium. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;168(4):512–5. [PubMed: 8730950]
  • Meagher DJ, MacLullich AMJ, Laurila JV. Defining Delirium for the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2008;65(3):207–14. [PubMed: 18707942]
  • Milisen K, Foreman MD, Godderis J, Abraham IL, Broos PL. Delirium in the Hospitalized Elderly: Nursing Assessment and Management. Nursing Clinics of North America. 1998;33(3):417–39. [PubMed: 9719689]
  • Milisen K, Foreman MD, Wouters B, Driesen R, Godderis J, Abraham IL, Broos PL. Documentation of Delirium in Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2002;28(11):23–9. [PubMed: 12465199]
  • Milstein A. The Incidence of Delirium Immediately Following Cataract Removal Surgery: A Prospective Study in the Elderly. Aging and Mental Health. 2000;4(2):178–81.
  • Miyaji S, Yamamoto K, Hoshino S, Yamamoto H, Sakai Y, Miyaoka H. Comparison of the Risk of Adverse Events Between Risperidone and Haloperidol in Delirium Patients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2007;61(3):275–82. [PubMed: 17472596]
  • Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello RM, Cattaruzza T, Cazzato G. Cholinesterase Inhibition As a Possible Therapy for Delirium in Vascular Dementia: a Controlled, Open 24-Month Study of 246 Patients. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias. 2004;19(6):333–9. [PubMed: 15633941]
  • Morita T, Tei Y, Inoue S. Impaired Communication Capacity and Agitated Delirium in the Final Week of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Prevalence and Identification of Research Focus. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 2003;26(3):827–34. [PubMed: 12967731]
  • Murphy KM. A Study of Potentially Reversible Cognitive Impairment in Nursing Home Residents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 1999;59(7-A):2741.
  • Nakamura J. The Effect of Mianserin Hydrochloride on Delirium. Human Psychopharmacology. 1995;10(4):289–97.
  • Nakamura J, Uchimura N, Yamada S, Nakazawa Y. Does Plasma Free-3-Methoxy-4-Hydroxyphenyl(Ethylene)Glycol Increase in the Delirious State? A Comparison of the Effects of Mianserin and Haloperidol on Delirium. International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1997;12(3):147–52. [PubMed: 9248871]
  • Nakase-Thompson R, Sherer M, Yablon SA, Nick TG, Trzepacz PT. Acute Confusion Following Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain Injury. 2004;18(2):131–42. [PubMed: 14660226]
  • Naughton BJ, Moran MB, Kadah H, Heman-Ackah Y, Longano J. Delirium and Other Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults in an Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1995;25(6):751–5. [PubMed: 7755195]
  • Neitzel J, Sendelbach S, Larson LR. Delirium in the Orthopaedic Patient. Orthopaedic Nursing. 2007;26(6):354–65. [PubMed: 18046209]
  • Nightingale S, Holmes J, Mason J, House A. Psychiatric Illness and Mortality After Hip Fracture. Lancet. 2001;357(9264):1264–5. [PubMed: 11418154]
  • Nishikawa K, Nakayama M, Omote K, Namiki A. Recovery Characteristics and Post-Operative Delirium After Long-Duration Laparoscope-Assisted Surgery in Elderly Patients: Propofol-Based Vs. Sevoflurane-Based Anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2004;48(2):162–8. [PubMed: 14995937]
  • Norkiene I, Ringaitiene D, Misiuriene I, Samalavicius R, Bubulis R, Baublys A, Uzdavinys G. Incidence and Precipitating Factors of Delirium After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. 2007;41(3):180–5. [PubMed: 17487768]
  • O’Keeffe ST. Rating the Severity of Delirium: The Delirium Assessment Scale. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1994;9(7):551–6.
  • O’Keeffe ST. Clinical Subtypes of Delirium in the Elderly. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):380–5. [PubMed: 10473943]
  • O’Malley G, Leonard M, Meagher D, O’Keeffe ST. The Delirium Experience: a Review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2008;65(3):223–8. [PubMed: 18707944]
  • Oh Y-S, Kim D-W, Chun H-J, Yi H-J. Incidence and Risk Factors of Acute Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Neurosurgical Patients. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society. 2008;43(3):143–8. [PMC free article: PMC2588241] [PubMed: 19096622]
  • Olofsson B, Lundstrom M, Borssen B, Nyberg L, Gustafson Y. Delirium Is Associated With Poor Rehabilitation Outcome in Elderly Patients Treated for Femoral Neck Fractures. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. 2005;19(2):119–27. [PubMed: 15877637]
  • Olsson T. Activity in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):345–9. [PubMed: 10473937]
  • Onor ML, Saina M, Aguglia E. Efficacy and Tolerability of Quetiapine in the Treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias. 2006;21(6):448–53. [PubMed: 17267378]
  • Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Herr DL, Maze M, Girard TD, Miller RR, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Jackson JC, Deppen SA, Stiles RA, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW. Effect of Sedation With Dexmedetomidine Vs Lorazepam on Acute Brain Dysfunction in Mechanically Ventilated Patients: the MENDS Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association. 2007;298(22):2644–53. [PubMed: 18073360]
  • Pautex S, Herrmann FR, Zulian GB. Factors Associated With Falls in Patients With Cancer Hospitalized for Palliative Care. Journal of Palliative Medicine. 2008;11(6):878–84. [PubMed: 18715180]
  • Peduto VA, Mezzetti D, Properzi M, Giorgini C. Sevoflurane Provides Better Recovery Than Propofol Plus Fentanyl in Anaesthesia for Day-Care Surgery. European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 2000;17(2):138–43. [PubMed: 10758459]
  • Pi-Figueras M, Aguilera A, Arellano M, Miralles R, Garcia-Caselles P, Torres R, Cervera AM. Prevalence of Delirium in a Geriatric Convalescence Hospitalization Unit: Patient’s Clinical Characteristics and Risk Precipitating Factor Analysis. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics - Supplement. 2004;(9):333–7. [PubMed: 15207431]
  • Pun BT, Ely EW. The Importance of Diagnosing and Managing ICU Delirium. Chest. 2007;132(2):624–36. [PubMed: 17699134]
  • Rabins PV, Black B, German P, Roca R, McGuire M, Brant L, Cook J. The Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Elderly Residents of Public Housing. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 1996;51(6):M319–324. [PubMed: 8914505]
  • Rahkonen T, Mäkelä H, Paanila S, Halonen P, Sivenius J, Sulkava R. Delirium in Elderly People Without Severe Predisposing Disorders: Etiology and 1-Year Prognosis After Discharge. International Psychogeriatrics. 2000;12(4):473–81. [PubMed: 11263714]
  • Rahkonen T, Luukkainen-Markkula R, Paanila S, Sivenius J, Sulkava R. Delirium Episode As a Sign of Undetected Dementia Among Community Dwelling Elderly Subjects: a 2 Year Follow Up Study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2000;69(4):519–21. [PMC free article: PMC1737142] [PubMed: 10990515]
  • Ranhoff AH, Rozzini R, Sabatini T, Cassinadri A, Boffelli S, Trabucchi M. Delirium in a Sub-Intensive Care Unit for the Elderly: Occurrence and Risk Factors. Aging-Clinical and Experimental Research. 2006;18(5):440–5. [PubMed: 17167309]
  • Rice KL. Nurses’ Recognition of Delirium in the Hospitalized Older Adult. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 2008;69(2-B):936.
  • Ritchie J, Steiner W, Abrahamowicz M. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Delirium Among Psychiatric Inpatients. Psychiatric Services. 1996;47(7):727–30. [PubMed: 8807686]
  • Roberts BL. Patients’ Dreams in ICU: Recall at Two Years Post Discharge and Comparison to Delirium Status During ICU Admission: A Multicentre Cohort Study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. 2006;22(5):264–73. [PubMed: 16549347]
  • Robertsson B. Assessment Scales in Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):368–79. [PubMed: 10473942]
  • Robinson TN, Raeburn CD, Angles EM, Moss M. Low Tryptophan Levels Are Associated With Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly. American Journal of Surgery. 2008;196(5):670–4. [PMC free article: PMC2586980] [PubMed: 18789427]
  • Rockwood K. Increasing the Recognition of Delirium in Elderly Patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1994;42(3):252–6. [PubMed: 8120308]
  • Rockwood K. Cross-Validation of the Delirium Rating Scale in Older Patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1996;44(7):839–42. [PubMed: 8675936]
  • Rockwood K. Educational Interventions in Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):426–9. [PubMed: 10473952]
  • Rosen J, Sweet RA, Mulsant BH, Rifai AH, Pasternak R, Zubenko GS. The Delirium Rating Scale in a Psychogeriatric Inpatient Setting. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 1994;6(1):30–5. [PubMed: 8148634]
  • Rudberg MA. The Natural History of Delirium in Older Hospitalized Patients: A Syndrome of Heterogeneity. Age and Ageing. 1997;26(3):169–74. [PubMed: 9223710]
  • Rudolph JL, Schreiber K, Harrington MB. Postoperative Delirium: Overview and Opportunities to Optimize Outcomes. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management. 2008;15(10):502–11.
  • Ruffo D. Post-Operative Delirium: A Predictive Tool. Geriatrics Today: Journal of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. 2002;5(1):21–4.
  • Sampson EL, Raven PR, Ndhlovu PN, Vallance A, Garlick N, Watts J, Blanchard MR, Bruce A, Blizard R, Ritchie CW. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Donepezil Hydrochloride (Aricept) for Reducing the Incidence of Postoperative Delirium After Elective Total Hip Replacement. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2007;22(4):343–9. [PubMed: 17006875]
  • Sandberg O, Gustafson Y, Brannstrom B, Bucht G. Clinical Profile of Delirium in Older Patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1999;47(11):1300–6. [PubMed: 10573437]
  • Sanders KM, Minnema AM, Murray GB. Low Incidence of Extrapyramidal Symptoms in Treatment of Delirium With Intravenous Haloperidol and Lorazepam in the Intensive Care Unit. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. 1989;4(5):201–4.
  • Sarhill N, Walsh D, Nelson KA, LeGrand S, Davis MP. Assessment of Delirium in Advanced Cancer: the Use of the Bedside Confusion Scale. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care. 2001;18(5):335–41. [PubMed: 11565187]
  • Schindler BA, Shook J, Schwartz GM. Beneficial Effects of Psychiatric Intervention on Recovery After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. General Hospital Psychiatry. 1989;11(5):358–64. [PubMed: 2792747]
  • Schofield I. A Small Exploratory Study of the Reaction of Older People to an Episode of Delirium. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1997;25(5):942–52. [PubMed: 9147199]
  • Serrano-Duenas M. Delirium in Parkinson’s Disease Patients. A Five-Year Follow-Up Study. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. 2005;11(6):387–92. [PubMed: 16111911]
  • Shiiba M, Takei M, Nakatsuru M, Bukawa H, Yokoe H, Uzawa K, Tanzawa H. Clinical Observations of Postoperative Delirium After Surgery for Oral Carcinoma. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2009;38(6):661–5. [PubMed: 19237264]
  • Siddiqi N. Delirium: An Update on Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London. 2006;6(6):540–3. [PubMed: 17228552]
  • Skrobik Y. An Overview of Delirium in the Critical Care Setting. Geriatrics and Aging. 2003;6(10):30–5.
  • Smith S, Garnett P, Buckley P. Delirium in the Critically Ill. Care of the Critically Ill. 1997;13(5):175–8.
  • Solomons K, Geiger O. Olanzapine Use in the Elderly: A Retrospective Analysis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry - Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie. 2000;45(2):151–5. [PubMed: 10742874]
  • Spiller JA, Keen JC. Hypoactive Delirium: Assessing the Extent of the Problem for Inpatient Specialist Palliative Care. Palliative Medicine. 2006;20(1):17–23. [PubMed: 16482754]
  • Stagno D, Gibson C, Breitbart W. The Delirium Subtypes: a Review of Prevalence, Phenomenology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment Response. Palliative and Supportive Care. 2004;2(2):171–9. [PubMed: 16594247]
  • Swain DG, O’Brien AG, Nightingale PG. Cognitive Assessment in Elderly Patients Admitted to Hospital: the Relationship Between the Shortened Version of the Abbreviated Mental Test and the Abbreviated Mental Test and Mini-Mental State Examination. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2000;14(6):608–10. [PubMed: 11128735]
  • Tagarakis GI, Tsolaki-Tagaraki F, Tsolaki M, Diegeler A, Tsilimingas NB, Papassotiropoulos A. The Role of Apolipoprotein E in Cognitive Decline and Delirium After Bypass Heart Operations. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias. 2007;22(3):223–8. [PubMed: 17606532]
  • Taguchia T, Yano M, Kido Y. Influence of Bright Light Therapy on Postoperative Patients: A Pilot Study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. 2007;23(5):289–97. [PubMed: 17692522]
  • Treloar AJ, Macdonald AJ. Outcome of Delirium: Part 1. Outcome of Delirium Diagnosed by DSM-III-R, ICD-10 and CAMDEX and Derivation of the Reversible Cognitive Dysfunction Scale Among Acute Geriatric Inpatients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1997;12(6):609–13. [PubMed: 9215940]
  • Trzepacz PT. Update on the Neuropathogenesis of Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):330–4. [PubMed: 10473933]
  • Trzepacz PT, Mittal D, Torres R, Kanary K, Norton J, Jimerson N. Validation of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98: Comparison With the Delirium Rating Scale and the Cognitive Test for Delirium. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2001;13(2):229–42. [PubMed: 11449030]
  • Tucker GJ. The Diagnosis of Delirium and DSM-IV. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):359–63. [PubMed: 10473940]
  • Tune LE. How Acute Is Delirium in Nursing Homes: an Observational Study From Wesley Woods at Emory. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2008;16(9):786. [PubMed: 18757772]
  • Ushijima M, Yokoyama S, Sugiyama E, Amano N. Contribution of Perospirone and Risperidone to Reduce Delirium in Senile Patients. Psychogeriatrics. 2008;8(1):4–7.
  • van der Mast RC, Roest FH. Delirium After Cardiac Surgery: a Critical Review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1996;41(1):13–30. [PubMed: 8887815]
  • van der Mast RC. Postoperative Delirium. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):401–5. [PubMed: 10473947]
  • van Zyl LT, Davidson PR. Delirium in Hospital: an Underreported Event at Discharge. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry - Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie. 2003;48(8):555–60. [PubMed: 14574831]
  • Villalpando-Berumen JM, Pineda-Colorado AM, Palacios P, Reyes-Guerrero J, Villa AR, Gutierrez-Robledo LM. Incidence of Delirium, Risk Factors, and Long-Term Survival of Elderly Patients Hospitalized in a Medical Specialty Teaching Hospital in Mexico City. International Psychogeriatrics. 2003;15(4):325–36. [PubMed: 15000413]
  • Voyer P, Richard S, Doucet L, Carmichael P-H. Detecting Delirium and Subsyndromal Delirium Using Different Diagnostic Criteria Among Demented Long-Term Care Residents. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2009;10(3):181–8. [PubMed: 19233058]
  • Vreeswijk R, Toornvliet A, Honing MLH, Bakker K, de MT, Daas G, Spronk PE, de Jonghe JFM, Kalisvaart KJ. Validation of the Dutch Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM-ICU) for Delirium Screening in the Intensive Care Unit. Netherlands Journal of Critical Care. 2009;13(2):73–8.
  • Wacker P, Nunes PV, Cabrita H, Forlenza OV. Post-Operative Delirium Is Associated With Poor Cognitive Outcome and Dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2006;21(4):221–7. [PubMed: 16428883]
  • Wahlund L, Bjorlin GA. Delirium in Clinical Practice: Experiences From a Specialized Delirium Ward. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 1999;10(5):389–92. [PubMed: 10473945]
  • Wakefield BJ. Risk for Acute Confusion on Hospital Admission. Clinical Nursing Research. 2002;11(2):153–72. [PubMed: 11991170]
  • Wakefield BJR. Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors and Short-Term Outcomes for Hospitalized Elderly Patients Experiencing Acute Confusion. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 1997;57(12-B):7457.
  • Wang S, Lee B, Goh E, Chon K. Factors Associated With Postoperative Delirium After Major Head and Neck Surgery. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2004;113(1):48–51. [PubMed: 14763573]
  • Wei LA, Fearing MA, Sternberg EJ, Inouye SK. The Confusion Assessment Method: a Systematic Review of Current Usage. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2008;56(5):823–30. [PMC free article: PMC2585541] [PubMed: 18384586]
  • Weinrich S, Sarna L. Delirium in the Older Person With Cancer. Cancer. 1994;74(7 SUPPL):2079–91. [PubMed: 8087775]
  • Williams MA, Campbell EB, Raynor WJ, Mlynarczyk SM, Ward SE. Reducing Acute Confusional States in Elderly Patients With Hip Fractures. Research in Nursing and Health. 1985;8(4):329–37. [PubMed: 3853245]
  • Winawer N. Postoperative Delirium. Medical Clinics of North America. 2001;85(5):1229–39. [PubMed: 11565496]
  • Yang C-H, Tsai S-J, Hwang J-P. The Efficacy and Safety of Quetiapine for Treatment of Geriatric Psychosis. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2005;19(6):661–6. [PubMed: 16272189]
  • Yildizeli B. Factors Associated With Postoperative Delirium After Thoracic Surgery. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2005;79(3):1004–9. [PubMed: 15734423]
  • Zakriya K, Sieber FE, Christmas C, Wenz JF Sr, Franckowiak S. Brief Postoperative Delirium in Hip Fracture Patients Affects Functional Outcome at Three Months. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2004;98(6):1798–802. [PubMed: 15155351]
  • Zarate CA Jr, Baldessarini RJ, Siegel AJ, Nakamura A, McDonald J, Muir-Hutchinson LA, Cherkerzian T, Tohen M. Risperidone in the Elderly: a Pharmacoepidemiologic Study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1997;58(7):311–7. [PubMed: 9269252]
Copyright © 2010, National Clinical Guideline Centre - Acute and Chronic Conditions.

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page.

The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore for general use.

The rights of National Clinical Guideline Centre to be identified as Author of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

Bookshelf ID: NBK65565
PubReader format: click here to try

Views

Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to pubmed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...