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Gaynes BN, Lux LJ, Lloyd SW, et al. Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2011 Sep. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 33.)

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Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults [Internet].

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Appendix CExcluded Studies

No or Wrong Comparison

1.
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2.
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4.
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6.
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7.
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8.
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9.
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10.
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11.
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12.
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13.
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14.
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15.
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16.
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17.
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18.
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19.
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20.
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21.
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22.
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23.
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24.
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25.
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26.
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27.
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28.
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29.
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30.
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32.
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33.
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34.
Cohen Y, Feldinger E, Ogorek D, Weinbroum AA. Increased propofol requirement during succeeding administrations for electroconvulsive therapy. J Clin Anesth. 2004 Jun;16(4):282–5. [PubMed: 15261320]
35.
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36.
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37.
Corcoran CD, Thomas P, Phillips J, O'Keane V. Vagus nerve stimulation in chronic treatment-resistant depression: preliminary findings of an open-label study. Br J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;189:282–3. [PubMed: 16946367]
38.
Criado JM, Fernandez A, Ortiz T. Long-term effects of electroconvulsive therapy on episodic memory. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2007 Jan-Feb;35(1):40–6. [PubMed: 17323224]
39.
Cronholm B, Ottosson JO. Experimental studies of the therapeutic action of electroconvulsive therapy in endogenous depression. The role of the electrical stimulation and of the seizure studied by variation of stimulus intensity and modification by lidocaine of seizure discharge. Convuls Ther. 1996 Sep;12(3):172–94. [PubMed: 8872406]
40.
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41.
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42.
Daly JJ, Prudic J, Devanand DP, Nobler MS, Lisanby SH, Peyser S, et al. ECT in bipolar and unipolar depression: Differences in speed of response. Bipolar Disorders. 2001;3(2):95–104. [PubMed: 11333069]
43.
Dannon PN, Grunhaus L. Effect of electroconvulsive therapy in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation nonresponder MDD patients: A preliminary study. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Sep;4(3):265–8. [PubMed: 11602032]
44.
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45.
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46.
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47.
Dombrovski AY, Mulsant BH, Haskett RF, Prudic J, Begley AE, Sackeim HA. Predictors of remission after electroconvulsive therapy in unipolar major depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;66(8):1043–9. [PubMed: 16086621]
48.
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49.
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51.
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52.
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53.
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54.
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Wrong Outcome

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Papakostas YG, Markianos M, Zervas IM, Theodoropoulou M, Vaidakis N, Daras M. Administration of citalopram before ECT: seizure duration and hormone responses. J Ect. 2000 Dec;16(4):356–60. [PubMed: 11314873]
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Prudic J, Fitzsimons L, Nobler MS, Sackeim HA. Naloxone in the prevention of the adverse cognitive effects of ECT: a within-subject, placebo controlled study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999 Aug;21(2):285–93. [PubMed: 10432476]
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Rapaport MH, Gharabawi GM, Canuso CM, Mahmoud RA, Keller MB, Bossie CA, et al. Effects of risperidone augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depression: Results of open-label treatment followed by double-blind continuation. Neuropsychopharmacology. (2006/06/09) 2006:2505–13. [PubMed: 16760927]
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Rasmussen KG, Mueller M, Rummans TA, Husain MM, Petrides G, Knapp RG, et al. Is baseline medication resistance associated with potential for relapse after successful remission of a depressive episode with ECT? Data from the Consortium for Research on Electroconvulsive Therapy (CORE) J Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Feb;70(2):232–7. [PubMed: 19192459]
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Rasmussen KG, Stevens SR, Kung S, Mohan A. Melancholic symptoms as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and outcomes with and without electroconvulsive therapy on an in-patient mood disorders unit. Acta Neuropsychiatrica. 2010;22(1):21–5. [PubMed: 25384953]
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Published Prior to 1980

1.
Abrams R, DeVito RA. Clinical efficacy of unilateral ECT. Diseases of the nervous system. 1969;30(4):262–3. [PubMed: 4890011]
2.
Avery D, Winokur G. Mortality in depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressants. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1976;33(9):1029–37. [PubMed: 962487]
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Barton JL, Mehta S, Snaith RP. The prophylactic value of extra ECT in depressive illness. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1973;49(4):386–92. [PubMed: 4746007]
4.
Bidder TG, Strain JJ, Brunschwig L. Bilateral and unilateral ECT: follow-up study and critique. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1970;127(6):737–45. [PubMed: 5482867]
5.
Bratfos O, Haug JO. Electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressant drugs in manic-depressive disease. Treatment results at discharge and 3 months later. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1965;41(4):588–96. [PubMed: 5884008]
6.
Bruce EM, Crone N, Fitzpatrick G, Frewin SJ, Gillis A, Lascelles CF, et al. A comparative trial of ECT and tofranil. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1960;117:76. [PubMed: 13805124]
7.
Carney MW, Rogan PA, Sebastian J, Sheffield B. A controlled comparative trial of unilateral and bilateral sinusoidal and pulse E.C.T. in endogenous depression. Physicians' Drug Manual. 1976;7:9–128/1. [PubMed: 1052834]
8.
Costello CG, Belton GP, Abra JC, Dunn BE. The amnesic and therapeutic effects of bilateral and unilateral ECT. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1970;116(530):69–78. [PubMed: 5411010]
9.
Davidson J, McLeod M, Law-Yone B. A comparison of electroconvulsive therapy and combined phenelzine-amitriptyline in refractory depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1978;35(5):639–42. [PubMed: 727903]
10.
D'Elia G. Comparison of electroconvulsive therapy with unilateral and bilateral stimulation, II: Therapeutic efficacy in endogenous depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1970;215:30–43.
11.
D'Elia G. Comparison of electroconvulsive therapy with unilateral and bilateral stimulation, III: Anterograde amnesia. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1970;212:44–60.
12.
Fleminger JJ, de Horne DJ, Nair NP, Nott PN. Differential effect of unilateral and bilateral ECT. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1970;127(4):430–6. [PubMed: 4918113]
13.
Freeman CPL, Basson JV, Crighton A. Double-blind controlled trial of electroconvulsive therapy (E.C.T.) and simulated E.C.T. in depressive illness. Lancet. 1978;1(8067):738–40. [PubMed: 76748]
14.
Fromholt P, Christensen AL, Sand Stromgren L. The effects of unilateral and bilateral electroconvulsive therapy on memory. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1973;49(4):466–78. [PubMed: 4746012]
15.
Halliday AM, Davison K, Browne MW, Kreeger LC. A comparison of the effects on depression and memory of bilateral E.C.T. and unilateral E.C.T. to the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1968;114(513):997–1012. [PubMed: 4879296]
16.
Herrington RN, Bruce A, Johnstone EC, Lader MH. Comparative trial of L tryptophan and E.C.T. in severe depressive illness. Lancet. 1974;2(7883):731–4. [PubMed: 4143007]
17.
Heshe J, Röder E, Theilgaard A. Unilateral and bilateral ECT. A psychiatric and psychological study of therapeutic effect and side effects. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplement. 1978;(275):1–180. [PubMed: 281863]
18.
Hutchinson J, Smedberg D. Treatment of depression: A comparative study of ECT and six drugs. Br J Psychiatry. 1963;109:536–8. [PubMed: 13955929]
19.
Levy R. The clinical evaluation of unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1968;114(509):459–63. [PubMed: 5656265]
20.
Mandel MR, Welch CA, Mieske M. Prediction of response to ECT in tricyclic-intolerant or tricyclic-resistant depressed patients. McLean Hosp J. 1977;4:203–9.
21.
McDonald IM, Perkins M, Marjerrison G, Podilsky M. A controlled comparison of amitriptyline and electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1966;122(12):1427–31. [PubMed: 5326021]
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Robin A, Harris JA. A controlled comparison of imipramine and electroplexy. J Ment Sci. 1962;108:217–9. [PubMed: 14492854]
23.
Stanley W, Fleming H. A clinical comparison of phenelzine and electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depressive illness. Br J Psychiatry. 1962;108:708–10. [PubMed: 13983404]
24.
Steiner M, Radwan M, Elizur A. Failure of L-triiodothyronine (T3) to potentiate tricyclic antidepressant response. Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical and Experimental. 1978;23(5 II):655–9.
25.
Strömgren LS. Unilateral versus bilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Investigations into the therapeutic effect in endogenous depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplement. 1973;240:8–65. [PubMed: 4515575]
26.
Thiery M. Clinical trial of the treatment of depressive illness. BMJ. 1965;1:881–6. [PMC free article: PMC2165582] [PubMed: 14257398]
27.
Wilson IC, Vernon JT, Guin T. A controlled study of treatments of depression. J Neuropsychiatry. 1963;4:331–7. [PubMed: 14054810]

Wrong Intervention

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Cooper-Kazaz R, Lerer B. Efficacy and safety of triiodothyronine supplementation in patients with major depressive disorder treated with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Aug;11(5):685–99. [PubMed: 18047754]
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8.
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9.
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Lauritzen L, Odgaard K, Clemmesen L, Lunde M, Ohrstrom J, Black C, et al. Relapse prevention by means of paroxetine in ECT-treated patients with major depression: a comparison with imipramine and placebo in medium-term continuation therapy. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996 Oct;94(4):241–51. [PubMed: 8911559]
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23.
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28.
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29.
Zhang Y, White PF, Thornton L, Perdue L, Downing M. The use of nicardipine for electroconvulsive therapy: a dose-ranging study. Anesth Analg. 2005 Feb;100(2):378–81. [PubMed: 15673861]

Wrong Study Design

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Bouwer C, Stein DJ. Buspirone is an effective augmenting agent of serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors in severe treatment-refractory depression. S Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;87(4 Suppl):534–7. 40. [PubMed: 9180827]
5.
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6.
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Ivanova JI, Birnbaum HG, Kidolezi Y, Subramanian G, Khan SA, Stensland MD. Direct and indirect costs of employees with treatment-resistant and non-treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2010;26(10):2475–84. [PubMed: 20825269]
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9.
Kalayam B, Alexopoulos GS. Prefrontal dysfunction and treatment response in geriatric depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1999 Aug;56(8):713–8. [PubMed: 10435605]
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Nierenberg AA, Papakostas GI, Petersen T, Kelly KE, Iacoviello BM, Worthington JJ, et al. Nortriptyline for treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Jan;64(1):35–9. [PubMed: 12590621]
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Patten SB, Lupin DA, Boucher SA, Lamarre CJ. Pharmacologic management of refractory depression. Cmaj. 1992 Feb 15;146(4):483–7. [PMC free article: PMC1488452] [PubMed: 1737312]
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14.
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