Appendix CSearch Strategies Overview of Search Strategies

Publication Details

2.1. Search Strategies

Searches were constructed by using the following groups of terms. These groups are expanded in full in Section 2.2 below.

All searches were run in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. Additionally Cinahl and PsychINFO were searched where this was deemed appropriate. Economic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, NHS EED and the HTA (Health Technology Reports) database from the Cochrane Library. Additionally in HEED (Health Economic Evaluations Database).

Medications search

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Medication terms

AND

RCT filter or systematic review filter

NOT

Animal/publication filter

Surgery search

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Surgery terms

AND

RCT filter or systematic review filter

NOT

Animal/publication filter

Laser search

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Laser terms

AND

RCT filter or systematic review filter

NOT

Animal/publication filter

Conservative treatment search

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Conservative treatment terms

AND

RCT filter or systematic review filter

NOT

Animal/publication filter

Diagnosis search

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Diagnosis terms

NOT

Animal/publication filter

Monitoring search

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Monitoring terms

NOT

Animal/publication filter

Economic searches (Medline and Embase)

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Economic filter

NOT

Animal/publication filter

Economic searches (NHS EED and HEED)

BPH/LUTS terms

Patient education search

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Patient education terms

NOT

Animal/publication filter

Patient views search

BPH/LUTS terms

AND

Patient view terms

2.2. Search terms

Animal/publication filter

Animal/publication filter - OVID Embase

  1. Case-Study/ or Abstract-Report/ or Letter/ or (case adj report).tw. or ((exp Animal/or Nonhuman/ or exp Animal-Experiment/) not exp Human/)

Animal/publication filter - OVID Medline

  1. (Case-Reports NOT Randomized-Controlled-Trial OR Letter OR Historical-Article OR Review-Of-Reported-Cases).PT. OR (exp Animals/ NOT Humans/)

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / Lower Urinary Tract Infection (LUTS) Terms

BPH/LUTS terms – Cochrane Library

  1. MeSH descriptor Prostatic Hyperplasia, this term only
  2. (Benign prostat* disease or prostatism or benign prostat* hyperplasia or benign prostat* enlargement or prostat* hypertrophy or prostat* obstruct* or enlarged prostate):ti,ab
  3. (Lower urinary tract symptom* or urinary symptom* or LUTS or irritable bladder syndrome):ti,ab
  4. MeSH descriptor Urinary Retention, this term only
  5. (Bladder obstruct* or incomplete bladder emptying or impaired bladder emptying or storage symptom* or (retention adj5 (chronic or urinary or acute)) or residual urine):ti,ab
  6. MeSH descriptor Urinary Bladder, Overactive, this term only
  7. MeSH descriptor Urinary Incontinence, this term only
  8. MeSH descriptor Enuresis explode all trees
  9. ((micturition or urin* or bladder or voiding) near (disorder or dysfunction or symptom* or urgency or incontinen*)):ti,ab
  10. (post micturition dribble or enuresis or nocturia or pollakisuria or weak bladder or overactive bladder or bedwetting):ti,ab
  11. (haematuria or hematuria):ti,ab
  12. male or man or men
  13. ((#3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11) AND #12)
  14. #1 OR #2 OR #13

BPH/LUTS terms - OVID Embase

  1. Prostate Hypertrophy/
  2. (Benign prostat$ disease or prostatism or benign prostat$ hyperplasia or benign prostat$ enlargement or prostat$ hypertrophy or prostat$ obstruct$ or enlarged prostate).tw.
  3. (Lower urinary tract symptom$ or urinary symptom$ or LUTS or irritable bladder syndrome).tw.
  4. exp Micturition Disorder/
  5. (Bladder obstruct$ or incomplete bladder emptying or impaired bladder emptying or storage symptom$ or (retention adj5 (chronic or urinary or acute)) or residual urine).tw.
  6. Urinary Frequency/
  7. ((micturition or urin$ or bladder or voiding) adj2 (disorder or dysfunction or symptom$ or urgency or incontinen$)).tw.
  8. (post micturition dribble or enuresis or nocturia or pollakisuria or weak bladder or overactive bladder or bedwetting).tw.
  9. (haematuria or hematuria).tw.
  10. (male or man or men).mp.
  11. ((or/3-9) and 10)
  12. 1 or 2 or 11

BPH/LUTS terms - OVID Medline

  1. prostatic hyperplasia/
  2. (Benign prostat$ disease or prostatism or benign prostat$ hyperplasia or benign prostat$ enlargement or prostat$ hypertrophy or prostat$ enlargement or enlarged prostate).tw.
  3. (Lower urinary tract symptom$ or urinary symptom$ or LUTS or irritable bladder syndrome).tw.
  4. urinary retention/
  5. (Bladder obstruct$ or incomplete bladder emptying or impaired bladder emptying or storage symptom$ or (retention adj5 (chronic or urinary or acute)) or residual urine).tw.
  6. urinary bladder, overactive/ or urinary incontinence/ or exp enuresis/
  7. ((micturition or urin$ or bladder or voiding) adj2 (disorder or dysfunction or symptom$ or urgency or incontinen$)).tw.
  8. (post micturition dribble or enuresis or nocturia or pollakisuria or weak bladder or overactive bladder or bedwetting).tw.
  9. (haematuria or hematuria).tw.
  10. (male or man or men).mp.
  11. ((or/3-9) and 10)
  12. 1 or 2 or 11

Conservative

Conservative terms – Cochrane Library

  1. (conservative next (management or treatment* or therap*))
  2. MeSH descriptor Pelvic Floor, this term only
  3. MeSH descriptor Exercise Therapy, this term only
  4. ((Pelvic floor or pelvic muscle) next (exercise or training))
  5. MeSH descriptor Behavior Therapy, this term only
  6. (bladder next (training or education or exercise*))
  7. Post void milking or post-void milking
  8. MeSH descriptor Drinking Behavior, this term only
  9. MeSH descriptor Drinking, this term only
  10. MeSH descriptor Beverages, this term only
  11. (Fluid* or water) near (consumption or intake)
  12. MeSH descriptor Caffeine, this term only
  13. MeSH descriptor Sweetening Agents, this term only
  14. MeSH descriptor Carbonated Beverages, this term only
  15. alcohol* or caffeine or tea or coffee or artifical sweetener* or carbonated drink* or fizzy drink* or beverage*
  16. MeSH descriptor Catheterization, this term only
  17. MeSH descriptor Catheters, Indwelling, this term only
  18. MeSH descriptor Absorbent Pads, this term only
  19. MeSH descriptor Incontinence Pads, this term only
  20. Catheter*
  21. Sheath* or penile clamp*
  22. (Absorbent or incontinence or continence or protective or bed) near (pad* or pants or product*)
  23. (bed or seat or chair) near (protection or pad* or sheet*)
  24. MeSH descriptor Biofeedback (Psychology), this term only
  25. (biofeedback or bio feedback or bio-feedback)
  26. MeSH descriptor Electric Stimulation, this term only
  27. Electric stimulation
  28. #1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 or #12 or #13 or #14 or #15 or #16 or #17 or #18 or #19 or #20 or #21 or #22 or #23 or #24 or #25 or #26 or #27

Conservative terms - OVID Embase

  1. (conservative adj (management or treatment$ or therap$)).tw.
  2. Pelvic floor muscle training/
  3. ((Pelvic floor or pelvic muscle) adj (exercise or training)).tw.
  4. Bladder training/
  5. (bladder adj (training or education or exercise$)).tw.
  6. (Post void milking or post-void milking).tw.
  7. Fluid intake/ or exp beverage/ or drinking behavior/
  8. ((Fluid$ or water) adj (consumption or intake)).tw.
  9. Alcohol consumption/ or caffeine/ or sweetening agent/ or carbonated beverage/
  10. (alcohol$ or caffeine or tea or coffee or artifical sweetener$ or carbonated drink$ or fizzy drink$ or beverage$).tw.
  11. Catheter/
  12. Catheter$.tw.
  13. (Sheath$ or penile clamp$).tw.
  14. ((Absorbent or incontinence or continence or protective or bed) adj (pad$ or pants or product$)).tw.
  15. ((bed or seat or chair) adj2 (protection or pad$ or sheet$)).tw.
  16. Feedback system/
  17. (Biofeedback or bio feedback or bio-feedback).tw.
  18. Electrostimulation/
  19. Electrical stimulation.tw
  20. or/1-19

Conservative terms - OVID Medline

  1. (conservative adj (management or treatment$ or therap$)).tw.
  2. Pelvic floor/ or exercise therapy/
  3. ((Pelvic floor or pelvic muscle) adj (exercise or training)).tw.
  4. behavior therapy/
  5. (bladder adj (training or education or exercise$)).tw.
  6. (Post void milking or post-void milking).tw.
  7. Drinking behavior/ or Drinking/ or Beverages/
  8. ((Fluid$ or water) adj (consumption or intake)).tw.
  9. Caffeine/ or sweetening agents/ or carbonated beverages/
  10. (alcohol$ or caffeine or tea or coffee or artifical sweetener$ or carbonated drink$ or fizzy drink$ or beverage$).tw.
  11. Catheterization/ or catheters, indwelling/ or absorbent pads/ or incontinence pads/
  12. Catheter$.tw.
  13. (Sheath$ or penile clamp$).tw.
  14. ((Absorbent or incontinence or continence or protective or bed) adj (pad$ or pants or product$)).tw.
  15. ((bed or seat or chair) adj2 (protection or pad$ or sheet$)).tw.
  16. “Biofeedback (Psychology) /”
  17. (biofeedback or bio feedback or bio-feedback).tw
  18. Electric stimulation/
  19. Electrical stimulation.tw.
  20. or/1-19

Diagnosis

Diagnosis terms - Central

  1. (IPSS or I-PSS or (symptom near score))
  2. ((American Urological Association or AUA*) near (symptom or score or index or questionnaire)).tw.
  3. MeSH descriptor Urinalysis, this term only
  4. MeSH descriptor Kidney Function Tests explode all trees
  5. kidney function test* or renal function test* or serum creatinine or eGFR or urea or serum biochemistry or blood test* or dipstick test* or urine analys* or urinalys*
  6. MeSH descriptor Digital Rectal Examination, this term only
  7. rectal exam*
  8. MeSH descriptor Prostate-Specific Antigen, this term only
  9. (prostate specific antigen or PSA) and (test* or assess*)
  10. MeSH descriptor Urodynamics, this term only
  11. urinary flow rate* or urodynamics or pressure flow studies or post void residual measurement* or uroflowmetry
  12. (Frequency volume chart* or ((bladder or volume or void* or urine or urinary or incontinence) adj (diar* or record*)))
  13. MeSH descriptor Cystoscopy, this term only
  14. Cystoscopy or cystometry or cystourethroscopy or videocystogram or cystometrogram
  15. MeSH descriptor Ultrasonography, this term only
  16. ultrasound or non-invasive test*
  17. pad test*
  18. MeSH descriptor X-Rays, this term only
  19. abdominal x-ray*
  20. KUB
  21. MeSH descriptor Urography, this term only
  22. IVU or IVP
  23. (intravenous or intra-venous) near (urogram* or pyelogram* or urography)
  24. #1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 or #12 or #13 or #14 or #15 or #16 or #17 or #18 or #19 or #20 or #21 or #22 or #23

Diagnosis terms - OVID Embase

  1. international prostate symptom score/
  2. (IPSS or I-PSS or (symptom adj3 score)).tw.
  3. ((American Urological Association or $AUA$) adj3 (symptom or score or index or questionnaire)).tw.
  4. urinalysis/ or kidney function test/
  5. (kidney function test$ or renal function test$ or serum creatinine or eGFR or urea or serum biochemistry or blood test$ or dipstick test$ or urine analys$ or urinalys$).tw.
  6. digital rectal examination/
  7. rectal exam$.tw.
  8. Prostate Specific Antigen/
  9. ((prostate specific antigen or PSA) and (test$ or assess$)).tw.
  10. urodynamics/
  11. (urinary flow rate$ or urodynamics or pressure flow studies or post void residual measurements or uroflowmetry).tw.
  12. (Frequency volume chart$ or ((bladder or volume or void$ or urine or urinary or incontinence) adj (diar$ or record$))).tw.
  13. cystoscopy/ or urethrocystometry/
  14. (Cystoscopy or cystometry or cystourethroscopy or videocystogram or cystometrogram).tw.
  15. (ultrasound or ultrasonography or non-invasive test$).tw.
  16. pad test$.tw.
  17. X Ray/
  18. abdominal x-ray$.tw.
  19. KUB.tw.
  20. Intravenous Urography/ or Intravenous Pyelography/
  21. (IVU or IVP).tw.
  22. ((intravenous or intra-venous) adj (urogram$ or pyelogram$ or urography)).tw.
  23. or/1-22

Diagnosis terms - OVID Medline

  1. (IPSS or I-PSS or (symptom adj3 score)).tw.
  2. ((American Urological Association or $AUA$) adj3 (symptom or score or index or questionnaire)).tw.
  3. urinalysis/ or exp kidney function tests/
  4. (kidney function test$ or renal function test$ or serum creatinine or eGFR or urea or serum biochemistry or blood test$ or dipstick test$ or urine analys$ or urinalys$).tw.
  5. digital rectal examination/
  6. rectal exam$.tw.
  7. prostate specific antigen/
  8. ((prostate specific antigen or PSA) and (test$ or assess$)).tw.
  9. urodynamics/
  10. (urinary flow rate$ or urodynamics or pressure flow studies or post void residual measurement$ or uroflowmetry).tw.
  11. (Frequency volume chart$ or ((bladder or volume or void$ or urine or urinary or incontinence) adj (diar$ or record$))).tw.
  12. cystoscopy/
  13. (Cystoscopy or cystometry or cystourethroscopy or videocystogram or cystometrogram).tw.
  14. ultrasonography/
  15. (ultrasound or non-invasive test$).tw.
  16. pad test$.tw.
  17. X-Rays/
  18. abdominal x-ray$.tw.
  19. KUB.tw.
  20. Urography/
  21. (IVU or IVP).tw.
  22. ((intravenous or intra-venous) adj (urogram$ or pyelogram$ or urography)).tw.
  23. or/1-22

Economic

Economic filter - OVID Embase

  1. exp economic aspect/
  2. cost$.tw.
  3. (price$ or pricing$).tw.
  4. (fee or fees).tw.
  5. (financial or finance or finances or financed).tw.
  6. (value adj2 (money or monetary)).tw.
  7. resourc$ allocat$.tw.
  8. expenditure$.tw.
  9. (fund or funds or funding or fundings or funded).tw.
  10. (ration or rations or rationing or rationings or rationed).tw.
  11. (saving or savings).tw.
  12. or/1-11
  13. Quality of Life/
  14. quality of life.tw.
  15. life quality.tw.
  16. quality adjusted life.tw.
  17. (qaly$ or qald$ or qale$ or qtime$).tw.
  18. disability adjusted life.tw.
  19. daly$.tw.
  20. (sf36 or sf 36 or short form 36 or shortform 36 or sf thirtysix or sf thirty six or shortform thirtysix or shortform thirty six or short form thirtysix or short form thirty six).tw.
  21. (sf6 or sf 6 or short form 6 or shortform 6 or sf six or sfsix or shortform six or short form six).tw.
  22. (sf 12 or sf 12 or short form 12 or shortform 12 or sf twelve or sftwelve or shortform twelve or short form twelve).tw.
  23. (sf 16 or sf 16 or short form 16 or shortform 16 or sf sixteen or sfsixteen or shortform sixteen or short form sixteen).tw.
  24. (sf20 or sf 20 or short form 20 or shortform 20 or sf twenty or sftwenty or shortform twenty or short form twenty).tw.
  25. (euroqol or euro qol or eq5d or eq 5d).tw.
  26. (hql or hqol or h qol or hrqol or hr qol).tw.
  27. (hye or hyes).tw.
  28. health$ equivalent$ year$.tw.
  29. (hui or hui1 or hui2 or hui3).tw.
  30. health utilit$.tw.
  31. disutilit$.tw.
  32. rosser.tw.
  33. (quality of wellbeing or quality of well being).tw.
  34. qwb.tw.
  35. willingness to pay.tw.
  36. standard gamble$.tw.
  37. time trade off.tw.
  38. time tradeoff.tw.
  39. tto.tw.
  40. factor analy$.tw.
  41. preference based.tw.
  42. (state adj2 valu$).tw.
  43. Life Expectancy/
  44. life expectancy$.tw.
  45. ((duration or length or period of time or lasting or last or lasted) adj4 symptom$).tw.
  46. or/13-46
  47. exp model/
  48. exp Mathematical Model/
  49. markov$.tw.
  50. Monte Carlo Method/
  51. monte carlo.tw.
  52. exp Decision Theory/
  53. (decision$ adj2 (tree$ or anlay$ or model$)).tw.
  54. model$.tw.
  55. or/47-55
  56. 12 or 46 or 55

Economic filter - OVID Medline

  1. exp “Costs and Cost Analysis”/
  2. Economics/
  3. Economics, Nursing/ or Economics, Medical/ or Economics, Hospital/ or Economics, Pharmaceutical/
  4. exp “Fees and Charges”/
  5. exp Budgets/
  6. budget$.tw.
  7. cost$.ti.
  8. (cost$ adj2 (effective$ or utilit$ or benefit$ or minimi$)).ab.
  9. (economic$ or pharmacoeconomic$ or pharmaco-economic$).ti.
  10. (price$ or pricing$).tw.
  11. (financial or finance or finances or financed).tw.
  12. (fee or fees).tw.
  13. (value adj2 (money or monetary)).tw.
  14. Value of Life/
  15. quality adjusted life.tw.
  16. (qaly$ or qald$ or qale$ or qtime$).tw.
  17. disability adjusted life.tw.
  18. daly$.tw.
  19. Health Status Indicators/
  20. (sf36 or sf 36 or short form 36 or shortform 36 or sf thirtysix or sf thirty six or shortform thirtysix or shortform thirty six or short form thirtysix or short form thirty six).tw.
  21. (sf6 or sf 6 or short form 6 or shortform 6 or sf six or sfsix or shortform six or short form six).tw.
  22. (sf 12 or sf 12 or short form 12 or shortform 12 or sf twelve or sftwelve or shortform twelve or short form twelve).tw.
  23. (sf 16 or sf 16 or short form 16 or shortform 16 or sf sixteen or sfsixteen or shortform sixteen or short form sixteen).tw.
  24. (sf20 or sf 20 or short form 20 or shortform 20 or sf twenty or sftwenty or shortform twenty or short form twenty).tw.
  25. (euroqol or euro qol or eq5d or eq 5d).tw.
  26. (hql or hqol or h qol or hrqol or hr qol).tw.
  27. (hye or hyes).tw.
  28. (hui or hui1 or hui2 or hui3).tw.
  29. utilit$.tw.
  30. disutilit$.tw.
  31. rosser.tw.
  32. quality of wellbeing.tw.
  33. qwb.tw.
  34. willingness to pay.tw.
  35. standard gamble$.tw.
  36. time trade off.tw.
  37. time tradeoff.tw.
  38. tto.tw.
  39. exp models, economic/
  40. models, theoretical/ or models, organizational/
  41. economic model$.tw.
  42. markov chains/
  43. markov$.tw.
  44. Monte Carlo Method/
  45. monte carlo.tw.
  46. exp Decision Theory/
  47. (decision$ adj2 (tree$ or anlay$ or model$)).tw.
  48. or/1-47

Laser

Laser terms - Central

  1. MeSH descriptor Prostatic Hyperplasia, this term only with qualifier: SU
  2. MeSH descriptor Prostatic Hyperplasia, this term only
  3. MeSH descriptor Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction, this term only
  4. benign prostat* near (hyperplas* or hypertroph* or obstruct* or enlarge* or disease)
  5. bph or bpo or bpe
  6. (bladder neck or bladder outlet or bladder outflow) near obstruct*
  7. #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6
  8. MeSH descriptor Prostatectomy explode all trees
  9. MeSH descriptor Transurethral Resection of Prostate, this term only
  10. Transurethral near (resect* or electroresect* or incision* or diatherm* or vapori* or electrovapori* or evapori* or ablat* or thermo* or inject* or coagulat*)
  11. MeSH descriptor Electrosurgery explode all trees
  12. MeSH descriptor Laser Therapy, this term only
  13. MeSH descriptor Laser Coagulation, this term only
  14. laser near (resect* or ablat* or coagulat* or incision* or vaporis*)
  15. laser near (enucleat* or prostatect*)
  16. laser near (holmium or yag or nd or ktp or green light)
  17. photoselectiv* near vapori*
  18. needle near ablat*
  19. microwave near thermo*
  20. coretherm or prostatron or targis or thermatrx or prolieve
  21. ethanol near inject*
  22. (water or cooled) near thermotherapy
  23. MeSH descriptor Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal, this term only
  24. high intensity near ultrasound
  25. MeSH descriptor Stents, this term only
  26. prostat* near (stent* or spiral*)
  27. turp or tvap or tevap or tvp or tuevap
  28. tuip or vlap or holrp or holep or tuna or tumt
  29. ilc or tulip or hifu
  30. #11 or #12 or #13 or #14 or #16 or #17 or #18 or #19 or #21 or #22 or #23 or #24 or #25 or #29
  31. #7 AND #30
  32. #1 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #15 or #20 or #26 or #27 or #28 or #31

Laser terms - OVID Embase

  1. Prostate hypertrophy/su
  2. Prostate hypertrophy/
  3. bladder obstruction/
  4. (benign prostat$ adj1 (hyperplas$ or hypertroph$ or obstruct$ or enlarge$ or disease)).tw.
  5. (bph or bpo or bpe).tw.
  6. ((bladder neck or bladder outlet or bladder outflow) adj1 obstruct$).tw.
  7. or/2-6
  8. exp prostate surgery/
  9. (Transurethral adj3 (resect$ or electroresect$ or incision$ or diatherm$ or vapori$ or electrovapori$ or evapori$ or ablat$ or thermo$ or inject$ or coagulat$)).tw.
  10. exp laser/
  11. laser prostatectomy/
  12. laser surgery/
  13. Laser Coagulation/
  14. (laser adj3 (resect$ or ablat$ or coagulat$ or incision$ or vapori$)).tw.
  15. (laser adj3 (enucleat$ or prostatect$)).tw.
  16. (laser adj3 (holmium or yag or ktp or nd or green light)).tw.
  17. (photoselectiv$ adj1 vapori$).tw.
  18. (needle adj3 ablat$).tw.
  19. (microwave adj3 thermo$).tw.
  20. (coretherm or prostatron or targis or thermatrx or prolieve).tw.
  21. (ethanol adj3 inject$).tw.
  22. Laser thermotherapy/
  23. ((water or cooled) adj3 thermotherapy).tw.
  24. high intensity focused ultrasound/
  25. (high intensity adj3 ultrasound).tw.
  26. stents/
  27. (prostat$ adj3 (stent$ or spiral$)).tw.
  28. (turp or tuvp or tevap or tvp or tuevap).tw.
  29. (tuip or vlap or holrp or holep or tuna or tumt).tw.
  30. (ilc or tulip or hifu).tw.
  31. or/10-14,16-19,21-26,30
  32. 7 and 31
  33. or/1,8-9,15,20,27-29,32
  34. prostate cancer/ or bladder cancer/
  35. (cancer$ or carcinoma$ or neoplasm$).tw.
  36. 34 or 35
  37. 36 not 7
  38. 33 not 37

Laser terms - OVID Medline

  1. Prostatic hyperplasia/su
  2. Prostatic hyperplasia/
  3. Bladder neck obstruction/
  4. (benign prostat$ adj1 (hyperplas$ or hypertroph$ or obstruct$ or enlarge$ or disease)).tw.
  5. (bph or bpo or bpe).tw.
  6. ((bladder neck or bladder outlet or bladder outflow) adj1 obstruct$).tw.
  7. or/2-6
  8. exp prostatectomy/
  9. Transurethral resection of prostate/
  10. (Transurethral adj3 (resect$ or electroresect$ or incision$ or diatherm$ or vapori$ or electrovapori$ or evapori$ or ablat$ or thermo$ or inject$ or coagulat$)).tw.
  11. exp electrosurgery/
  12. laser therapy/
  13. laser coagulation/
  14. (laser adj3 (resect$ or ablat$ or coagulat$ or incision$ or vaporis$)).tw.
  15. (laser adj3 (enucleat$ or prostatect$)).tw.
  16. (laser adj3 (holmium or yag or nd or ktp or green light)).tw.
  17. (photoselectiv$ adj1 vapori$).tw.
  18. (needle adj3 ablat$).tw.
  19. (microwave adj3 thermo$).tw.
  20. (coretherm or prostatron or targis or thermatrx or prolieve).tw.
  21. (ethanol adj3 inject$).tw.
  22. ((water or cooled) adj3 thermotherapy).tw.
  23. ultrasound, high-intensity focused, transrectal/
  24. (high intensity adj3 ultrasound).tw.
  25. stents/
  26. (prostat$ adj3 (stent$ or spiral$)).tw.
  27. (turp or tvap or tevap or tvp or tuevap).tw.
  28. (tuip or vlap or holrp or holep or tuna or tumt).tw.
  29. (ilc or tulip or hifu).tw.
  30. or/11-14,16-19,21-25,29
  31. 7 and 30
  32. or/1,8-10,15,20,26-28,31
  33. prostatic neoplasms/ or bladder neoplasms/
  34. (cancer$ or carcinoma$ or neoplasm$).tw.
  35. 33 or 34
  36. 35 not 7
  37. 32 not 36

Medications

Medication terms - Central

  1. MeSH descriptor Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists, this term only
  2. (Alpha near (blocker or blocking agent or antagonist)):ti,ab
  3. MeSH descriptor Doxazosin, this term only
  4. MeSH descriptor Indoramin, this term only
  5. MeSH descriptor Prazosin, this term only
  6. (Doxazosin or Tamsulosin or Alfusozin or Terazosin or Indoramin or Prazosin or Cardura or Stronazon or Flomaxtra or Flomax or Xaltral or Hytrin or Doralese or Hypovase):ti,ab
  7. (5-Alpha reductase inhibitor* or Alpha V reductase inhibitor*):ti,ab
  8. MeSH descriptor Finasteride, this term only
  9. (Finasteride or Dutasteride or Avodart or Proscar):ti,ab
  10. MeSH descriptor Cholinergic Antagonists, this term only
  11. (Anticholinergic* or cholinergic antagonist* or antimuscarininc*):ti,ab
  12. (Oxybutynin or Tolterodine or Darifenacin or Propiverine or Solifenacin or Trospium or Cystrin or Ditropan or Lyrinel or Detrusitol or Emselex or Detrunorm or Vesicare or Regurin):ti,ab
  13. MeSH descriptor Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5, this term only
  14. (Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor* or Phosphodiesterase V inhibitor*):ti,ab
  15. (PDE5 or sildenafil or viagra or vardenafil or levitra or tadalafil or cialis):ti,ab
  16. MeSH descriptor Phytotherapy, this term only
  17. MeSH descriptor Plant Extracts, this term only
  18. MeSH descriptor Plants, Medicinal, this term only
  19. (Phytotherapy or plant extract*):ti,ab
  20. MeSH descriptor Serenoa, this term only
  21. MeSH descriptor Sterols, this term only
  22. MeSH descriptor Sitosterols, this term only
  23. (Saw palmetto or serenoa or sabal or s repens or sitosterol* or b-sitosterol* or sitosteryl* or phytosterol*):ti,ab
  24. MeSH descriptor Secale cereale, this term only
  25. (pollen or secale cereale or rye or cernitin or cernilton):ti,ab
  26. MeSH descriptor Cucurbita, this term only
  27. (pumpkin seed$ or cucurbita or pepita):ti,ab
  28. MeSH descriptor Urtica dioica, this term only
  29. (nettle or urtica):ti,ab
  30. MeSH descriptor Pygeum, this term only
  31. (pygeum africanum or prunus or tadenan or docosonal or pigenil):ti,ab
  32. (cranberry AND (juice or extract)):ti,ab
  33. MeSH descriptor Diuretics, this term only
  34. Diuretic*:ti,ab
  35. MeSH descriptor Furosemide, this term only
  36. MeSH descriptor Bumetanide, this term only
  37. (Frusemide or furosemide or bumetanide or burinex):ti,ab
  38. (Desmopressin or DDAVP or desmotabs or desmomelt or desmospray or octim):ti,ab
  39. MeSH descriptor Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, this term only
  40. (Aceclofenac or acemetacin or azapropazone or celecoxib or dexibuprofen or dexketoprofen or diclofenac or etodolac or etoricoxib or fenbufen or fenobufen or flurbiprofen or ibuprofen or indometacin or ketoprofen or mefenamic acid or meloxicam or nabumetone or naproxen or piroxicam or sulindac or tenoxicam or tiaprofenic acid or aspirin):ti,ab
  41. #1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 or #12 or #13 or #14 or #15 or #16 or #17 or #18 or #19 or #20 or #21 or #22 or #23 or #24 or #25 or #26 or #27 or #28 or #29 or #30 or #31 or #32 or #33 or #34 or #35 or #36 or #37 or #38 or #39 or #'40

Medication terms - OVID Embase

  1. Alpha Adrenergic Receptor Blocking Agent/
  2. (Alpha adj3 (blocker or blocking agent or antagonist)).ti,ab.
  3. Doxazosin/ or Tamsulosin/ or Alfuzosin/ or Terazosin/ or Indoramin/ or Prazosin/
  4. (Doxazosin or Tamsulosin or Alfusozin or Terazosin or Indoramin or Prazosin or Cardura or Stronazon or Flomaxtra or Flomax or Xaltral or Hytrin or Doralese or Hypovase).ti,ab.
  5. Steroid 5alpha Reductase Inhibitor/
  6. (5-Alpha reductase inhibitor$ or Alpha V reductase inhibitor$).ti,ab.
  7. (Finasteride or Dutasteride or Avodart or Proscar).ti,ab.
  8. (Anticholinergic$ or cholinergic antagonist$ or antimuscarininc$).ti,ab.
  9. Oxybutynin/ or Tolterodine/ or Darifenacin/ or Propiverine/ or Solifenacin/ or Trospium/
  10. (Oxybutynin or Tolterodine or Darifenacin or Propiverine or Solifenacin or Trospium or Cystrin or Ditropan or Lyrinel or Detrusitol or Emselex or Detrunorm or Vesicare or Regurin).ti,ab.
  11. Phosphodiesterase V Inhibitor/
  12. (Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor$ or Phosphodiesterase V inhibitor$).ti,ab.
  13. (PDE5 or sildenafil or viagra or vardenafil or levitra or tadalafil or cialis).ti,ab.
  14. Phytotherapy/ or Plant extract/ or Medicinal plant/
  15. (Phytotherapy or plant extract$).ti,ab.
  16. Sabal/ or Sterol/ or Sitosterol derivative/
  17. (Saw palmetto or serenoa or sabal or s repens or sitosterol$ or b-sitosterol$ or sitosteryl$ or phytosterol$).ti,ab.
  18. Rye/ or Grass pollen extract/
  19. (pollen or secale cereale or rye or cernitin or cernilton).ti,ab.
  20. (pumpkin seed$ or cucurbita or pepita).ti,ab.
  21. Urtica extract/
  22. (nettle or urtica).ti,ab.
  23. Pygeum Africanum extract/
  24. (pygeum africanum or prunus or tadenan or docosonal or pigenil).ti,ab.
  25. Cranberry extract/ or Cranberry juice/
  26. (cranberry adj1 (juice or extract)).ti,ab.
  27. Diuretic Agent/
  28. Diuretic$.ti,ab.
  29. (Frusemide or furosemide or bumetanide or burinex).ti,ab.
  30. Desmopressin Acetate/ Or Desmopressin/
  31. (Desmopressin or DDAVP or desmotabs or desmomelt or desmospray or octim).ti,ab.
  32. Nonsteroid Antiinflammatory Agent/
  33. (Non steroidal anti inflammator$3 or NSAID$).ti,ab.
  34. Aceclofenac/ or acemetacin/ or azapropazone/ or celecoxib/ or dexibuprofen/ or dexketoprofen/ or diclofenac/ or etodolac/ or etoricoxib/ or fenbufen/ or fenobufen/ or flurbiprofen/ or ibuprofen/ or indometacin/ or ketoprofen/ or mefenamic acid/ or meloxicam/ or nabumetone/ or naproxen/ or piroxicam/ or sulindac/ or tenoxicam/ or tiaprofenic acid/ or aspirin/
  35. (Aceclofenac or acemetacin or azapropazone or celecoxib or dexibuprofen or dexketoprofen or diclofenac or etodolac or etoricoxib or fenbufen or fenobufen or flurbiprofen or ibuprofen or indometacin or ketoprofen or mefenamic acid or meloxicam or nabumetone or naproxen or piroxicam or sulindac or tenoxicam or tiaprofenic acid or aspirin).ti,ab.
  36. or/1-38

Medication terms - OVID Medline

  1. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/
  2. (Alpha adj3 (blocker or blocking agent or antagonist)).ti,ab.
  3. Doxazosin/ or Indoramin/ or Prazosin/
  4. (Doxazosin or Tamsulosin or Alfusozin or Terazosin or Indoramin or Prazosin or Cardura or Stronazon or Flomaxtra or Flomax or Xaltral or Hytrin or Doralese or Hypovase).ti,ab.
  5. (5-Alpha reductase inhibitor$ or Alpha V reductase inhibitor$).ti,ab.
  6. (Finasteride or Dutasteride or Avodart or Proscar).ti,ab.
  7. Cholinergic Antagonists/
  8. (Anticholinergic$ or cholinergic antagonist$ or antimuscarininc$).ti,ab.
  9. (Oxybutynin or Tolterodine or Darifenacin or Propiverine or Solifenacin or Trospium or Cystrin or Ditropan or Lyrinel or Detrusitol or Emselex or Detrunorm or Vesicare or Regurin).ti,ab.
  10. Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5/
  11. (Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor$ or Phosphodiesterase V inhibitor$).ti,ab.
  12. (PDE5 or sildenafil or viagra or vardenafil or levitra or tadalafil or cialis).ti,ab.
  13. Phytotherapy/ or Plant extracts/ or Plants, medicinal/ or serenoa/
  14. (Phytotherapy or plant extract$).ti,ab.
  15. Serenoa/ or Sterols/ or Sitosterols/
  16. (Saw palmetto or serenoa or sabal or s repens or sitosterol$ or b-sitosterol$ or sitosteryl$ or phytosterol$).ti,ab.
  17. Secale Cereale/
  18. (pollen or secale cereale or rye or cernitin or cernilton).ti,ab.
  19. Cucurbita/
  20. (pumpkin seed$ or cucurbita or pepita).ti,ab.
  21. Urtica dioica/
  22. (nettle or urtica).ti,ab.
  23. Pygeum/
  24. (pygeum africanum or prunus or tadenan or docosonal or pigenil).ti,ab.
  25. (cranberry adj1 (juice or extract)).ti,ab.
  26. Diuretics/
  27. Diuretic$.ti,ab.
  28. (Frusemide or furosemide or bumetanide or burinex).ti,ab.
  29. (Desmopressin or DDAVP or desmotabs or desmomelt or desmospray or octim).ti,ab.
  30. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/
  31. (Non steroidal anti inflammator$3 or NSAID$).ti,ab.
  32. (Aceclofenac or acemetacin or azapropazone or celecoxib or dexibuprofen or dexketoprofen or diclofenac or etodolac or etoricoxib or fenbufen or fenobufen or flurbiprofen or ibuprofen or indometacin or ketoprofen or mefenamic acid or meloxicam or nabumetone or naproxen or piroxicam or sulindac or tenoxicam or tiaprofenic acid or aspirin).ti,ab.
  33. or/1-34

Monitoring

Monitoring terms – Cochrane Library

  1. (review* near (interval* or visit* or inspect* or examin* or attend* or check-up* or recall*))
  2. (routine* near (interval* or visit* or inspect* or examin* or attend* or check-up* or recall*))
  3. (periodic* near (interval* or visit* or inspect* or examin* or attend* or check-up* or recall*))
  4. (regular near (visit* or inspect* or examin* or attend* or check-up*))
  5. recall* near interval*
  6. visit* near clinic*
  7. #1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6

Monitoring terms – OVID Embase and Medline

  1. (review$ adj (interval$ or visit$ or inspect$ or examin$ or attend$ or check-up$ or recall$)).tw.
  2. (routine$ adj (interval$ or visit$ or inspect$ or examin$ or attend$ or check-up$ or recall$)).tw.
  3. (periodic$ adj (interval$ or visit$ or inspect$ or examin$ or attend$ or check-up$ or recall$)).tw.
  4. (regular adj (visit$ or inspect$ or examin$ or attend$ or check-up$)).tw.
  5. (recall$ adj interval$).tw.
  6. (visit$ adj5 clinic$).tw.
  7. or/1-6

Patient education

Patient education - OVID Embase

  1. Patient/ or Hospital patient/ or Outpatient/
  2. Caregiver/ or exp Family/ or exp Parent/
  3. (patients or carer$ or famil$).tw.
  4. or/1-3
  5. Information Service/ or Information center/ or Publication/ or Book/ or Counseling/ or Directive counseling/
  6. 4 or 5
  7. ((patient or patients) adj3 (education or educate or educating or information or literature or leaflet$ or booklet$ or pamphlet$)).ti,ab.
  8. Patient information/ or Patient education/
  9. or/6-8

Patient education OVID Medline

  1. Patients/ or Inpatients/ or Outpatients/
  2. Caregivers/ or exp Family/ or exp Parents/ or exp Legal-Guardians/
  3. (patients or carer$ or famil$).tw.
  4. or/1-3
  5. Popular-Works-Publication-Type/ or exp Information-Services/ or Publications/ or Books/ or Pamphlets/ or Counseling/ or Directive-Counseling/
  6. 4 or 5
  7. ((patient or patients) adj3 (education or educate or educating or information or literature or leaflet$ or booklet$ or pamphlet$)).ti,ab.
  8. Patient-Education/ or Patient-Education-Handout-Publication-Type/
  9. or/6-8

Patient views

Patient views - OVID Embase

  1. Consumer attitude/ or patient satisfaction/ or patient compliance/ or patient right/ or health survey/ or questionnaire/ or interview/
  2. (patient$ adj3 (view$ or opinion$ or awareness or tolerance or perception or persistenc$ or attitude$ or compliance or satisfaction or concern$ or belief$ or feeling$ or position or idea$ or preference$ or choice$)).tw.
  3. (Discomfort or comfort or inconvenience or bother$4 or trouble or fear$ or anxiety or anxious or embarrass$4).tw.
  4. or/1-3

Patient views - OVID Medline

  1. exp Consumer-Satisfaction/ or Personal-Satisfaction/ or exp Patient-Acceptance-Of-Health-Care/ or exp Consumer-Participation/ or exp Patient-Rights/ or Health Care Surveys/ or Questionnaires/ or Interview/ or Focus groups/
  2. (patient$ adj3 (view$ or opinion$ or awareness or tolerance or perception or persistenc$ or attitude$ or compliance or satisfaction or concern$ or belief$ or feeling$ or position or idea$ or preference$ or choice$)).tw.
  3. (Discomfort or comfort or inconvenience or bother$4 or trouble or fear$ or anxiety or anxious or embarrass$4).tw.
  4. or/1-3

RCT filter

RCT filter Embase

  1. Clinical-Trial/ or Randomized-Controlled-Trial/ or Randomization/ or Single-Blind-Procedure/ or Double-Blind-Procedure/ or Crossover-Procedure/ or Prospective-Study/ or Placebo/
  2. (((((((((clinical or control or controlled) adj (study or trial)) or (single or double or triple)) adj (blind$3 or mask$3)) or randomised or randomized or random$) adj (assign$ or allocat$ or group or grouped or patients or study or trial or distribut$)) or crossover) adj (design or study or trial)) or placebo or placebos).ti,ab.
  3. 1 or 2

RCT filter Medline

  1. Randomized-Controlled-Trials/ or Random-Allocation/ or Double-Blind-Method/ or Single-Blind-Method/ or exp Clinical-Trials as topic/ or Cross-Over-Studies/ or Prospective-Studies/ or Placebos/
  2. (Randomized-Controlled-Trial or Clinical-Trial or Controlled-Clinical-Trial).pt.
  3. (((((((((clinical or control or controlled) adj (study or trial)) or (single or double or triple)) adj (blind$3 or mask$3)) or randomised or randomized or random$) adj (assign$ or allocat$ or group or grouped or patients or study or trial or distribut$)) or crossover) adj (design or study or trial)) or placebo or placebos).ti,ab.
  4. or/1-3

Surgery

Surgery terms – Cochrane Library

  1. MeSH descriptor Surgery, this term only
  2. MeSH descriptor Urologic Surgical Procedures, this term only
  3. MeSH descriptor Botulinum Toxins, this term only
  4. botulinum or botox
  5. Cystoplasty or bladder neck incision
  6. Neuromodulation
  7. Sacral nerve stimulation
  8. Myectomy
  9. MeSH descriptor Suburethral Slings, this term only
  10. sling
  11. injectable
  12. MeSH descriptor Urinary Diversion, this term only
  13. (Continent or incontinent) and diversion
  14. MeSH descriptor Urinary Sphincter, Artificial, this term only
  15. Artificial sphincter
  16. Compression device
  17. MeSH descriptor Catheterization, this term only
  18. Suprapubic catheter*
  19. Sphincterotomy
  20. #1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 or #12 or #13 or #14 or #15 or #16 or #17 or #18 or #19

Surgery terms - OVID Embase

  1. Urologic Surgery/ or Male Genital System Surgery/ or Surgery/ or Bladder Surgery/ or Prostate Surgery/
  2. Botulinum Toxin/
  3. (botulinum or botox).tw.
  4. Bladder Reconstruction/
  5. (Bladder neck incision or cystoplasty).tw.
  6. Neuromodulation/
  7. neuromodulation.tw.
  8. sacral nerve stimulation/
  9. Sacral nerve stimulation.tw.
  10. muscle resection/
  11. Myectomy.tw.
  12. sling.tw.
  13. injectable.tw.
  14. Urinary Diversion/
  15. ((Continent or incontinent) and diversion).tw.
  16. Bladder Sphincter Prosthesis/
  17. Artificial sphincter.tw.
  18. Compression device.tw.
  19. Ureter Catheterization/ or Catheterization/
  20. Suprapubic Catheter/
  21. Suprapubic catheter$.tw.
  22. Sphincterotomy/
  23. Sphincterotomy.tw.
  24. or/1-23

Surgery terms - OVID Medline

  1. Surgery/
  2. Urologic Surgical Procedures/
  3. Botulinum Toxins/
  4. (botulinum or botox).tw.
  5. (Cystoplasty or bladder neck incision).tw.
  6. Neuromodulation.tw.
  7. Sacral nerve stimulation.tw.
  8. Myectomy.tw.
  9. Suburethral Slings/
  10. sling.tw.
  11. injectable.tw.
  12. Urinary Diversion/
  13. ((Continent or incontinent) and diversion).tw.
  14. Urinary Sphincter, Artificial/
  15. Artificial sphincter.tw.
  16. Compression device.tw.
  17. Catheterization/
  18. Suprapubic catheter$.tw.
  19. Sphincterotomy.tw.
  20. or/1-19

Systematic review filter

Systematic review filter - OVID Medline

  1. meta-analysis/
  2. (metaanalys$ or meta-analys$ or meta analys$).tw.
  3. exp “review literature”/
  4. (systematic$ adj3 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  5. (selection criteria or data extraction).ab. and review.pt.
  6. (Cochrane or embase or psychlit or psyclit or psychinfo or psycinfo or cinahl or cinhal or science citation index or bids or cancerlit).ab.
  7. (reference list$ or bibliograph$ or hand search$ or hand-search$ or manual search$ or relevant journals).ab.
  8. or/1-7

Systematic review filter - OVID Embase

  1. meta analysis/
  2. (metaanalys$ or meta-analys$ or meta analys$).tw.
  3. systematic review/
  4. (systematic$ adj3 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  5. (selection criteria or data extraction).ab. and Review.pt.
  6. (Cochrane or embase or psychlit or psyclit or psychinfo or psycinfo or cinahl or cinhal or science citation index or bids or cancerlit).ab.
  7. (reference list$ or bibliograph$ or hand search$ or manual search$ or relevant journals).ab.
  8. or/1-7