Flow chart of the fundamental methodologies for clinical effectiveness research, depicting a progression from evidence-based medicine to information-based medicine and ending with personalized medicine. The necessary attributes for each step are noted.

FIGURE S-1Five foundational methodologies that need to be developed

From: Summary

Cover of Learning What Works
Learning What Works: Infrastructure Required for Comparative Effectiveness Research: Workshop Summary.
Institute of Medicine (US) Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.
Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.

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