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Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Pregnant, Substance-Using Women. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 1993. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 2.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Pregnant, Substance-Using Women.

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Appendix F—References


  1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Provisional Committee on Substance Abuse. Drug-Exposed Infants. June 7, 1990.
  2. American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law. Drug-Exposed Infants and their Families: Coordinating Responses of the Legal, Medical and Child Protection System. Washington, DC: the Association. 1990.
  3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Drug Abuse and Pregnancy. ACOG Technical Bulletin Number 96. 1986; September
  4. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Obstetrics: Maternal and Fetal Medicine. Cocaine Abuse: Implications for Pregnancy. ACOG Committee Opinion Number 81. 1990; March
  5. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Summary of State Action Related to Drug Use During Pregnancy (chart) ACOG Newsletter. 1990; May
  6. American Hospital Formulary Service. AHFS Drug Information 90. Bethesda, MD: AHFS. 1990.
  7. American Medical Association. Proceedings of the House of Delegates. 139th Annual Meeting, June 24-28, 1990. Chicago: AMA, 1990.
  8. American Public Health Association. 9020: Illicit Drug Use by Pregnant Women. Statement of Policy, n.d.
  9. American Public Health Association, AIDS Working Group. Pediatric HIV Infection. Washington, DC: APHA. 1989.
  10. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Inc. 1988.
  11. Boland, P. Perspective of a juvenile court judge. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):100–104.
  12. Bussiere, A., and Shauffer, C. The little prisoners. Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):22–26.
  13. California Health and Welfare Agency, Interagency Task Force on Perinatal Substance Abuse. Options For Recovery: Services For Alcohol and Drug Abusing Pregnant and Parenting Women and Their Infants. A Report to the California Legislature. 1991.
  14. California Legislature, Senate Select Committee on Children and Youth and Assembly Human Services Committee. Final Report of the Task Force on Substance Exposed Infants. 1990.
  15. Centers for Disease Control. Statewide prevalence of illicit drug use by pregnant women-Rhode Island. MMWR. 1990; 39:225-227 [PubMed: 2319999]
  16. Chasnoff, I.J. Drugs, alcohol, pregnancy, and the neonate: Pay now or pay later. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1991;226(11):1567–1568. [PubMed: 1880892]
  17. Chasnoff, I.J. Drug use and women: Establishing a standard of care. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1989; 562:208-210 [PubMed: 2742278]
  18. Chasnoff, I.J.; Landress, H.J.; and Barrett, M.E. The prevalence of illicit drug or alcohol use during pregnancy and discrepancies in mandatory reporting in Pinellas County, Florida. New England Journal of Medicine. 1990; 322:1202-1206 [PubMed: 2325711]
  19. Chavkin, W. Mandatory treatment for drug use during pregnancy. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1991;226(11):1556–1561. [PubMed: 1880889]
  20. Coalition on Addiction, Pregnancy, and Parenting. Guidelines for the Detoxification of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependent, Pregnant Women. Cambridge, MA: the Coalition. 1991.
  21. Coalition on Alcohol and Drug Dependent Women and their Children. Drug and Alcohol-Related Issues and Pregnancy: State Legislative Briefing Book. Washington, DC: the Coalition. 1991.
  22. Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services. Policies, Protocols and Procedures for the Treatment of Substance Exposed Newborns and Their Families. Tallahassee, FL: the Department. 1990.
  23. Dicker M., and Leighton, E.A. 1990.
  24. Dunn-Malhotra, E. Medicaid waivers promising for some drug-exposed children; don't help most. Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):27–31.
  25. English, A. Prenatal drug exposure: Grounds for mandatory child abuse reports? Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):3–8.
  26. English, A., and Henry, M. Legal issues affecting drug-exposed infants. Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):1–2.
  27. Ewing, H. A Practical Guide to Intervention in Health and Social Services with Pregnant and Postpartum Addicts and Alcoholics: Theoretical Framework, Brief Screening Tool, Key Interview Questions, and Strategies for Referral to Recovery Resources. State of California Grant for Training and Cross-Training in Health, Social Services, and Alcohol/Drug Services. 1990.
  28. Fink, J.R. Reported effects of crack and cocaine on infants. Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):37–39.
  29. Finkelstein, N. Treatment Issues: Women and Substance Abuse. Report prepared for the National Coalition on Alcohol, and Drug Dependent Women and Their Children, 1990.
  30. Finnegan, L.P. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: Assessment and pharmacotherapy. In: Rubaltelli, F.F. and Granati, B., eds. Neonatal Therapy: An Update. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1986, pp. 10-144.
  31. Finnegan, L.P. Treatment issues for opioid-dependent women during the perinatal period. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 1991;23(2):191–201. [PubMed: 1765892]
  32. Finnegan, L.P.; Hagan, T.; and Kaltenbach, K.A. Scientific foundation of clinical practice: Opiate use in pregnant women. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 1991;67(3):223–239. [PMC free article: PMC1807935] [PubMed: 1868275]
  33. Finnegan, L.P. and Wapner, R.J. Narcotic addiction in pregnancy. In: Neibyl, J.R., ed. Drug Use in Pregnancy. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1987, pp. 203-222.
  34. Fortney, D.M. Drug use during pregnancy: New Minnesota law requires doctors to test and report. Minnesota Medicine. 1990; 73:41-43 [PubMed: 2336062]
  35. Frank, D.A.; Zuckerman, B.S.; Amaro, H.; Aboagye, K.; Bauchner, H.; Cabral, H.; Fried, L.; Hingson, R.; Kayne, H.; and Levenson, S.M. Cocaine use during pregnancy: Prevalence and correlates. Pediatrics. 1988; 82:888-895 [PubMed: 3186380]
  36. Freier, M.C.; Griffith, D.R.; and Chasnoff, I.J. In utero drug exposure: Developmental follow-up and maternal-infant interaction. Seminars in Perinatology. 1991;15(4):310–316. [PubMed: 1948142]
  37. Grimm, P. Drug-exposed infants pose new problems for juvenile courts. Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):9–14.
  38. Hoegerman, G.; Wilson, C.A.; Thurmond, E.; and Schnoll, S.H. Drug-exposed neonates. Western Journal of Medicine (Special Issue-Addiction Medicine) 1990;152(5):559–564. [PMC free article: PMC1002411] [PubMed: 2190424]
  39. Horger, E.O.; Brown, S.B.; and Condon, C.M. Cocaine in pregnancy: Confronting the problem. The Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association. 1990;86(10):527–531. [PubMed: 2232719]
  40. Horowitz, R.M. Drug use in pregnancy: To test, to tell-legal implications for the physician. Seminars in Perinatology. 1991; 15(4) [PubMed: 1948144]
  41. Hurt, H. 1000 Babies: Philadelphia 1989 (abstract) Pediatric Research. 1990; 27:93A
  42. Hutchings, D.E., ed. Prenatal Abuse of Licit and Illicit Drugs. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. 1989.
  43. Hutchings, D.E. Issues of risk assessment: Lessons from the use and abuse of drugs during pregnancy. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 1990;12(3):183–189. [PubMed: 2164624]
  44. Inter-Agency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect. Los Angeles County Protocols on Perinatal Substance Abuse. SB2669, Chapter 1603 which amends Penal Code Section 11165.13 and Health and Safety Code Section 10901, effective July 1, 1991.
  45. Jennifer Clarise Johnson v. State of Florida (Supreme Court of Florida Case No. 77,831). Amicus curiae brief filed by the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Florida Medical Association, July, 1991.
  46. Jessup, M. The treatment of perinatal addiction: Identification, intervention, and advocacy. Western Journal of Medicine (Special Issue-Addiction Medicine) 1990; 152:553-558 [PMC free article: PMC1002410] [PubMed: 2349799]
  47. Jessup, M., and Green, J.R. Treatment of the pregnant alcohol-dependent woman. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 1987;19(2):193–203. [PubMed: 3612385]
  48. Jessup, M., and Roth, R. Clinical and legal perspectives on prenatal drug and alcohol use: Guidelines for individual and community response. Medicine and Law. 1988; 7:377-389 [PubMed: 3062302]
  49. Kronstadt, D. Complex developmental issues of prenatal drug exposure. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):36–49.
  50. Kumpfer, K. Treatment programs for drug-abusing women. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):50–60.
  51. Larsen, J.; Horowitz, R.M.; and Chasnoff, I.J. Medical evidence in cases of intrauterine drug and alcohol exposure. Pepperdine Law Review. 1991;18(2):279–317.
  52. Larson, C.S. Overview of state legislative and judicial responses. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):72–84.
  53. Legal Action Center. A Model for a National Policy to Address Issues Raised by Maternal Drug and Alcohol Dependence. New York: Legal Action Center, n.d.
  54. Legal Action Center. Confidentiality: A Guide to the New Federal Regulations. New York: Legal Action Center. New York: Legal Action Center. 1988.
  55. Lockwood, S.E. What's known--and what's not known--about drug-exposed infants. Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):15–18.
  56. Maas, U.; Kattner, E.; Weingart-Jesse, B.; Sch_fer, A.; and Obladen, M. Infrequent neonatal opiate withdrawal following maternal methadone detoxification during pregnancy. Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 1990; 18:111-118 [PubMed: 2366131]
  57. Mariner, W.K.; Glantz, L.H.; and Annas, G.J. Pregnancy, drugs, and the perils of prosecution. Criminal Justice Ethics. 1990; Winter/Spring:30-41 [PubMed: 11650909]
  58. McCullough, C. The child welfare response. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):61–71.
  59. McNulty, M. Pregnancy police: Implications of criminalizing fetal abuse. Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):33–36.
  60. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Perinatally acquired AIDS. by Mitchell, J.L. In: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Abuse Among Minorities. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 90-1637. Washington, DC: Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1989, pp. 67-72.
  61. Mitchell, J.L., and Brown, G. Physiological effects of cocaine, heroin and methadone. In: Engs, R.C., ed. Women: Alcohol and Other Drugs. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1990, pp. 53-60.
  62. Moore, K.G., ed. Substance abuse and pregnancy: State lawmakers respond with punitive and public health measures. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Legis-Letter. 1990; 9(3), Fall
  63. Morrow, B. Early intervention programs may help drug-exposed children. Youth Law News (Special Issue) 1990;11(1):31–32.
  64. Murray, T.H. Prenatal drug exposure: Ethical issues. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):105–112.
  65. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. "NCADD Policy Statement: Women, Alcohol, Other Drugs and Pregnancy,". 1990.
  66. National Council on Alcoholism, Inc. "NCA Policy Statement: Women, Alcohol and Other Drugs,". 1988.
  67. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Basic Administration Principles for Drug Abuse Treatment Programs. by Weiner, H., and Kleber, H.D. Medical Monograph 1, No. 3. DHHS Pub. (ADM) 84-1348. Washington, DC: Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981, reprinted 1984.
  68. Nelson, L.J., and Milliken, N. Compelled medical treatment of pregnant women: Life, liberty, and law in conflict. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1988;257(7):1060–1066. [PubMed: 3276942]
  69. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs May Harm the Unborn. by Cook, P.S.; Petersen, R.C.; and Moore, D.T. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 90-1711. Rockville, MD: the Office, 1990.
  70. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention. Legal Issues for Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention and Treatment Programs Serving High-Risk Youth. OSAP Technical Report 2. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 90-1674. Washington, DC: Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 1990.
  71. Office of National Drug Control Policy. 1990.
  72. Ohio Task Force on Drug Exposed Infants. Final Report. Columbus, OH: Ohio Department of Health. 1990.
  73. Oregon Task Force on Pregnancy and Substance Abuse. 1990.
  74. Paltrow, L. Perspective of a reproductive rights attorney. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):85–92.
  75. People of the State of Michigan v. Kimberly Hardy (State of Michigan Court of Appeals Case No. 128458). Brief filed by the American Public Health Association, American Society of Law and Medicine, Center for Law and Social Policy, National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors, National Black Women's Health Project, National Abortion Rights Action League, and Women Lawyers Association of Michigan.
  76. Phibbs, C.S. The economic implications of substance exposure. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):113–120.
  77. Phibbs, C.S.; Bateman, D.A.; and Schwartz, R.M. The neonatal costs of maternal cocaine use. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1991;226(11):1521–1526. [PubMed: 1880883]
  78. Presiding and Supervising Judges of the California Superior Court to Dependency Judges, Commissioners and Referees, Court Clerks/Judicial Assistants, Department of Children's Services Court Officers, County Counsel, Panel Attorneys. "Decision-making Protocols for Drug-related Dependency Cases," January 12, 1990 (memorandum)
  79. Providence Hospital, Inc., Elm Street Health and Human Services Center. Pregnant Addicts Protocol: Methadone Stabilization. Holyoke, MA: Providence Hospital, Inc., n.d.
  80. Public Health Service. Caring for Our Future: The Content of Prenatal Care. A Report of the Public Health Service Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care. Rockville, MD: PHS. 1989.
  81. Regan, D.O.; Ehrlich, S.M.; and Finnegan, L.P. Infants of drug addicts: At risk for child abuse, neglect, and placement in foster care. In: Zoltan, A., ed. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 9. New York: Pergamon Journals, Inc., 1987, pp. 315-319.
  82. Sanchez, L. Pregnancy, addiction and mental health. In: A Guide to the Detoxification of Alcohol and Other Drug-Dependent Pregnant Women. Cambridge, MD: Coalition on Addiction, Pregnancy, and Parenting, 1991.
  83. Scott, K.G.; Urbano, J.C.; and Boussy, C.A. Long-term psychoeducational outcome of prenatal substance exposure. Seminars in Perinatology. 1991;15(4):317–323. [PubMed: 1948143]
  84. Seltzer, M.L.; Vinolcur, A.; and VanRooijen, L. A self-administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST) Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 1975;36(1):118–119. [PubMed: 238068]
  85. Silver, H.; Wapner, R.; Loriz-Vega, M.; and Finnegan, L.P. Addiction in pregnancy: High risk intrapartum management and outcome. Journal of Perinatology. 1987;7(3):178–184. [PubMed: 3504452]
  86. Sperling, R.S.; Stratton, P.; and the members of the Obstetric-Gynecologic Working Group of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Treatment options for human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1991 1992; 79:443-448 [PubMed: 1738529]
  87. Steven, S., and Ahlstrom, A.S. Perspective from a Minnesota county attorney's office. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):93–99.
  88. Tracy, C.; Talbert, D.; and Steinschneider, J. Women, Babies and Drugs: Family-centered Treatment Options. Center for Policy Alternatives, National Conference of State Legislatures. 1990.
  89. U.S. General Accounting Office. Drug-Exposed Infants, A Generation at Risk: Report to the Chairman, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. GAO/HRD-90-128. Washington, DC: GAO. 1990.
  90. Washington State Department of Social and Health Services. Treatment Protocol for Chemical-Using Pregnant Women. Olympia, WA: the Department. 1990.
  91. Yonekura, M.L. Providing prenatal care to women with alcohol and drug problems. In: A Guide to the Detoxification of Alcohol and Other Drug-Dependent, Pregnant Women. Cambridge, MA: Coalition on Addiction, Pregnancy, and Parenting, 1991 (preprint version)
  92. Zuckerman, B. Drug-exposed infants: Understanding the medical risk. The Future of Children. 1991;1(1):26–35.

Resource List-Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Pregnancy

Directory of Projects: Faculty Development Program in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). Federal program contacts:

  • Frances Cotter, M.P.H.
    Public Health Advisor
    Division of Clinical and Prevention Research
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
    5600 Fishers Lane
    Room 14C-20
    Rockville, MD 20857
    Telephone: (301) 443-1207
  • Dorynne Czechowicz, M.D.
    Assistant Director for Medical and Professional Affairs
    Medical Affairs Branch
    Division of Clinical Research
    National Institute on Drug Abuse
    5600 Fishers Lane
    Room 10A-12
    Rockville, MD 20857
    Telephone: (301) 443-4877

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI)
P.O. Box 2345
Rockville, MD 20852
Telephone: (800) 729-6686

National Maternal and Child Health Clearinghouse
8201 Greensboro Drive
Suite 600
McLean, VA 22102
Telephone: (703) 821-8955, ext 254

National Perinatal Resource Center
Federal program contact:
Marilyn Rice Deputy
Project Officer
Perinatal Addiction Prevention Branch
Division of Demonstrations and Evaluation
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
Rockwall II, 9th Floor
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
Telephone: (301) 443-4564

Resources on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault

American Civil Liberties Union
1400 20th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: (202) 457-0800

The Association of American Colleges' Project on the Status and Education of Women
1818 R Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: (202) 387-1300

Center for Women's Policy Studies
2000 P Street, N.W., Suite 508
Washington, DC 20036-5997
Telephone: (202) 872-1770

Chesapeake Institute, Inc.
1141 Georgia Avenue, Suite 310
Wheaton, MD 20902
Telephone: (301) 949-5000

Children's Defense Fund
122 C Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20001
Telephone: (202) 628-8787

Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information
P.O. Box 1182
Washington, DC 20013
Telephone: (703) 385-7565

Clearinghouse on Family Violence Information
P.O. Box 1182
Washington, DC 20013
Telephone: (703) 821-2086

National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN)
330 C Street, S.W.
Washington, DC 20201
Telephone: (202) 245-0586

National Center on Women and Family Law
799 Broadway, Room 402
New York, NY 10003
Telephone: (212) 674-8200

National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
P.O. Box 15127
Washington, DC 20003-0127
Telephone: (202) 638-6388

National Coalition Against Sexual Assault (NCASA)
2848 Ontario Road, N.W.
Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: (202) 483-7165

The National Crime Prevention Council
1700 K Street, N.W. 2nd Floor
Washington, DC 20006
Telephone: (202) 466-6272

National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20850
Telephone: (301) 251-5500 or (800) 851-3420

National Legal Aid and Defender Association (NLADA)
1625 K Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20006
Telephone: (202) 452-0620

National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA)
717 D Street, N.W., Suite 200
Washington, DC 20004
Telephone: (202) 393-6682

Women's Legal Defense Fund
2000 P Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: (202) 887-0364


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