Table 1Test methods used to evaluate biological response

In Vitro TestingsIn Vivo Testings
FDA testsCell cultureCell cultureBlood responseOthersTissue compatibilityImplantation
ImplantationType of cellsTestsCoagulation testsBacterial adhesionSubcutaneousSubcutis
HemolysisFibroblastsReplicationComplementProtein adsorptionIntramuscularBlood
Acute systemic toxicityMonocyteProliferationPlatelet adhesion and activationCalcificationIntraperitonealBone
PyrogenicityMacrophageAdhesionFibrin(ogen) adhesion and activationMineralizationCornea
MutagenicityEndotheliumDensityErythrocytesReproduction
OsteoblastMorphologySEM observationsHeart
Urethelial cellsPhenotypeArteries
Gingival cellsReceptor expression
Epithelial cellsSecretion molecules
Reproductive cellsmRNA expression

Wound healing

Graft healing

Inflammation

Exudate

Enzymes

Cell receptor expression

Cell secretion molecules

mRNA expression

Blood tests

In situ hybridization

From: Biocompatibility of Polyurethanes

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