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Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults in the Criminal Justice System. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2005. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 44.)

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Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults in the Criminal Justice System.

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Appendix B: Glossary

Acquittal: Judicial deliverance from a criminal charge on a verdict or finding of not guilty.

ADAM: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program; a program sponsored by the National Institute of Justice that periodically administers drug tests and short research interviews to samples of new arrestees in selected cities.

Addiction: Drug craving accompanied by physical dependence that motivates continuing use, resulting in a tolerance to the drug's effects and a syndrome of identifiable symptoms.

Addiction Severity Index (ASI): A standardized assessment tool used to conduct a comprehensive drug evaluation and to match offenders' drug problems with treatment approaches. (See also Offender Profile Index .)

Adjudication (for adults): The process of resolving a criminal case through the determination of guilt or innocence and determining a sentence if the person is convicted of the crime.

Adult offender: In most States people 18 or older are considered adult offenders and processed through the adult criminal justice system, but in three States people 16 or older are processed as adults and in some other States it is 17 or older.

Aftercare: Treatment that occurs after completion of inpatient or residential treatment.

Alcoholics Anonymous: The best known of self-help support groups, which serves as an important adjunct to treatment.

Ancillary treatment services: These include education about substance abuse, self-help groups (Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous), and skills training.

Arrest: The physical taking of a person into custody on the grounds that there is probable cause to believe he or she has committed a criminal offense. An arrest may follow an investigation by law enforcement and is authorized by a warrant issued by a court.

Assessment: Evaluation or appraisal of a candidate's suitability for substance abuse treatment and placement in a specific treatment modality/setting. This evaluation includes information on current and past use/abuse of drugs; justice system involvement; medical, familial, social, educational, military, employment, and treatment histories; and risk for infectious diseases (e.g., sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis). (See also Screening .)

Bail: Security (usually financial) provided as a guarantee that an arrested person will appear for trial; release from imprisonment based on that security. (See also Financial bail and Nonfinancial conditions .)

Behavior contracts: An agreement between counselor and client about the sanctions and incentives that are to be applied when specified when the client performs specified behaviors.

Bond hearing: Proceeding before a judge to determine what (if any) conditions to set for a detainee's release pending trial.

Booking facility: A secure lockup usually operated by the local police or sheriff's department. New arrestees are taken to and held in booking facilities for paper processing, fingerprinting, criminal records, and warrant checks, pending the initial appearance before a judge.

Boot camp: Typically, a sentence to a boot camp (also called shock incarceration) is for a relatively short time (3–6 months). These camps are characterized by intense regimentation, physical conditioning, manual labor, drill and ceremony, and military-style obedience.

Boundary-spanner: An individual with knowledge of both substance abuse treatment and criminal justice systems who can facilitate the interaction of the two for the purpose of obtaining substance abuse treatment for offenders under criminal justice supervision.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment: CSAT is a Federal agency within the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). SAMHSA is part of the Public Health Service, under the Cabinet-level Department of Health and Human Services.

Changing the Conversation: CSAT's National Treatment Plan Initiative, published November 2000, which is a consensus document on how to improve substance abuse treatment and how those changes can be accomplished.

Classification: The process by which a jail, prison, probation office, parole, or other criminal justice agency assesses the security risk of an individual offender and the individual's need for social services.

Clinical formulation: The process of integrating information obtained through assessment into larger patterns or processes.

Clinicians: (See Counselors and clinicians.)

Coercion: The use of incentives and sanctions to encourage participation in substance abuse treatment.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy: Treatment that focuses on learning and practicing coping skills, some of which are cognitive in nature.

Community corrections: A model of corrections that has a primary goal of reintegrating the offender into the community. Typically will consist of judicial dispositions that involve alternatives to incarceration, such as diversion program, house arrest, electronic monitoring, probation, and parole.

Community notification laws: Laws that allow law enforcement to inform the public of the whereabouts (in some jurisdictions the specific home address) of offenders. The laws generally apply to sex offenders and typically include the “risk” level of the offender. Community notification laws are in effect in 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Community reintegration planning: Preparation and strategy for each prisoner's release from custody. The plan prepares for the prisoner's return to the community in a law-abiding role after release.

Community supervision or Community-supervised activities: These are outside the formal criminal justice system. Such activities include, for example, drug testing, programs to promote sobriety and prevent relapses, and day reporting centers.

Community treatment: This is a program outside the formal criminal justice setting. It may be run by public or private organizations (nonprofit or profit-making). Treatment may take place in a residential group (e.g., a halfway house) or a nonresidential activity (e.g., required attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous meetings). Treatment methods may vary. Both community treatment and community supervision are usually mandated by a court. An active partnership between these two should be built into planning activities for both.

Conditional release: Release from custody under specified conditions.

Confidentiality: The right of privacy for a client's/offender's personal information, except in certain law-enforcement situations.

Continual interagency communication: The ongoing cooperative effort among treatment/criminal justice/public health personnel needed to successfully treat and supervise offenders involved with drugs. Communication among these systems facilitates a united approach.

Co-occurring disorders: TIP 42, Substance Abuse Treatment for People With Co-Occurring Disorders, uses the term to specify the co-occurrence of a mental disorder and a substance use disorder. Other uses of the term include substance abuse accompanied by one or more physical or psychological conditions. Sometimes referred to as dual disorders.

Corrections system: Includes jails and detention centers, prisons, and community supervised settings.

Counselors and clinicians: Treatment professionals serving clients who abuse substances and are involved in the criminal justice system.

Court-mandated treatment: A court order to participate in treatment as part of a sentence or in lieu of some aspect of the judicial process.

Cultural competence: A set of academic and interpersonal skills that helps individuals increase their understanding and appreciation of cultural differences and similarities within, among, and between groups. It requires a willingness and ability to draw on community-based values, traditions, and customs and to work with knowledgeable people from the community in developing focused interventions, communication, and support. (See TIP 12, appendix C, for more on this topic, such as the “Continuum of Competence.”)

Curfew: In the criminal justice context, a rule or condition applied to individuals on probation or parole, requiring them to be in their residence and remain there by a specific time. An individual sentenced to house arrest will have a curfew.

Day reporting center: An intermediate sanction, this is a place where offenders on probation or parole must report to receive supervision for a certain number of hours each day. These centers may include educational services, vocational or skills training, and other service delivery. Offenders may also report by phone from a job or treatment site during the day.

Denial breaking: An intervention strategy designed to confront thought processes that prevent the individual from acknowledging problems related to his or her use of alcohol or illicit substances.

Detention: Holding a defendant in jail or other facility pending trial or determination of guilt.

Detention center: For adults, a holding facility such as a jail.

Determinate sentence: A sentence in which the length of incarceration is fixed by the court.

Deterrence: Being deterred from criminal activity because of fear of involvement in the criminal justice system or other punishment.

Detoxification: A structured medical or social milieu in which an individual is monitored for withdrawal from the acute physical and psychological effects of addiction.

Developmental interagency coordination: Collaboration among personnel from criminal justice, treatment, and public health to form expert justice/treatment/public health systems. For example, developmental interagency coordination is essential in the assessment of the drug-involved offender and in the development of referral procedures and reporting policies, as well as in understanding each system's definition of success and failure.

Disposition: The final resolution of a criminal case (e.g., in a case in which an individual is found not guilty, the disposition is an acquittal and release).

Diversion: The process whereby a defendant's prosecution is deferred or dropped if certain conditions are met. Diversion also is the judicial option to refer prison-bound cases to a review board, which in turn may recommend that the original sentence be modified or suspended and that the offender be placed in a residential or nonresidential program.

Drug courts/Drug treatment courts: Specialized courts commonly designed to handle only felony drug cases, usually involving adult nonviolent offenders. Drug courts can involve intensive monitoring, drug testing, outpatient treatment, and support services. They often operate with probation supervision and services.

Drug testing: Technical examination of urine samples to determine the presence or absence of specified drugs or their metabolized traces.

Drug use forecasting: Arrestee urinalysis data based on studies conducted under the Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) System of the National Institute of Justice.

DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition, published by the American Psychiatric Association, a standard manual used to categorize psychological or psychiatric conditions.

Due Process (of Law): Legal proceedings established to protect individual rights and liberties.

DUI, DWI: Driving under the influence or driving while intoxicated.

Duty to warn: A treatment professional's duty to report a patient's threat to harm another or to commit a crime (does not apply to knowledge of a client's past offenses).

Electronic monitoring: A sanction in which an electronic device is worn by an offender that can alert corrections officials to the unauthorized absence from the house of a person under curfew/house arrest. (See also House arrest .)

Financial bail: An amount of money, set by a judge, that is used to ensure the defendant's appearance at court. (See also Bail and Nonfinancial conditions .)

Habilitation: Training in social problemsolving skills for people with mental illness requiring the client to: (1) define the problem; (2) generate alternative solutions; (3) choose the best solution, (4) make a plan, and execute it; and (5) evaluate the outcome.

Halfway house: A transitional facility where a client is involved in school, work, training, etc. The client lives onsite while either stabilizing or reentering society drug free. The client usually receives individual counseling, as well as group/family/marital therapy. He or she may leave the site only for work, school, or treatment. This facility can be in the community or attached to a jail or similar institution. (See also Work release .)

House arrest: The restriction of offenders to their homes for various periods of time. (See also Electronic monitoring .)

Incarceration: Holding a person in a detention center, jail, or prison (State or Federal) because of suspected or actual involvement in criminal activity.

Indeterminate sentence: A prison sentence in which the amount of time to be served is indeterminate and is usually determined by a Parole Board after a minimum period of incarceration. Judges generally impose a minimum and maximum incarceration term in indeterminate sentences.

Infectious diseases risk assessment: Evaluation of a person's risk for sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and other infectious diseases, including information regarding current and past history, screening, and treatment of such diseases. Testing and referral for treatment are recommended for those with substance use disorders who are assessed as at high risk for such diseases. Those with substance use disorders who are assessed as at low risk should be reassessed intermittently. Thus, collaboration between criminal justice personnel, treatment personnel, and public health personnel must be developed in order to ensure interagency coordination in the assessment and treatment of the drug-involved offender at various stages throughout the criminal justice continuum and in the development of referral procedures and reporting policies, as well as in understanding each system's definitions of success and failure.

Intermediate sanctions: Community-based programs providing increased surveillance, tighter controls on movement, more intense treatment for a wider assortment of maladies or deficiencies, increased offender accountability, and greater emphasis on payments to victims and/or corrections authorities. Intermediate sanctions are less punitive than incarceration but more punitive than simple probation. (See also Sanctions .)

Interpersonal issues: Those between the client and counselor in the therapeutic relationship. Includes boundaries, training, the need for peer role models and cultural sensitivity, respect for confidentiality and privacy, and the counselor's duty to report certain client crimes.

Intrapersonal issues: Those stemming from an individual's psychological makeup and/or physical conditions (including co-occurring disorders), as well as one's social skills, educational status, and personal support system.

Jail: A place for holding a person in lawful custody, usually while he or she is awaiting trial. In some jurisdictions, jails are used punitively for offenders serving short-term sentences or those involving work release or weekends in incarceration. Jails range in size from small rural ones with a dozen or so cells to urban settings with thousands of cells. Jails usually are operated by cities or counties.

Linkages: The provider establishes working relationships with various agencies and facilities in order to refer clients with multiple life problems to accessible, appropriate vocational training, medical, assisted living, and legal assistance services.

Management Information System (MIS): A computer system that assists in organizing information for the purposes of planning and maintaining a business or other organization.

Mandatory release: Required release of an inmate from incarceration upon the expiration of a certain period, as stipulated by a determinate sentencing law or by parole guidelines.

Memorandum of understanding (MOU): A written but noncontractual agreement between two or more agencies or other parties to take a certain course of action.

Methadone treatment: Medically supervised outpatient treatment that provides counseling while maintaining a client on the drug methadone (used mainly for heroin or other opioid addiction).

Monitoring for compliance: Surveillance of an offender to ensure that the conditions imposed on an individual are being adhered to.

Narcotics Anonymous: A self-help and support group similar to Alcoholics Anonymous.

National Treatment Plan Initiative: Developed by CSAT, this initiative is a blueprint for improving substance abuse treatment.

Negative predictive value: The proportion of offenders identified by a screening or assessment instrument as not having substance abuse problems, compared to the total number not having substance abuse problems.

Nonfinancial conditions: Release requirements set by a judge that do not include monetary payment (e.g., required participation in supporting services, such as substance abuse treatment). (See also Bail and Financial bail .)

Nonresidential treatment of incarcerated people: In this form of treatment, prisoners receive treatment either through day care programs, regularly scheduled therapeutic groups, or other nonresidential programs.

“No Wrong Door”: This key component of CSAT's National Treatment Initiative indicates that no matter where they enter the health or social service system, people should be able to get treatment for substance abuse, either directly or through appropriate referral.

Offender Profile Index: A standardized assessment tool used to conduct a comprehensive drug evaluation and to match offenders' drug problems with treatment approaches. (See also Addiction Severity Index .)

On recognizance: Release on one's own responsibility (e.g., with an obligation to appear in court, but the release is not secured by financial bail).

Overall accuracy: The extent to which a screening or assessment instrument classifies respondents correctly.

Parole: The conditional release of an inmate from prison under supervision after part of a sentence has been served. The inmate is subject to specific terms and conditions which are monitored by an officer/agent.

Peer staff: Individuals in recovery from substance abuse disorders who have been trained for work in the treatment or criminal justice areas.

Personal bond: Release from court on one's own promise to appear in court, without financial conditions. Similar to release on recognizance .

Pharmacotherapies: Treatment of disease with drugs. In substance abuse treatment, these include methadone, naltrexone, and buprenorphine.

Placement: Assigning substance abuse treatment program participants with appropriate community substance abuse treatment facilities when such individuals leave the correctional facility at the end of a sentence or on parole.

Plea bargain: An agreement by a defendant to plead guilty to a criminal charge with the expectation of receiving some consideration from the prosecution for doing so. Typically the consideration is a reduction of the charge. The defendant's goal is a penalty lighter than the one warranted by the charged offense.

Positive predictive value: The proportion of offenders identified by a screening or assessment instrument as having substance abuse problems, compared to the total number having substance abuse problems.

Preliminary hearing: A court hearing in which initial information about the case is presented. This hearing usually is used to determine if there is sufficient evidence of guilt to continue the case, resolve evidentiary issues, or make initial case decisions.

Prerelease assessment: This information on an individual's situation/condition, as provided by treatment professionals, should be available to the judge, prosecutor, and other participants at the time of a presentence hearing or trial/sentencing. If an individual is paroled, the information should be conveyed to the parole officer for followup and evaluation. Recommendations for referral for treatment can be made at this time.

Presentence hearing: An event at which the prosecutor, defense attorney, and judge meet before a trial to establish parameters for that trial. A plea bargain is often negotiated at this point.

Presentence investigation: An investigation into the background and character of a defendant that assists the court in determining the most appropriate sentence in a case. Typically occurs after the person has been convicted, but prior to sentencing.

Pretrial hearing: Appearance in court before a magistrate, at which time bond is set or a determination is made to retain a person in jail or release him or her.

Pretrial stage: Activities in the criminal justice process that occur between arrest and trial.

Prison: A secured institution (Federal or State) in which convicted felons are confined after sentencing for crimes. Prisons are classified as minimum-, medium-, or maximum-security facilities, based on the need for internal institutional fortification. Inmates are similarly classified, according to severity of offense and/or other behavior and are usually assigned to prisons having a corresponding level of security.

Probation: A sentence in which the offender is allowed to remain in the community in lieu of incarceration. The individual is supervised and is ordered to comply with specific terms and conditions.

Problem-solving courts: These specialized court settings include drug courts, family courts, jail courts, and mental health courts.

Process evaluation: Determination of whether individuals actually received the treatment as it was intended to be delivered; examines implementation and operation of a program in comparison with the stated intent.

Protocol: Consists of guidelines and procedures for dealing with a particular issue or activity.

Psychopharmacology: The science dealing with the effect of medications in treating psychiatric conditions.

Recidivism: The commission of crime after an offender has been sentenced and/or released.

Re-entry formulation: The process of providing counseling and community-based supports to ex-offenders who abused substances and who are returning to society.

Relapse prevention: Strategy to train people with substance use disorders to cope more effectively and to overcome the stressors/triggers in their environments that may lead them back into drug use and dependency.

Reparation: (See Restoration.)

Residential treatment: Inpatient treatment, in which the client spends 24 hours a day in the treatment environment.

Restoration: Sometimes referred to as reparation, its aim is to restore the community to its state before a crime was committed. It does this in part by preventing the offender from reoffending through rehabilitation, incapacitation, or deterrence.

Restitution: Payment by an offender of the costs of a victim's losses or injuries and/or damages to the victim. Payment can be made to a general victim compensation fund or to the community as a whole (with the payment going to the municipal or State treasury).

Risk/needs assessment: A comprehensive report that includes a client's social, criminal, and other history. The report usually includes a recommendation for sentencing if the client is found guilty.

Sanctions: Legally binding orders of a court or paroling authority that deprive or restrict offender liberty or property. An intermediate sanction (see above) is more rigorous than traditional probation but less so than total incarceration.

Screening: Gathering and sorting of information used to determine if an individual has a problem with substance abuse and, if so, whether a detailed clinical assessment is appropriate. (See also Assessment .)

Security classification (in criminal justice): The process of assigning an inmate to a category based on the perceived likelihood of an offender's attempt at escape, propensity for violence, or management concerns.

Sensitivity: The extent to which a screening or assessment instrument accurately identifies those with substance use disorders (true positives).

Sentencing: The disposition of a case where penalties are imposed.

Skills training: This includes job and vocational skills, life skills (budgeting, leisure, etc.), literacy and GED classes, anger management, general coping skills, communication skills, parenting classes, building families and relationships, and social skills.

Sobering station: A 24-hour facility where individuals can be housed and monitored while under the influence of mood-altering substances.

Sobriety maintenance: The last step in recovery when the client has achieved stable sobriety and efforts are directed toward maintaining that stability.

Special-needs probation programs or caseloads: In these approaches to intermediate sanctions, officers with special training carry a restricted caseload. Typically, these approaches are used with offenders who have committed certain categories of domestic violence, sex offenses, and DUI, and with offenders who are mentally ill, developmentally disabled, or abuse substances. This situation can mean more intensive or intrusive supervision than in routine caseloads; enhanced social and psychological services; and/or specific training or group activities, such as anger management classes.

Specific populations: These include a wide range of people facing a wide range of issues—for example, racial/ethnic/sexual minorities and women, people with disabilities, older people, and those who are underserved or underrepresented in treatment. This term can also include violent offenders, sexual offenders, victims or perpetrators of domestic abuse, psychopaths, and offenders with life sentences.

Specificity: The extent to which a screening or assessment instrument accurately identifies those without substance use disorders (true negatives).

Split sentence: A sentence involving a short period of incarceration followed by probation or some other form of community supervision.

Stakeholders: Those who have a key interest/investment in an issue or activity—includes clients, treatment and criminal justice personnel, and policymakers.

Test-retest reliability: This quality of a screening or assessment instrument, expressed as a coefficient, is “obtained by administering the same test a second time to the same group after a time interval and correlating the two sets of scores” (American Educational Research Association 1999, p. 183).

Therapeutic community: Traditionally, this is a long-term (up to 24 months) rehabilitative model that relies mainly on peer staff and on work as education and therapy. Other staff include treatment and mental health professionals and vocational and educational counselors. The aim here is a global change in a person's lifestyle, focused on developing vocational, educational, and social skills. Most residents have been involved with the criminal justice system.

Treatment: Refers to the broad range of primary and supportive services—including identification, brief intervention, assessment, diagnosis, counseling, medical services, psychological services, and followup—provided for people with alcohol and illicit drug problems. The overall goal of treatment is to eliminate the use of alcohol and illicit drugs as a contributing factor to physical, psychological, and social dysfunction and to arrest, retard, or reverse progress of associated problems.

Treatment matching: Pairing clients with treatments and services that reflect their particular traits and needs in order to enhance the potential for better outcomes.

Treatment planning: The process of planning a client's total course of treatment, based on the findings of assessment procedures.

Treatment progress assessment: A process that determines the value of the chosen course of treatment, its suitability for the client, and how it should be extended or adjusted if necessary.

Triage: A process for sorting injured people into groups based on their need for medical treatment—in short, immediate attention and first-stage treatment for people with substance abuse disorders and others.

Trial: A court hearing at which a prosecutor presents a case against a defendant to show that he or she is guilty of a crime. The defendant presents information to support the plea that he or she is not guilty. The judge or jury decides the verdict.

Unbroken contact: Early, thorough, and substantial substance abuse treatment delivered in an unbroken manner throughout the entire criminal case-handling process, from arrest through the completion of the sentence. The components of the system must transfer not only the offender but also the cumulative record of what the system has learned and what it has done.

Urinalysis: The testing of a urine sample for the presence of drugs.

Waiver: A court action in which the defendant agrees to forgo certain legal rights, such as the right to a grand jury hearing or the right to a speedy trial. The term is also used to indicate the transfer of a juvenile offender to the adult criminal justice system when he or she has been accused of committing certain serious crimes.

Work release: An alternative to total incarceration, whereby inmates are permitted to work for pay in the free community but must return to a secure facility during their nonworking hours. (See also Halfway House .)

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