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Table 2. EB (using a BoMed impedance device and the Sramek-Bernstein equation) versus TD

RereferenceYearNo. of subjectsCategoryOutcome
Balestra(99).199210Hemodynamically unstable, critically ill (cardiovascular and/or respiratory) r = .98(esophageal electrodes)
Clancy(100).1991175 Trauma, 10 postsurgery, 2 cardiopulmonary r = .91
Jewkes(101).199116Abdominal surgery, aortic surgery, or acute respiratory failure r = .72
Thomas(102).1991
  • 28
  • Coronary bypass surgery (within 12 h postsurgery and ventilated)
  • 12-24 h postsurgery (spontaneously breathing)
  • Difference between TD and EB (95 limit of agreement): -3.05 to +0.89 L/min
  • -0.99 to +1.17 L/min
Woo(29).199144Cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction < 30) r = .51
Northridge(103).199025Within 24 h of an acute myocardial infarctionMean range of CO: 3.79 vs. 3.95 L/min (no significant difference)
Pepke-Zaba(19).199021Heart transplant (rest and bicycle exercise) r = .65
Sullivan(104).199014Abdominal aortic surgery r = .71
Wong(12).199056Sepsis, dysrhythmias, cardiac, surgery, or mechanically ventilated r = .55-.61
Spahn(26).1990256-8 h after coronary artery bypass surgery r = .78-.82
Silke(105).198916Coronary artery disease (rest and bicycle exercise) r =. 2-.49
Easterling(106).198914Preeclampsia r = .17
Gotshall(60).198910Intensive care r = .77
Masaki(5).198911Peripartum respiratory distress syndrome, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease r = .91
Boldt(107).
  • 1988
  • 20
  • 10
  • Cardiac surgery
  • Intensive care hemofiltration
13.2 vs. 9.8 (significant differences in absolute values), relative changes comparable)
Salandin(108).198824Coronary or valvular heart disease r = .83
Shoemaker(109).198858Critically ill surgical r = .83
Appel(110).198616Critically ill surgical r = .83
Bernstein(15).198617Critically ill r = .88

From: Measuring Cardiac Output by Electrical Bioimpedance

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