Table 6.26Meta-analysis (2008): Effectiveness and abstinence rates for various medications and medication combinations compared to placebo at 6-months postquit (n = 83 studies)a

MedicationNumber of armsEstimated odds ratio (95% C.I.)Estimated abstinence rate (95% C.I.)
Placebo801.013.8
Monotherapies
Varenicline (2 mg/day)53.1 (2.5–3.8)33.2 (28.9–37.8)
Nicotine Nasal Spray42.3 (1.7–3.0)26.7 (21.5–32.7)
High-Dose Nicotine Patch ( > 25 mg) (These included both standard or long-term duration)42.3 (1.7–3.0)26.5 (21.3–32.5)
Long-Term Nicotine Gum (> 14 weeks)62.2 (1.5–3.2)26.1 (19.7–33.6)
Varenicline (1 mg/day)32.1 (1.5–3.0)25.4 (19.6–32.2)
Nicotine Inhaler62.1 (1.5–2.9)24.8 (19.1–31.6)
Clonidine32.1 (1.2–3.7)25.0 (15.7–37.3)
Bupropion SR262.0 (1.8–2.2)24.2 (22.2–26.4)
Nicotine Patch (6–14 weeks)321.9 (1.7–2.2)23.4 (21.3–25.8)
Long-Term Nicotine Patch (> 14 weeks)101.9 (1.7–2.3)23.7 (21.0–26.6)
Nortriptyline51.8 (1.3–2.6)22.5 (16.8–29.4)
Nicotine Gum (6–14 weeks)151.5 (1.2–1.7)19.0 (16.5–21.9)
Combination therapies
Patch (long-term; > 14 weeks) + ad lib NRT (gum or spray)33.6 (2.5–5.2)36.5 (28.6–45.3)
Patch + Bupropion SR32.5 (1.9–3.4)28.9 (23.5–35.1)
Patch + Nortriptyline22.3 (1.3–4.2)27.3 (17.2–40.4)
Patch + Inhaler22.2 (1.3– 3.6)25.8 (17.4–36.5)
Patch + Second generation antidepressants (paroxetine, venlafaxine)32.0 (1.2–3.4)24.3 (16.1–35.0)
Medications not shown to be effective
Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)31.0 (0.7–1.4)13.7 (10.2–18.0)
Naltrexone20.5 (0.2–1.2)7.3 (3.1–16.2)
a

Go to www​.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco/gdlnrefs​.htm for the articles used in this meta-analysis.

From: 1, Overview and Methods

Cover of Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update
Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update.
Tobacco Use and Dependence Guideline Panel.

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