NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Tobacco Use and Dependence Guideline Panel. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Rockville (MD): US Department of Health and Human Services; 2008 May.

Cover of Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update

Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update.

Show details

General References

1.
Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, et al. Smoking cessation. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 18. Rockville, MD, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. AHCPR Publication No. 96-0692. April 1996.
2.
National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2006, with chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD, 2006. [PubMed: 20698067]
3.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2006. MMWR. 2007;56:1157–61. [PubMed: 17989644]
4.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.
5.
Rothemich SF, Woolf SH, Johnson RE. et al. Effect on cessation counseling of documenting smoking status as a routine vital sign: An ACORN study. Ann Fam Med. 2008;6:60–8. [PMC free article: PMC2203392] [PubMed: 18195316]
6.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing tobacco use: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2000.
7.
Baumeister SE, Schumann A, Meyer C. et al. Effects of smoking cessation on health care use: is elevated risk of hospitalization among former smokers attributable to smoking-related morbidity? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;88:197–203. [PubMed: 17118577]
8.
Lightwood J. The economics of smoking and cardiovascular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2003;46:39–78. [PubMed: 12920700]
9.
Lightwood JM, Glantz SA. Short-term economic and health benefits of smoking cessation: myocardial infarction and stroke. Circulation. 1997;96:1089–96. [PubMed: 9286934]
10.
Rasmussen SR, Prescott E, Sorensen TI. et al. The total lifetime health cost savings of smoking cessation to society. Eur J Public Health. 2005;15:601–6. [PubMed: 16014659]
11.
Hurley SF. Short-term impact of smoking cessation on myocardial infarction and stroke hospitalisations and costs in Australia. Med J Aust. 2005;183:13–7. [PubMed: 15992331]
12.
Critchley J, Capewell S. Smoking cessation for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD003041. [PubMed: 14974003]
13.
Ford ES, Ajani UA, Croft JB. et al. Explaining the decrease in U.S. deaths from coronary disease, 1980-2000. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2388–98. [PubMed: 17554120]
14.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2004. MMWR. 2005;54:1121–24. [PubMed: 16280969]
15.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2003. MMWR. 2005;54:509–13. [PubMed: 15917735]
16.
Tobacco Cessation Leadership Network. Trends in the delivery and reimbursement of tobacco dependence treatment. Available at: http://tcln​.org/resources​/pdfs/Trends_in​_Delivery_and_Reimbursement_final.pdf.)
17.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State Medicaid coverage for tobacco-dependence treatments—United States, 2005. MMWR. 2006;55:1194–7. [PubMed: 17093384]
18.
Bellows NM, McMenamin SB, Halpin HA. Adoption of system strategies for tobacco cessation by state Medicaid programs. Med Care. 2007;45:350–6. [PubMed: 17496719]
19.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physician and other health care professional counseling of smokers to quit—United States, 1991. MMWR. 1993;42:854–7. [PubMed: 8232167]
20.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Receipt of advice to quit smoking in Medicare managed care—United States, 1998. JAMA. 2000;284:1779–81. [PubMed: 11041745]
21.
Denny CH, Serdula MK, Holtzman D. et al. Physician advice about smoking and drinking: are U.S. adults being informed? Am J Prev Med. 2003;24:71–4. [PubMed: 12554026]
22.
Chase EC, McMenamin SB, Halpin HA. Medicaid provider delivery of the 5A's for smoking cessation counseling. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:1095–101. [PubMed: 17978983]
23.
Quinn VP, Stevens VJ, Hollis JF. et al. Tobacco-cessation services and patient satisfaction in nine nonprofit HMOs. Am J Prev Med. 2005;29:77–84. [PubMed: 16005802]
24.
California Department of Health Services. Smokers and quitting. 2005. Available at: http://www​.dhs.ca.gov​/tobacco/documents/pubs/Cessation.pdf.
25.
National Committee for Quality Assurance. The state of health care quality 2007. Available at: http://web​.ncqa.org/tabid/543/Default​.aspx.
26.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults and quitting among persons aged 18–35 years—United States, 2006. MMWR. 2007;56:993–6. [PubMed: 17898692]
27.
Swartz SH, Cowan TM, Klayman JE. et al. Use and effectiveness of tobacco telephone counseling and nicotine therapy in Maine. Am J Prev Med. 2005;29:288–94. [PubMed: 16242591]
28.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs—2007. Atlanta, GA, Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2007.
29.
Cummings KM, Hyland A. Impact of nicotine replacement therapy on smoking behavior. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:583–99. [PubMed: 15760302]
30.
Fiore MC, Novotny TE, Pierce JP. et al. Methods used to quit smoking in the United States. Do cessation programs help? JAMA. 1990;263:2760–5. [PubMed: 2271019]
31.
Westmaas JL, Langsam K. Unaided smoking cessation and predictors of failure to quit in a community sample: effects of gender. Addict Behav. 2005;30:1405–24. [PubMed: 15896921]
32.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of cessation methods among smokers aged 16–24 years—United States, 2003. MMWR. 2006;55:1351–4. [PubMed: 17183227]
33.
Cokkinides VE, Ward E, Jemal A. et al. Under-use of smoking-cessation treatments: results from the National Health Interview Survey, 2000. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28:119–22. [PubMed: 15626567]
34.
Pierce JP, Gilpin EA. Impact of over-the-counter sales on effectiveness of pharmaceutical aids for smoking cessation. JAMA. 2002;288:1260–4. [PubMed: 12215133]
35.
West R, DiMarino ME, Gitchell J. et al. Impact of UK policy initiatives on use of medicines to aid smoking cessation. Tob Control. 2005;14:166–71. [PMC free article: PMC1748027] [PubMed: 15923466]
36.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public health focus: effectiveness of smoking-control strategies—United States. MMWR 1992;41:645–7, 653. [PubMed: 1508130]
37.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 1997-2001. MMWR. 2005;54:625–8. [PubMed: 15988406]
38.
McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993;270:2207–12. [PubMed: 8411605]
39.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco use among adults—United States, 2005. MMWR. 2006;55:1145–8. [PubMed: 17065979]
40.
Kessler DA, Witt AM, Barnett PS. et al. The Food and Drug Administration's regulation of tobacco products. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:988–94. [PubMed: 8782508]
41.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among young people: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1994.
42.
Gilpin B, Ballin S. Antidote for America's leading pediatric disease. Circulation. 1996;94:233. [PubMed: 8759056]
43.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-32, DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4293). Rockville, MD, 2007.
44.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-27, DHHS Publication No. SMA -5-4061. Rockville, MD, 2005.
45.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs—United States, 1995-1999. MMWR. 2002;51:300–3. [PubMed: 12002168]
46.
Sloan FA, Ostermann J, Picone G. The price of smoking. Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004.
47.
American Legacy Foundation. Saving lives, saving money: tobacco-free states spend less on Medicaid. Available at: http://www​.americanlegacy​.org/Files/Policy​_Report_4_-_Medicaid​_Report_Technical_Notes.pdf.
48.
Thorndike AN, Rigotti NA, Stafford RS. et al. National patterns in the treatment of smokers by physicians. JAMA. 1998;279:604–8. [PubMed: 9486755]
49.
Thorndike AN, Regan S, Rigotti NA. The treatment of smoking by US physicians during ambulatory visits: 1994 2003. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1878–83. [PMC free article: PMC1994176] [PubMed: 17761570]
50.
Conroy MB, Majchrzak NE, Regan S. et al. The association between patient-reported receipt of tobacco intervention at a primary care visit and smokers' satisfaction with their health care. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7(Suppl 1):S29–34. [PubMed: 16036267]
51.
Stevens VJ, Solberg LI, Quinn VP, et al. Relationship between tobacco control policies and the delivery of smoking cessation services in nonprofit HMOs. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2005:75–80. [PubMed: 16287890]
52.
Fang CY, Ma GX, Miller SM. et al. A brief smoking cessation intervention for Chinese and Korean American smokers. Prev Med. 2006;43:321–4. [PubMed: 16860858]
53.
Ferreira-Borges C. Effectiveness of a brief counseling and behavioral intervention for smoking cessation in pregnant women. Prev Med. 2005;41:295–302. [PubMed: 15917025]
54.
Fiore MC, Jorenby DE, Schensky AE. et al. Smoking status as the new vital sign: effect on assessment and intervention in patients who smoke. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995;70:209–13. [PubMed: 7861807]
55.
Glasgow RE, Whitlock EP, Eakin EG. et al. A brief smoking cessation intervention for women in low-income planned parenthood clinics. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:786–9. [PMC free article: PMC1446229] [PubMed: 10800431]
56.
Lancaster T, Stead L. Physician advice for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD000165. [PubMed: 15494989]
57.
Molyneux A, Lewis S, Leivers U. et al. Clinical trial comparing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus brief counseling, brief counseling alone, and minimal intervention on smoking cessation in hospital inpatients. Thorax. 2003;58:484–8. [PMC free article: PMC1746718] [PubMed: 12775857]
58.
Rissel C, Salmon A, Hughes AM. Evaluation of a (pilot) stage-tailored brief smoking cessation intervention among hospital patients presenting to a hospital pre-admission clinic. Aust Health Rev. 2000;23:83–93. [PubMed: 11186064]
59.
Bonollo DP, Zapka JG, Stoddard AM. et al. Treating nicotine dependence during pregnancy and postpartum: understanding clinician knowledge and performance. Patient Edu Couns. 2002;48:265–74. [PubMed: 12477611]
60.
Hu S, Pallonen U, McAlister AL. et al. Knowing how to help tobacco users. Dentists' familiarity and compliance with the clinical practice guideline. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137:170–9. [PubMed: 16521382]
61.
McMenamin SB, Halpin HA, Ibrahim JK. et al. Physician and enrollee knowledge of Medicaid coverage for tobacco dependence treatments. Am J Prev Med. 2004;26:99–104. [PubMed: 14751319]
62.
Ward MM, Vaughn TE, Uden-Holman T. et al. Physician knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding a widely implemented guideline. J Eval Clin Pract. 2002;8:155–62. [PubMed: 12180364]
63.
Amundson G, Solberg LI, Reed M. et al. Paying for quality improvement: compliance with tobacco cessation guidelines. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2003;29:59–65. [PubMed: 12616920]
64.
American Medical Association. Promoting the utilization of new and old Medicare preventive services benefits. Interim meeting of the AMA House of Delegates. 2006. Available at: www​.ama-ssn.org/ama1​/pub/upload/mm/38/i-06bot.pdf.
65.
Cabana MD, Rand CS, Powe NR. et al. Why don't physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? JAMA. 1999;282:1458–65. [PubMed: 10535437]
66.
Jaen CR, Crabtree BF, Zyzanski SJ. et al. Making time for tobacco cessation counseling. J Fam Pract. 1998;46:425–8. [PubMed: 9598001]
67.
Jaen CR, McIlvain H, Pol L. et al. Tailoring tobacco counseling to the competing demands in the clinical encounter. J Fam Prac. 2001;50:859–63. [PubMed: 11674888]
68.
Slade J. Cessation: it's time to retire the term. SRNT Newsletter. 1999;5:1–4.
69.
Jones HE, Garrett BE, Griffiths RR. Subjective and physiological effects of intravenous nicotine and cocaine in cigarette smoking cocaine abusers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;288:188–97. [PubMed: 9862770]
70.
Di Matteo V, Pierucci M, Di Giovanni G. et al. The neurobiological bases for the pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:1269–84. [PubMed: 17504235]
71.
Laviolette SR, van der Kooy D. The neurobiology of nicotine addiction: bridging the gap from molecules to behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004;5:55–65. [PubMed: 14708004]
72.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: nicotine addiction. Atlanta, GA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health., 1988.
73.
Raw M, Anderson P, Batra A. et al. WHO Europe evidence based recommendations on the treatment of tobacco dependence. Tob Control. 2002;11:44–6. [PMC free article: PMC1747658] [PubMed: 11891367]
74.
Kohler CL, Bailey WC. Tobacco dependence: a chronic disease. Chest. 2002;121:686–7. [PubMed: 11888945]
75.
American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with nicotine dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:s1–s31.
76.
Kleber HD, Weiss RD, Anton RF Jr. et al. Treatment of patients with substance use disorders, second edition. American Psychiatric Association. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:5–123. [PubMed: 17569411]
77.
American Medical Association. American Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nicotine dependence: how to help patients stop smoking. Washington, DC, American Medical Association, 1994.
78.
American Dental Association. Summary of policy and recommendations regarding tobacco. 2005. Available at: http://www​.ada.org/prof​/resources/positions​/statements/tobac.asp.
79.
American Nurses Association. Position statements: cessation of tobacco use. 1995. Available at: www​.nursingworld.org​/MainMenuCategories/HealthcareandPolicyIssues​/ANAPositionStatements/social.aspx.
80.
Institute of Medicine. Ending the tobacco problem: a blueprint for the nation. Washington, DC, The National Academy Press, 2007.
81.
West R, McNeill A, Raw M. Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals: an update. Health Education Authority. Thorax. 2000;55:987–99. [PMC free article: PMC1745657] [PubMed: 11083883]
82.
Hughes JR. Motivating and helping smokers to stop smoking. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:1053–7. [PMC free article: PMC1494968] [PubMed: 14687265]
83.
Ward KD, Klesges RC, Zbikowski SM. et al. Gender differences in the outcome of an unaided smoking cessation attempt. Addict Behav. 1997;22:521–33. [PubMed: 9290861]
84.
Vogt F, Hall S, Marteau TM. General practitioners' and family physicians' negative beliefs and attitudes towards discussing smoking cessation with patients: a systematic review. Addiction. 2005;100:1423–31. [PubMed: 16185204]
85.
Collins BN, Levin KP, Bryant-Stephens T. Pediatricians' practices and attitudes about environmental tobacco smoke and parental smoking. J Pediatr. 2007;150:547–52. [PubMed: 17452234]
86.
Hollis JF, Bills R, Whitlock E. et al. Implementing tobacco interventions in the real world of managed care. Tob Control. 2000;9:118–24. [PMC free article: PMC1766258] [PubMed: 10688926]
87.
Solberg LI, Boyle RG, Davidson G. et al. Patient satisfaction and discussion of smoking cessation during clinical visits. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:138–43. [PubMed: 11213301]
88.
Barzilai DA, Goodwin MA, Zyzanski SJ. et al. Does health habit counseling affect patient satisfaction? Prev Med. 2001;33:595–9. [PubMed: 11716655]
89.
Davis RM. Measuring the health impact of smoking and health care providers' performance in addressing the problem. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:444–6. [PubMed: 16549858]
90.
Orleans CT. Increasing the demand for and use of effective smoking cessation treatments: reaping the full health benefits of tobacco control science and policy gains in our lifetime. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33:S340–8. [PubMed: 18021909]
91.
Mooney M, White T, Hatsukami D. The blind spot in the nicotine replacement therapy literature: assessment of the double-blind in clinical trials. Addict Behav. 2004;29:673–84. [PubMed: 15135549]
92.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The guide to community preventive services: tobacco use prevention and control. Available at:http://www​.cdc.gov/tobacco​/tobacco_control_programs​/stateandcommunity/comguide​.htm.
93.
Institute of Medicine. Clearing the smoke: assessing the science base for tobacco harm reduction. Washington DC, National Academy Press, 2001, pp 1–18.
94.
Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ. Treating tobacco use and dependence: Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service, 2000.
95.
Brandon TH, Tiffany ST, Obremski KM. et al. Postcessation cigarette use: the process of relapse. Addict Behav. 1990;15:105–14. [PubMed: 2343783]
96.
Hughes JR, Keely J, Naud S. Shape of the relapse curve and long-term abstinence among untreated smokers. Addiction. 2004;99:29–38. [PubMed: 14678060]
97.
Kenford SL, Smith SS, Wetter DW. et al. Predicting relapse back to smoking: contrasting affective and physical models of dependence. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70:216–27. [PubMed: 11860048]
98.
Piasecki TM. Relapse to smoking. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;26:196–215. [PubMed: 16352382]
99.
Velicer WF, Prochaska JO. A comparison of four self-report smoking cessation outcome measures. Addict Behav. 2004;29:51–60. [PubMed: 14667420]
100.
Garvey AJ, Bliss RE, Hitchcock JL. et al. Predictors of smoking relapse among self-quitters: a report from the Normative Aging Study. Addict Behav. 1992;17:367–77. [PubMed: 1502970]
101.
Westman EC, Behm FM, Simel DL. et al. Smoking behavior on the first day of a quit attempt predicts long-term abstinence. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:333–40. [PubMed: 9040302]
102.
Hurt RD, Krook JE, Croghan IT. et al. Nicotine patch therapy based on smoking rate followed by bupropion for prevention of relapse to smoking. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:914–20. [PubMed: 12610193]
103.
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7:177–88. [PubMed: 3802833]
104.
Statistics and Epidemiology Research Corporation. EGRET Reference Manual, Revision 4. Seattle, WA, 1993.
105.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression, Second Edition. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000.
106.
Gartlehner G, Hanson RA, Nissman D, et al. Criteria for distinguishing effectiveness from efficacy trials is systematic reviews. Technical Review 12 (Prepared by the RTI-International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0016.) AHRQ Publication No. 06-0046. Rockville, MD, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, April 2006.
107.
Dale LC, Hurt RD, Hays JT. Drug therapy to aid in smoking cessation. Tips on maximizing patients' chances for success. Postgrad Med 1998;104:75–8, 83–74. [PubMed: 9861257]
108.
Lerman C, Kaufmann V, Rukstalis M. et al. Individualizing nicotine replacement therapy for the treatment of tobacco dependence: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:426–33. [PubMed: 15023708]
109.
West R, Hajek P, Nilsson F. et al. Individual differences in preferences for and responses to four nicotine replacement products. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;153:225–30. [PubMed: 11205423]
110.
Drilea SK, Reid BC, Li CH. et al. Dental visits among smoking and nonsmoking US adults in 2000. Am J Health Behav. 2005;29:462–71. [PubMed: 16201863]
111.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2000. MMWR. 2002;51:642–5. [PubMed: 12186222]
112.
Fu SS, Partin MR, Snyder A. et al. Promoting repeat tobacco dependence treatment: are relapsed smokers interested? Am J Manag Care. 2006;12:235–43. [PubMed: 16610925]
113.
National Cancer Institute. Tobacco and the clinician: interventions for medical and dental practice. Monograph No. 5. NIH Publication No. 94-3696, 1994.
114.
Kreuter MW, Chheda SG, Bull FC. How does physician advice influence patient behavior? Evidence for a priming effect. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:426–33. [PubMed: 10810947]
115.
Richmond RL. Physicians can make a difference with smokers: evidence-based clinical approaches. Presentation given during the Symposium on Smoking Cessation at the 29th World Conference of the IUATLD/UICTMR and Global Congress on Lung Health, Bangkok, Thailand, 23–26 November 1998. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999;3:100–12. [PubMed: 10091874]
116.
Whitlock EP, Orleans CT, Pender N. et al. Evaluating primary care behavioral counseling interventions: an evidence-based approach. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22:267–84. [PubMed: 11988383]
117.
Tessaro I, Lyna PR, Rimer BK. et al. Readiness to change smoking behavior in a community health center population. J Community Health. 1997;22:15–31. [PubMed: 9120044]
118.
Ossip-Klein DJ, McIntosh S, Utman C. et al. Smokers ages 50+: who gets physician advice to quit? Prev Med. 2000;31:364–9. [PubMed: 11006061]
119.
National Committee for Quality Assurance. The state of health care quality 2006. Available at: http://www​.ncqa.org/communications​/sohc2006/sohc_2006.pdf.
120.
Shelley D, Cantrell J, Faulkner D. et al. Physician and dentist tobacco use counseling and adolescent smoking behavior: results from the 2000 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Pediatrics. 2005;115:719–25. [PubMed: 15741377]
121.
Moran S, Thorndike AN, Armstrong K. et al. Physicians' missed opportunities to address tobacco use during prenatal care. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:363–8. [PubMed: 12791532]
122.
Rennard SI, Daughton DM. Smoking cessation. Chest. 2000;117:360S–4S. [PubMed: 10843977]
123.
Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J. et al. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ. 2004;328:1519. [PMC free article: PMC437139] [PubMed: 15213107]
124.
Lichtenstein E, Hollis J. Patient referral to a smoking cessation program: who follows through? J Fam Prac. 1992;34:739–44. [PubMed: 1593248]
125.
Hammond D, McDonald PW, Fong GT. et al. Do smokers know how to quit? Knowledge and perceived effectiveness of cessation assistance as predictors of cessation behaviour. Addiction. 2004;99:1042–8. [PubMed: 15265101]
126.
Roche AM, Freeman T. Brief interventions: good in theory but weak in practice. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2004;23:11–8. [PubMed: 14965883]
127.
Stange KC, Zyzanski SJ, Jaen CR. et al. Illuminating the ‘black box’. A description of 4,454 patient visits to 138 family physicians. J Fam Pract. 1998;46:377–89. [PubMed: 9597995]
128.
Nides M, Leischow S, Sarna L. et al. Maximizing smoking cessation in clinical practice: pharmacologic and behavioral interventions. Prev Cardiol. 2007;10:23–30. [PubMed: 17396064]
129.
Tomar SL, Husten CG, Manley MW. Do dentists and physicians advise tobacco users to quit? J Am Dent Assoc. 1996;127:259–65. [PubMed: 8682997]
130.
Schroeder SA. What to do with a patient who smokes. JAMA. 2005;294:482–7. [PubMed: 16046655]
131.
Gordon JS, Andrews JA, Crews KM. et al. The 5A's vs 3A's plus proactive quitline referral in private practice dental offices: preliminary results. Tob Control. 2007;16:285–8. [PMC free article: PMC2598528] [PubMed: 17652247]
132.
Glynn TJ, Manley MW. How to help your patients stop smoking: a National Cancer Institute manual for physicians. Bethesda, MD, NIH Publication No. 89-3064, 1997.
133.
Manley MW, Epps RP, Glynn TJ. The clinician's role in promoting smoking cessation among clinic patients. Med Clin North Am. 1992;76:477–94. [PubMed: 1548972]
134.
Kottke TE, Solberg LI, Brekke ML. Beyond efficacy testing: introducing preventive cardiology into primary care. Am J Prev Med. 1990;6:77–83. [PubMed: 2200453]
135.
Kottke TE, Solberg LI. Beyond efficacy testing redux. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27:104–5. [PubMed: 15275679]
136.
National Cancer Institute. How to help your patients stop using tobacco: a National Cancer Institute manual for the oral health exam. Bethesda, MD, NIH Publication No. 93-3191., 1993.
137.
Jordan TR, Dake JR, Price JH. Best practices for smoking cessation in pregnancy: do obstetrician/gynecologists use them in practice? J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2006;15:400–41. [PubMed: 16724888]
138.
Goldstein MG, Whitlock EP, DePue J. Multiple behavioral risk factor interventions in primary care. Summary of research evidence. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27:61–79. [PubMed: 15275675]
139.
Orleans CT, Woolf SH, Rothemich SF. et al. The top priority: building a better system for tobacco-cessation counseling. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:103–6. [PubMed: 16777550]
140.
American Academy of Family Physicians: Tobacco cessation. Available at http://www​.askandact.org.
141.
Cheong Y, Yong HH, Borland R. Does how you quit affect success? A comparison between abrupt and gradual methods using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Aug;9(8):801–810. [PubMed: 17654293]
142.
Gourlay SG, Forbes A, Marriner T. et al. Double blind trial of repeated treatment with transdermal nicotine for relapsed smokers. BMJ. 1995;311:363–6. [PMC free article: PMC2550432] [PubMed: 7640544]
143.
Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Sawe U. et al. Recycling with nicotine patches in smoking cessation. Addiction. 1993;88:533–9. [PubMed: 8485431]
144.
Gonzales DH, Nides MA, Ferry LH. et al. Bupropion SR as an aid to smoking cessation in smokers treated previously with bupropion: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;69:438–44. [PubMed: 11406741]
145.
Hatsukami D, Mooney M, Murphy S. et al. Effects of high dose transdermal nicotine replacement in cigarette smokers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;86:132–9. [PMC free article: PMC2063438] [PubMed: 17267026]
146.
Herrera N, Franco R, Herrera L. et al. Nicotine gum, 2 and 4 mg, for nicotine dependence. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial within a behavior modification support program. Chest. 1995;108:447–51. [PubMed: 7634882]
147.
Shiffman S, Dresler CM, Hajek P. et al. Efficacy of a nicotine lozenge for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1267–76. [PubMed: 12038945]
148.
Sweeney CT, Fant RV, Fagerstrom KO. et al. Combination nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: rationale, efficacy and tolerability. CNS Drugs. 2001;15:453–67. [PubMed: 11524024]
149.
Fagerstrom KO. Combined use of nicotine replacement products. Health Values. 1994;18:15–20.
150.
Shiffman S, Sweeney CT, Dresler CM. Nicotine patch and lozenge are effective for women. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:119–27. [PubMed: 15804684]
151.
Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Varady A. et al. Do men outperform women in smoking cessation trials? Maybe, but not by much. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002;10:295–301. [PubMed: 12233990]
152.
Wetter DW, Fiore MC, Young TB. et al. Gender differences in response to nicotine replacement therapy: objective and subjective indexes of tobacco withdrawal. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;7:135–44. [PubMed: 10340153]
153.
Cepeda-Benito A, Reynoso JT, Erath S. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: differences between men and women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:712–22. [PubMed: 15301656]
154.
Mahrer-Imhof R, Froelicher ES, Li WW. et al. Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS V): under-use of nicotine replacement therapy. Heart Lung. 2002;31:368–73. [PubMed: 12487015]
155.
Perkins KA. Smoking cessation in women. Special considerations. CNS Drugs. 2001;15:391–411. [PubMed: 11475944]
156.
Munafo M, Bradburn M, Bowes L. et al. Are there sex differences in transdermal nicotine replacement therapy patch efficacy? A meta-analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:769–76. [PubMed: 15700912]
157.
Perkins KA, Scott MA: Sex differences in long-term smoking cessation rates due to nicotine patch. In press. [PubMed: 18629735]
158.
Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nortriptyline for smoking cessation: a review. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:491–9. [PubMed: 16085520]
159.
Cox LS, Patten CA, Niaura RS. et al. Efficacy of bupropion for relapse prevention in smokers with and without a past history of major depression. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:828–34. [PMC free article: PMC1492503] [PubMed: 15242467]
160.
Hall SM, Reus VI, Munoz RF. et al. Nortriptyline and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of cigarette smoking. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:683–90. [PubMed: 9707377]
161.
Hayford KE, Patten CA, Rummans TA. et al. Efficacy of bupropion for smoking cessation in smokers with a former history of major depression or alcoholism. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;174:173–8. [PubMed: 10211174]
162.
Lerman C, Niaura R, Collins BN. et al. Effect of bupropion on depression symptoms in a smoking cessation clinical trial. Psychol Addict Behav. 2004;18:362–6. [PubMed: 15631608]
163.
Mooney ME, Reus VI, Gorecki J, et al. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Nortriptyline in Smoking Cessation: A Multistudy Analysis. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007, [Epub ahead of print]. [PMC free article: PMC2700120] [PubMed: 17687275]
164.
Rundmo T, Smedslund G, Gotestam KG. Motivation for smoking cessation among the Norwegian public. Addict Behav. 1997;22:377–86. [PubMed: 9183507]
165.
Alberg AJ, Carter CL, Carpenter MJ. Weight gain as an impediment to cigarette smoking cessation: a lingering problem in need of solutions. Prev Med. 2007;44:296–7. [PubMed: 17316778]
166.
Donze J, Ruffieux C, Cornuz J. Determinants of smoking and cessation in older women. Age Ageing. 2007;36:53–7. [PubMed: 17264137]
167.
Fagan P, Augustson E, Backinger CL. et al. Quit attempts and intention to quit cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1412–20. [PMC free article: PMC1931471] [PubMed: 17600244]
168.
Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change (2nd ed.). New York, Guilford Press, 2002.
169.
Carpenter MJ, Hughes JR, Solomon LJ. et al. Both smoking reduction with nicotine replacement therapy and motivational advice increase future cessation among smokers unmotivated to quit. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:371–81. [PubMed: 15279521]
170.
Chan SS, Lam TH, Salili F. et al. A randomized controlled trial of an individualized motivational intervention on smoking cessation for parents of sick children: a pilot study. Appl Nurs Res. 2005;18:178–81. [PubMed: 16106336]
171.
Butler CC, Rollnick S, Cohen D. et al. Motivational consulting versus brief advice for smokers in general practice: A randomized trial. Br J Gen Pract. 1999;49:611–6.
172.
Curry SJ, Ludman EJ, Graham E. et al. Pediatric-based smoking cessation intervention for low-income women: a randomized trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:295–302. [PubMed: 12622686]
173.
Brown RA, Ramsey SE, Strong DR. et al. Effects of motivational interviewing on smoking cessation in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Tob Control. 2003;12(Suppl 4):IV3–10. [PMC free article: PMC1766133] [PubMed: 14645934]
174.
Steinberg ML, Ziedonis DM, Krejci JA. et al. Motivational interviewing with personalized feedback: a brief intervention for motivating smokers with schizophrenia to seek treatment for tobacco dependence. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:723–8. [PubMed: 15301657]
175.
Hettema J, Steele J, Miller WR. Motivational interviewing. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2005;1:91–111. [PubMed: 17716083]
176.
Ahluwalia JS, Okuyemi K, Nollen N. et al. The effects of nicotine gum and counseling among African American light smokers: a 2 × 2 factorial design. Addiction. 2006;101:883–91. [PubMed: 16696632]
177.
Amrhein PC, Miller WR, Yahne CE. et al. Client commitment language during motivational interviewing predicts drug use outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71:862–78. [PubMed: 14516235]
178.
Rollnick S, Miller WR, Butler CC. Motivational interviewing in health care: helping patients change behavior. New York, The Guilford Press, 2008.
179.
Rollnick S, Mason P, Butler C. Health behavior change: a guide for practitioners. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1999.
180.
Carpenter MJ, Hughes JR, Keely JP. Effect of smoking reduction on later cessation: a pilot experimental study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:155–62. [PubMed: 12745487]
181.
Piasecki TM, Fiore MC, McCarthy DE. et al. Have we lost our way? The need for dynamic formulations of smoking relapse proneness. Addiction. 2002;97:1093–108. [PubMed: 12199822]
182.
Haddock CK, O'Byrne KK, Klesges RC. et al. Relapse to smoking after basic military training in the U.S. Air Force. Mil Med. 2000;165:884–8. [PubMed: 11143440]
183.
Krall EA, Garvey AJ, Garcia RI. Smoking relapse after 2 years of abstinence: findings from the VA Normative Aging Study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002;4:95–100. [PubMed: 11906685]
184.
Wetter DW, Cofta-Gunn L, Fouladi RT. et al. Late relapse/sustained abstinence among former smokers: a longitudinal study. Prev Med. 2004;39:1156–63. [PubMed: 15539050]
185.
Hajek P, Stead LF, West R, et al. Relapse prevention interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005:CD003999. [PubMed: 15674921]
186.
Brandon TH, Collins BN, Juliano LM. et al. Preventing relapse among former smokers: a comparison of minimal interventions through telephone and mail. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:103–13. [PubMed: 10710845]
187.
Brandon TH, Meade CD, Herzog TA. et al. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a minimal intervention to prevent smoking relapse: dismantling the effects of amount of content versus contact. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:797–808. [PubMed: 15482038]
188.
Alterman AI, Gariti P, Mulvaney F. Short- and long-term smoking cessation for three levels of intensity of behavioral treatment. Psychol Addict Behav. 2001;15:261–4. [PubMed: 11563806]
189.
Barth J, Critchley J, Bengel J. Efficacy of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Behav Med. 2006;32:10–20. [PubMed: 16827625]
190.
Grandes G, Cortada JM, Arrazola A. et al. Predictors of long-term outcome of a smoking cessation programme in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2003;53:101–7. [PMC free article: PMC1314508] [PubMed: 12817354]
191.
Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Packard KA. Comparison of conservative and aggressive smoking cessation treatment strategies following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Chest. 2004;125:435–8. [PubMed: 14769721]
192.
Pisinger C, Vestbo J, Borch-Johnsen K. et al. Smoking cessation intervention in a large randomised population-based study. The Inter99 study. Prev Med. 2005;40:285–92. [PubMed: 15533541]
193.
Rigotti NA, Munafo MR, Murphy MF. et al. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalized patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;1:1–21.
194.
Cromwell J, Bartosch WJ, Fiore MC. et al. Cost-effectiveness of the clinical practice recommendations in the AHCPR guideline for smoking cessation. JAMA. 1997;278:1759–66. [PubMed: 9388153]
195.
Bentz CJ, Bayley KB, Bonin KE. et al. The feasibility of connecting physician offices to a state-level tobacco quit line. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30:31–7. [PubMed: 16414421]
196.
Holtrop JS, Wadland WC, Vansen S. et al. Recruiting health plan members receiving pharmacotherapy into smoking cessation counseling. Am J Manag Care. 2005;11:501–7. [PubMed: 16095436]
197.
Perry RJ, Keller PA, Fraser D, et al. Fax to quit: a model for delivery of tobacco cessation services to Wisconsin residents. WMJ 2005;104:37–40, 44. [PubMed: 16117232]
198.
Winickoff JP, Buckley VJ, Palfrey JS. et al. Intervention with parental smokers in an outpatient pediatric clinic using counseling and nicotine replacement. Pediatrics. 2003;112:1127–33. [PubMed: 14595057]
199.
Winickoff JP, Hillis VJ, Palfrey JS. et al. A smoking cessation intervention for parents of children who are hospitalized for respiratory illness: The Stop Tobacco Outreach Program. Pediatrics. 2003;111:140–5. [PubMed: 12509567]
200.
Adsit R, Fraser D, Redmond L. et al. Changing clinical practice, helping people quit: the Wisconsin Cessation Outreach model. WMJ. 2005;104:32–6. [PubMed: 16117231]
201.
Fiore MC, Keller PA, Curry SJ. Health system changes to facilitate the delivery of tobacco dependence treatment. Prev Med. 2007;33:s349–56. [PubMed: 18021910]
202.
Wagner EH, Austin BT, Davis C. et al. Improving chronic illness care: translating evidence into action. Health Aff (Millwood) 2001;20:64–78. [PubMed: 11816692]
203.
Katz DA, Muehlenbruch DR, Brown RB. et al. Effectiveness of a clinic-based strategy for implementing the AHRQ Smoking Cessation Guideline in primary care. Prev Med. 2002;35:293–301. [PubMed: 12202073]
204.
Katz DA, Muehlenbruch DR, Brown RL. et al. Effectiveness of implementing the agency for health care research and quality smoking cessation clinical practice guideline: a randomized, controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:594–603. [PubMed: 15100337]
205.
Levy DT, Chaloupka F, Gitchell J. The effects of tobacco control policies on smoking rates: a tobacco control scorecard. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2004;10:338–53. [PubMed: 15235381]
206.
Curry SJ, Orleans CT, Keller P. et al. Promoting smoking cessation in the healthcare environment: 10 years later. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:269–72. [PubMed: 16905041]
207.
Zapka JG, White MJ, Reed G. et al. Organizational systems to support publicly funded tobacco treatment services. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28:338–45. [PMC free article: PMC1635789] [PubMed: 15831338]
208.
Wewers ME, Kidd K, Armbruster D. et al. Tobacco dependence curricula in U.S. baccalaureate and graduate nursing education. Nurs Outlook. 2004;52:95–101. [PubMed: 15073590]
209.
Glasgow RE, Davis CL, Funnell MM. et al. Implementing practical interventions to support chronic illness self-management. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2003;29:563–74. [PubMed: 14619349]
210.
Curry SJ, Grothaus LC, McAfee T. et al. Use and cost effectiveness of smoking-cessation services under four insurance plans in a health maintenance organization. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:673–9. [PubMed: 9725926]
211.
Doescher MP, Whinston MA, Goo A. et al. Pilot study of enhanced tobacco-cessation services coverage for low-income smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002;4(Suppl 1):S19–24. [PubMed: 11945215]
212.
Kaper J, Wagena EJ, Severens JL, et al. Health care financing systems for increasing the use of tobacco dependence treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005:CD004305. [PubMed: 15674938]
213.
Manley MW, Griffin T, Foldes SS. et al. The role of health plans in tobacco control. Annu Rev Public Health. 2003;24:247–66. [PubMed: 12471273]
214.
McPhillips-Tangum C, Rehm B, Carreon R. et al. Addressing tobacco in managed care: results of the 2003 survey. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3:A87. [PMC free article: PMC1636711] [PubMed: 16776888]
215.
Bondi MA, Harris JR, Atkins D. et al. Employer coverage of clinical preventive services in the United States. Am J Health Promot. 2006;20:214–22. [PubMed: 16422142]
216.
Halpin HA, Bellows NM, McMenamin SB. Medicaid coverage for tobacco-dependence treatments. Health Aff (Millwood) 2006;25:550–6. [PubMed: 16522610]
217.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State Medicaid coverage for tobacco-dependence treatments—United States, 1994-2002. MMWR. 2004;53:54–7. [PubMed: 14749613]
218.
Ibrahim JK, Schauffler HH, Barker DC. et al. Coverage of tobacco dependence treatments for pregnant women and for children and their parents. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1940–2. [PMC free article: PMC1447355] [PubMed: 12453812]
219.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State Medicaid coverage for tobacco-dependence treatments—United States, 2005. MMWR. 2006;55:1194–7. [PubMed: 17093384]
220.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and improving health Available at: http://www​.healthypeople​.gov/Publications/. [PubMed: 11987364]
221.
Maciosek MV, Coffield AB, Edwards NM. et al. Priorities among effective clinical preventive services: results of a systematic review and analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:52–61. [PubMed: 16777543]
222.
Solberg LI, Maciosek MV, Edwards NM. et al. Repeated tobacco-use screening and intervention in clinical practice: health impact and cost effectiveness. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:62–71. [PubMed: 16777544]
223.
Quist-Paulsen P, Lydersen S, Bakke PS. et al. Cost effectiveness of a smoking cessation program in patients admitted for coronary heart disease. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006;13:274–80. [PubMed: 16575284]
224.
Shearer J, Shanahan M. Cost effectiveness analysis of smoking cessation interventions. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2006;30:428–34. [PubMed: 17073223]
225.
Eddy DM. David Eddy ranks the tests. Harv Health Lett 1992, (special suppl):10–11.
226.
Foulds J. Smoking cessation services show good return on investment. BMJ. 2002;324:608–9. [PubMed: 11885587]
227.
Javitz HS, Swan GE, Zbikowski SM. et al. Return on investment of different combinations of bupropion SR dose and behavioral treatment for smoking cessation in a health care setting: an employer's perspective. Value Health. 2004;7:535–43. [PubMed: 15367249]
228.
Warner KE, Mendez D, Smith DG. The financial implications of coverage of smoking cessation treatment by managed care organizations. Inquiry. 2004;41:57–69. [PubMed: 15224960]
229.
Halpern MT, Dirani R, Schmier JK. Impacts of a smoking cessation benefit among employed populations. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:11–21. [PubMed: 17215709]
230.
Sindelar JL, Duchovny N, Falba TA. et al. If smoking increases absences, does quitting reduce them? Tob Control. 2005;14:99–105. [PMC free article: PMC1747999] [PubMed: 15791019]
231.
Harris JR, Schauffler HH, Milstein A. et al. Expanding health insurance coverage for smoking cessation treatments: experience of the Pacific Business Group on Health. Am J Health Promot. 2001;15:350–6. [PubMed: 11502016]
232.
Ahluwalia JS, Gibson CA, Kenney RE. et al. Smoking status as a vital sign. J Gen Intern Med. 1999;14:402–8. [PMC free article: PMC1496600] [PubMed: 10417597]
233.
Boyle R, Solberg LI. Is making smoking status a vital sign sufficient to increase cessation support actions in clinical practice? Ann Fam Med. 2004;2:22–5. [PMC free article: PMC1466625] [PubMed: 15053279]
234.
Glasgow RE, Lichtenstein E, Marcus AC. Why don't we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1261–7. [PMC free article: PMC1447950] [PubMed: 12893608]
235.
Glasgow RE, Orleans CT, Wagner EH. Does the chronic care model serve also as a template for improving prevention? Milbank Q 2001;79:579–612, iv–v. [PMC free article: PMC2751207] [PubMed: 11789118]
236.
Keller PA, Fiore MC, Curry SJ. et al. Systems change to improve health and health care: lessons from addressing tobacco in managed care. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7(Suppl 1):S5–8. [PubMed: 16036270]
237.
Piper ME, Fiore MC, Smith SS. et al. Use of the vital sign stamp as a systematic screening tool to promote smoking cessation. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:716–22. [PubMed: 12934781]
238.
Borland R, Balmford J, Hunt D. The effectiveness of personally tailored computer-generated advice letters for smoking cessation. Addiction. 2004;99:369–77. [PubMed: 14982550]
239.
Kim JR, Lee MS, Hwang JY. et al. Efficacy of a smoking cessation intervention using the AHCPR guideline tailored for Koreans: a randomized controlled trial. Health Promot Int. 2005;20:51–9. [PubMed: 15681592]
240.
McClure JB, Swan GE. Tailoring nicotine replacement therapy: rationale and potential approaches. CNS Drugs. 2006;20:281–91. [PubMed: 16599646]
241.
Strecher VJ, Marcus A, Bishop K. et al. A randomized controlled trial of multiple tailored messages for smoking cessation among callers to the cancer information service. J Health Commun. 2005;10(Suppl 1):105–18. [PubMed: 16377603]
242.
Strecher VJ, Shiffman S, West R. Moderators and mediators of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program among nicotine patch users. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8(Suppl 1):S95–101. [PubMed: 17491176]
243.
Unrod M, Smith M, Spring B. et al. Randomized controlled trial of a computer-based, tailored intervention to increase smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:478–84. [PMC free article: PMC1829425] [PubMed: 17372796]
244.
Webb MS, Simmons VN, Brandon TH. Tailored interventions for motivating smoking cessation: using placebo tailoring to examine the influence of expectancies and personalization. Health Psychol. 2005;24:179–88. [PubMed: 15755232]
245.
Velicer WF, Prochaska JO, Redding CA. Tailored communications for smoking cessation: past successes and future directions. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2006;25:49–57. [PubMed: 16492577]
246.
Gilbert DG, Crauthers DM, Mooney DK. et al. Effects of monetary contingencies on smoking relapse: influences of trait depression, personality, and habitual nicotine intake. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;7:174–81. [PubMed: 10340157]
247.
Han ES, Foulds J, Steinberg MB. et al. Characteristics and smoking cessation outcomes of patients returning for repeat tobacco dependence treatment. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:1068–74. [PubMed: 16939548]
248.
Smith SS, Jorenby DE, Leischow SJ. et al. Targeting smokers at increased risk for relapse: treating women and those with a history of depression. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:99–109. [PubMed: 12745511]
249.
Bao Y, Duan N, Fox SA. Is some provider advice on smoking cessation better than no advice? An instrumental variable analysis of the 2001 National Health Interview Survey. Health Serv Res. 2006;41:2114–35. [PMC free article: PMC1955314] [PubMed: 17116112]
250.
Carr AB, Ebbert JO. Interventions for tobacco cessation in the dental setting. A systematic review. Community Dent Health. 2007;24:70–4. [PubMed: 17615820]
251.
Emmons KM, Puleo E, Park E. et al. Peer-delivered smoking counseling for childhood cancer survivors increases rate of cessation: the partnership for health study. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:6516–23. [PubMed: 16116148]
252.
Malchodi CS, Oncken C, Dornelas EA. et al. The effects of peer counseling on smoking cessation and reduction. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101:504–10. [PubMed: 12636954]
253.
Patten CA, Lopez K, Thomas JL. et al. Reported willingness among adolescent nonsmokers to help parents, peers, and others to stop smoking. Prev Med. 2004;39:1099–106. [PubMed: 15539043]
254.
Stead L, Perera R, Lancaster T. Telephone counseling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006, 3:CD002850. [PubMed: 16855992]
255.
Skinner CS, Campbell MK, Rimer BK. et al. How effective is tailored print communication? Ann Behav Med. 1999;21:290–8. [PubMed: 10721435]
256.
Ibid.
257.
Smith SS, Jorenby DE, Fiore MC. et al. Strike while the iron is hot: can stepped-care treatments resurrect relapsing smokers? J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69:429–39. [PubMed: 11495172]
258.
Reid R, Pipe A, Higginson L. et al. Stepped care approach to smoking cessation in patients hospitalized for coronary artery disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2003;23:176–82. [PubMed: 12782900]
259.
Walters ST, Wright JA, Shegog R. A review of computer and Internet-based interventions for smoking behavior. Addict Behav. 2006;31:264–77. [PubMed: 15950392]
260.
Lenert L, Munoz RF, Perez JE. et al. Automated e-mail messaging as a tool for improving quit rates in an internet smoking cessation intervention. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2004;11:235–40. [PMC free article: PMC436069] [PubMed: 15064291]
261.
Bock B, Graham A, Sciamanna C. et al. Smoking cessation treatment on the Internet: content, quality, and usability. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:207–19. [PubMed: 15203794]
262.
Etter JF. Comparing the efficacy of two Internet-based, computer-tailored smoking cessation programs: a randomized trial. J Med Internet Res. 2005;7:e2. [PMC free article: PMC1550632] [PubMed: 15829474]
263.
Cobb NK, Graham AL, Bock BC. et al. Initial evaluation of a real-world Internet smoking cessation system. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:207–16. [PMC free article: PMC2885701] [PubMed: 16036277]
264.
Japuntich SJ, Zehner ME, Smith SS. et al. Smoking cessation via the Internet: a randomized clinical trial of an internet intervention as adjuvant treatment in a smoking cessation intervention. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8(Suppl 1):S59–67. [PubMed: 17491172]
265.
Graham AL, Bock BC, Cobb NK. et al. Characteristics of smokers reached and recruited to an Internet smoking cessation trial: a case of denominators. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8(Suppl 1):S43–8. [PMC free article: PMC2885695] [PubMed: 17491170]
266.
Hall SM, Tsoh JY, Prochaska JJ. et al. Treatment for cigarette smoking among depressed mental health outpatients: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1808–14. [PMC free article: PMC1586139] [PubMed: 17008577]
267.
Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Fava JL. et al. Counselor and stimulus control enhancements of a stage-matched expert system intervention for smokers in a managed care setting. Prev Med. 2001;32:23–32. [PubMed: 11162323]
268.
Swartz SH, Cowan TM, Batista IA. Using claims data to examine patients using practice-based Internet communication: is there a clinical digital divide? J Med Internet Res. 2004;6:e1. [PMC free article: PMC1550584] [PubMed: 15111267]
269.
Hollis JF, Polen MR, Whitlock EP. et al. Teen reach: outcomes from a randomized, controlled trial of a tobacco reduction program for teens seen in primary medical care. Pediatrics. 2005;115:981–9. [PubMed: 15805374]
270.
Velicer WF, Friedman RH, Fava JL. et al. Evaluating nicotine replacement therapy and stage-based therapies in a population-based effectiveness trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74:1162–72. [PubMed: 17154745]
271.
Aveyard P, Griffin C, Lawrence T. et al. A controlled trial of an expert system and self-help manual intervention based on the stages of change versus standard self-help materials in smoking cessation. Addiction. 2003;98:345–54. [PubMed: 12603234]
272.
Kenford SL, Fiore MC, Jorenby DE. et al. Predicting smoking cessation. Who will quit with and without the nicotine patch. JAMA. 1994;271:589–94. [PubMed: 8301790]
273.
Brown RA, Lejuez CW, Kahler CW. et al. Distress tolerance and early smoking lapse. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25:713–33. [PMC free article: PMC1839854] [PubMed: 16023275]
274.
May S, West R. Do social support interventions (“buddy systems”) aid smoking cessation? A review. Tob Control. 2000;9:415–22. [PMC free article: PMC1748387] [PubMed: 11106712]
275.
May S, West R, Hajek P. et al. Randomized controlled trial of a social support (‘buddy’) intervention for smoking cessation. Patient Educ Couns. 2006;64:235–41. [PubMed: 16616450]
276.
Park EW, Schultz JK, Tudiver F, et al. Enhancing partner support to improve smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD002928. [PubMed: 15266469]
277.
Hajek P, Stead LF. Aversive smoking for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004: CD000546. [PubMed: 15266433]
278.
Miller WR. Rediscovering fire: small interventions, large effects. Psychol Addict Behav. 2000;14:6–18. [PubMed: 10822741]
279.
Orlinsky D, Grawe K, Parks B. Process and outcome in psychotherapy. Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (5th ed). Edited by Bergin A, Garfield S. New York, Wiley., 1994, pp 270–378.
280.
Squier RW. A model of empathic understanding and adherence to treatment regimens in practitioner-patient relationships. Soc Sci Med. 1990;30:325–39. [PubMed: 2408150]
281.
White AR, Rampes H, Campbell JL. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD000009. [PubMed: 16437420]
282.
Abbot NC, Stead LF, White AR, et al. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. The Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2002. [PubMed: 10796583]
283.
Hasan FM, Pischke K, Saiyed S. et al. Hypnotherapy as an aid to smoking cessation of hospitalised patients: Preliminary results. Chest. 2007;132:527s.
284.
Bize R, Burnand B, Mueller Y. et al. Effectiveness of biomedical risk assessment as an aid for smoking cessation: a systematic review. Tob Control. 2007;16:151–6. [PMC free article: PMC2598501] [PubMed: 17565124]
285.
Volpp KG, Gurmankin Levy A, Asch DA. et al. A randomized controlled trial of financial incentives for smoking cessation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:12–8. [PubMed: 16434580]
286.
Gilpin EA, Messer K, Pierce JP. Population effectiveness of pharmaceutical aids for smoking cessation: what is associated with increased success? Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8:661–9. [PubMed: 17008193]
287.
Britt E, Hudson SM, Blampied NM. Motivational interviewing in health settings: a review. Patient Educ Couns. 2004;53:147–55. [PubMed: 15140454]
288.
Rubak S, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T. et al. Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract. 2005;55:305–12. [PMC free article: PMC1463134] [PubMed: 15826439]
289.
Wakefield M, Olver I, Whitford H. et al. Motivational interviewing as a smoking cessation intervention for patients with cancer: randomized controlled trial. Nurs Res. 2004;53:396–405. [PubMed: 15586136]
290.
Stotts AL, Diclemente CC, Dolan-Mullen P. One-to-one: a motivational intervention for resistant pregnant smokers. Addict Behav. 2002;27:275–92. [PubMed: 11817768]
291.
Miller WR, Yahne CE, Moyers TB. et al. A randomized trial of methods to help clinicians learn motivational interviewing. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:1050–62. [PubMed: 15612851]
292.
McClure JB. Are biomarkers a useful aid in smoking cessation? A review and analysis of the literature. Behav Med. 2001;27:37–47. [PubMed: 11575171]
293.
Risser NL, Belcher DW. Adding spirometry, carbon monoxide, and pulmonary symptom results to smoking cessation counseling: a randomized trial. J Gen Intern Med. 1990;5:16–22. [PubMed: 2405112]
294.
Audrain J, Boyd NR, Roth J. et al. Genetic susceptibility testing in smoking-cessation treatment: one-year outcomes of a randomized trial. Addict Behav. 1997;22:741–51. [PubMed: 9426791]
295.
Bize R, Burnand B, Mueller Y. Biomedical risk assessment as an aid for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005. [PubMed: 16235375]
296.
Wilt TJ, Niewoehner D, Kane RL. et al. Spirometry as a motivational tool to improve smoking cessation rates: a systematic review of the literature. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:21–32. [PubMed: 17365733]
297.
Cahill K, Stead L, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007. [PubMed: 17253581]
298.
Gourlay SG, Stead LF, Benowitz NL. Clonidine for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004. [PubMed: 15266422]
299.
Hughes JR, Stead L, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007. [PubMed: 17253443]
300.
Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004. [PubMed: 15266423]
301.
Shiffman S, Di Marino ME, Pillitteri JL. The effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine lozenge in very heavy smokers. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2005;28:49–55. [PubMed: 15723732]
302.
Freedman R. Exacerbation of schizophrenia by varenicline. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1269. [PubMed: 17671295]
303.
Kohen I, Kremen N. Varenicline-induced manic episode in a patient with bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1269–70. [PubMed: 17671294]
304.
Stapleton JA, Watson L, Spirling LI. et al. Varenicline in the routine treatment of tobacco dependence: a pre-post comparison with nicotine replacement therapy and an evaluation in those with mental illness. Addiction. 2007;103:146–54. [PubMed: 18028247]
305.
Oncken C, Gonzales D, Nides M. et al. Efficacy and safety of the novel selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, varenicline, for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1571–7. [PubMed: 16908789]
306.
Williams KE, Reeves KR, Billing CB Jr. et al. A double-blind study evaluating the long-term safety of varenicline for smoking cessation. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:793–801. [PubMed: 17407636]
307.
Tonstad S, Tonnesen P, Hajek P. et al. Effect of maintenance therapy with varenicline on smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296:64–71. [PubMed: 16820548]
308.
Zevin S, Benowitz NL. Drug interactions with tobacco smoking. An update. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1999;36:425–38. [PubMed: 10427467]
309.
Meyer JM. Individual changes in clozapine levels after smoking cessation: results and a predictive model. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001;21:569–74. [PubMed: 11763003]
310.
Johnstone E, Benowitz N, Cargill A. et al. Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;80:319–30. [PubMed: 17015050]
311.
Kotlyar M, Brauer LH, Tracy TS. et al. Inhibition of CYP2D6 activity by bupropion. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;25:226–9. [PubMed: 15876900]
312.
Guzey C, Norstrom A, Spigset O. Change from the CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer to the poor metabolizer phenotype during treatment With bupropion. Ther Drug Monit. 2002;24:436–7. [PubMed: 12021638]
313.
Johnston AJ, Ascher J, Leadbetter R. et al. Pharmacokinetic optimisation of sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation. Drugs. 2002;62(Suppl 2):11–24. [PubMed: 12109932]
314.
Obach RS, Reed-Hagen AE, Krueger SS. et al. Metabolism and disposition of varenicline, a selective alpha4beta2 acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in vivo and in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:121–30. [PubMed: 16221753]
315.
Schneider NG, Koury MA, Cortner C. et al. Preferences among four combination nicotine treatments. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006;187:476–85. [PubMed: 16896965]
316.
Bohadana A, Nilsson F, Rasmussen T. et al. Nicotine inhaler and nicotine patch as a combination therapy for smoking cessation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:3128–34. [PubMed: 11074742]
317.
Croghan GA, Sloan JA, Croghan IT. et al. Comparison of nicotine patch alone versus nicotine nasal spray alone versus a combination for treating smokers: a minimal intervention, randomized multicenter trial in a nonspecialized setting. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:181–7. [PubMed: 12745490]
318.
Jamerson BD, Nides M, Jorenby DE. et al. Late-term smoking cessation despite initial failure: an evaluation of bupropion sustained release, nicotine patch, combination therapy, and placebo. Clin Ther. 2001;23:744–52. [PubMed: 11394732]
319.
Hochberg Y. A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance. Biometrika. 1988;75:800–3.
320.
Schuurmans MM, Diacon AH, van Biljon X. et al. Effect of pre-treatment with nicotine patch on withdrawal symptoms and abstinence rates in smokers subsequently quitting with the nicotine patch: a randomized controlled trial. Addiction. 2004;99:634–40. [PubMed: 15078238]
321.
Rose JE, Behm FM, Westman EC. et al. Precessation treatment with nicotine skin patch facilitates smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8:89–101. [PubMed: 16497603]
322.
Bullen C, Whittaker R, Walker N. et al. Pre-quitting nicotine replacement therapy: findings from a pilot study. Tobacco Induced Dis. 2006;3:35–40. [PMC free article: PMC2633503] [PubMed: 19570295]
323.
Stead LF, Lancaster T. Interventions to reduce harm from continued tobacco use. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007. [PubMed: 17636791]
324.
Dierker LC, Avenevoli S, Stolar M. et al. Smoking and depression: an examination of mechanisms of comorbidity. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:947–53. [PubMed: 12042182]
325.
Glassman AH, Covey LS, Stetner F. et al. Smoking cessation and the course of major depression: a follow-up study. Lancet. 2001;357:1929–32. [PubMed: 11425414]
326.
Levine MD, Marcus MD, Perkins KA. A history of depression and smoking cessation outcomes among women concerned about post-cessation weight gain. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:69–76. [PubMed: 12745508]
327.
Niaura R, Abrams DB. Stopping smoking: a hazard for people with a history of major depression? Lancet. 2001;357:1900–1. [PubMed: 11425406]
328.
Wilhelm K, Arnold K, Niven H. et al. Grey lungs and blue moods: smoking cessation in the context of lifetime depression history. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2004;38:896–905. [PubMed: 15555023]
329.
Farebrother MJ, Pearce SJ, Turner P. et al. Propranolol and giving up smoking. Br J Dis Chest. 1980;74:95–6. [PubMed: 6986897]
330.
Hao W, Young D. Effect of clonidine on cigarette cessation and in the alleviation of withdrawal symptoms. Br J Addict. 1988;83:1221–6. [PubMed: 3056540]
331.
Cinciripini PM, Lapitsky L, Seay S. et al. A placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of buspirone on smoking cessation: differences between high- and low-anxiety smokers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995;15:182–91. [PubMed: 7635995]
332.
Farid P, Abate MA. Buspirone use for smoking cessation. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32:1362–4. [PubMed: 9876819]
333.
Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Anxiolytics and antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000. [PubMed: 10796472]
334.
Schneider NG, Olmstead RE, Steinberg C. et al. Efficacy of buspirone in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled trial. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;60:568–75. [PubMed: 8941030]
335.
David S, Lancaster T, Stead LF, et al. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006. [PubMed: 17054160]
336.
King A, de Wit H, Riley RC. et al. Efficacy of naltrexone in smoking cessation: a preliminary study and an examination of sex differences. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8:671–82. [PubMed: 17008194]
337.
O'Malley SS, Cooney JL, Krishnan-Sarin S. et al. A controlled trial of naltrexone augmentation of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:667–74. [PubMed: 16567607]
338.
Hymowitz N, Eckholdt H. Effects of a 2.5-mg silver acetate lozenge on initial and long-term smoking cessation. Prev Med. 1996;25:537–46. [PubMed: 8888321]
339.
Jensen EJ, Schmidt E, Pedersen B. et al. The effect of nicotine, silver acetate, and placebo chewing gum on the cessation of smoking. The influence of smoking type and nicotine dependence. Int J Addict. 1991;26:1223–31. [PubMed: 1743819]
340.
Morrow R, Nepps P, McIntosh M. Silver acetate mouth spray as an aid in smoking cessation: results of a double-blind trial. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1993;6:353–7. [PubMed: 8352038]
341.
Lancaster T, Stead LF. Silver acetate for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000. [PubMed: 10796505]
342.
Rose JE, Behm FM, Westman EC. Nicotine-mecamylamine treatment for smoking cessation: the role of pre-cessation therapy. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998;6:331–43. [PubMed: 9725117]
343.
Rose JE, Behm FM, Westman EC. et al. Mecamylamine combined with nicotine skin patch facilitates smoking cessation beyond nicotine patch treatment alone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;56:86–99. [PubMed: 8033499]
344.
Glover ED, Laflin MT, Schuh KJ. et al. A randomized, controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a transdermal delivery system of nicotine/mecamylamine in cigarette smokers. Addiction. 2007;102:795–802. [PubMed: 17506156]
345.
Lancaster T, Stead LF. Mecamylamine (a nicotine antagonist) for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000. [PubMed: 10796584]
346.
Nides MA, Rakos RF, Gonzales D. et al. Predictors of initial smoking cessation and relapse through the first 2 years of the Lung Health Study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995;63:60–9. [PubMed: 7896992]
347.
Murray RP, Bailey WC, Daniels K. et al. Safety of nicotine polacrilex gum used by 3,094 participants in the Lung Health Study. Lung Health Study Research Group. Chest. 1996;109:438–45. [PubMed: 8620719]
348.
Hughes JR, Wadland WC, Fenwick JW. et al. Effect of cost on the self-administration and efficacy of nicotine gum: a preliminary study. Prev Med. 1991;20:486–96. [PubMed: 1908080]
349.
Henningfield JE. Nicotine medications for smoking cessation. N Eng J Med. 1995;333:1196–203. [PubMed: 7565976]
350.
Kozlowski LT, Strasser AA, Giovino GA. et al. Applying the risk/use equilibrium: use medicinal nicotine now for harm reduction. Tob Control. 2001;10:201–3. [PMC free article: PMC1747574] [PubMed: 11544374]
351.
Benowitz NL, Gourlay SG. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: implications for nicotine replacement therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29:1422–31. [PubMed: 9180099]
352.
Frishman WH, Ky T, Ismail A. Tobacco smoking, nicotine, and nicotine and non-nicotine replacement therapies. Heart Dis. 2001;3:365–77. [PubMed: 11975821]
353.
Haustein KO, Krause J, Haustein H. et al. Effects of cigarette smoking or nicotine replacement on cardiovascular risk factors and parameters of haemorheology. J Intern Med. 2002;252:130–9. [PubMed: 12190888]
354.
McRobbie H, Hajek P. Nicotine replacement therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease: guidelines for health professionals. Addiction. 2001;96:1547–51. [PubMed: 11784452]
355.
Mohiuddin SM, Mooss AN, Hunter CB. et al. Intensive smoking cessation intervention reduces mortality in high-risk smokers with cardiovascular disease. Chest. 2007;131:446–52. [PubMed: 17296646]
356.
Meine TJ, Patel MR, Washam JB. et al. Safety and effectiveness of transdermal nicotine patch in smokers admitted with acute coronary syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:976–8. [PubMed: 15820167]
357.
Nicotine replacement therapy for patients with coronary artery disease. Working Group for the Study of Transdermal Nicotine in Patients with Coronary artery disease. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:989–95. [PubMed: 8179456]
358.
Lee AH, Afessa B. The association of nicotine replacement therapy with mortality in a medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:1517–21. [PubMed: 17452926]
359.
Hughes JR, Shiffman S, Callas P. et al. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of over-the-counter nicotine replacement. Tob Control. 2003;12:21–7. [PMC free article: PMC1759113] [PubMed: 12612357]
360.
Leischow SJ, Muramoto ML, Cook GN. et al. OTC nicotine patch: effectiveness alone and with brief physician intervention. Am J Health Behav. 1999;23:61–9.
361.
Reed MB, Anderson CM, Vaughn JW. et al. The effect of over-the-counter sales of the nicotine patch and nicotine gum on smoking cessation in California. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2131–6. [PubMed: 16172221]
362.
Zhu S, Melcer T, Sun J, Rosbrook B, Pierce JP. Smoking cessation with and without assistance: a population-based analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18:305–11. [PubMed: 10788733]
363.
Hymowitz N, Schwab J, Haddock CK. et al. The pediatric resident training on tobacco project: interim findings. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98:190–203. [PMC free article: PMC2595064] [PubMed: 16708505]
364.
Hymowitz N. Pediatric residency training on tobacco: review and critique of the literature. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98:1489–97. [PMC free article: PMC2569728] [PubMed: 17019917]
365.
Prochaska JJ, Fromont SC, Banys P. et al. Addressing nicotine dependence in psychodynamic psychotherapy: perspectives from residency training. Acad Psychiatry. 2007;31:8–14. [PubMed: 17242046]
366.
Prochaska JJ, Fromont SC, Leek D, et al. Evaluation of an evidence-based tobacco treatment curriculum for psychiatry residency training programs. Acad Psychiatry, In press. [PMC free article: PMC2705754] [PubMed: 19190293]
367.
Schnoll RA, Rukstalis M, Wileyto EP. et al. Smoking cessation treatment by primary care physicians: an update and call for training. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:233–9. [PubMed: 16905034]
368.
Trotter L, Worcester P. Training for dentists in smoking cessation intervention. Aust Dent J. 2003;48:183–9. [PubMed: 14640372]
369.
Pinget C, Martin E, Wasserfallen JB. et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a European primary-care physician training in smoking cessation counseling. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007;14:451–5. [PubMed: 17568248]
370.
Fiore MC, Epps RP, Manley MW. A missed opportunity. Teaching medical students to help their patients successfully quit smoking. JAMA. 1994;271:624–6. [PubMed: 8301797]
371.
Spangler JG, George G, Foley KL. et al. Tobacco intervention training: current efforts and gaps in US medical schools. JAMA. 2002;288:1102–9. [PubMed: 12204079]
372.
Powers CA, Zapka JG, Bognar B. et al. Evaluation of current tobacco curriculum at 12 US medical schools. J Cancer Educ. 2004;19:212–9. [PubMed: 15725638]
373.
Ferry LH, Grissino LM, Runfola PS. Tobacco dependence curricula in US undergraduate medical education. JAMA. 1999;282:825–9. [PubMed: 10478687]
374.
Geller AC, Powers CA. Medical education: teaching smoking cessation in U.S. medical schools: a long way to go. Am Med Assoc J Ethics. 2007;9:21–5. [PubMed: 23217665]
375.
Geller AC, Zapka J, Brooks KR. et al. Tobacco control competencies for US medical students. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:950–5. [PMC free article: PMC1449290] [PubMed: 15914815]
376.
Barker GJ, Williams KB. Tobacco use cessation activities in U.S. dental and dental hygiene student clinics. J Dent Educ. 1999;63:828–33. [PubMed: 10608929]
377.
Frank E. Physician health and patient care. JAMA. 2004;291:637. [PubMed: 14762049]
378.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Study finds most doctors don't smoke; but they don't press patients to quit. 2005. Available at:http://www​.rwjf.org/programareas​/resources/grantsreport​.jsp?filename=043562​.htm&pid=1141.
379.
Cornuz J, Gilbert A, Pinget C. et al. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapies for nicotine dependence in primary care settings: a multinational comparison. Tob Control. 2006;15:152–9. [PMC free article: PMC2564651] [PubMed: 16728744]
380.
Croghan IT, Offord KP, Evans RW. et al. Cost-effectiveness of treating nicotine dependence: the Mayo Clinic experience. Mayo Clin Proc. 1997;72:917–24. [PubMed: 9379693]
381.
Godfrey C, Parrott S, Coleman T. et al. The cost-effectiveness of the English smoking treatment services: evidence from practice. Addiction. 2005;100(Suppl 2):70–83. [PubMed: 15844290]
382.
Meenan RT, Stevens VJ, Hornbrook MC. et al. Cost-effectiveness of a hospital-based smoking cessation intervention. Med Care. 1998;36:670–8. [PubMed: 9596058]
383.
Tengs T, Adams M, Pliskin J. et al. Five-hundred life-saving interventions and their cost effectiveness. Risk Analysis. 1995;15:369–90. [PubMed: 7604170]
384.
Feenstra TL, Hamberg-van Reenen HH, Hoogenveen RT. et al. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: a dynamic modeling study. Value Health. 2005;8:178–90. [PubMed: 15877590]
385.
Stapleton JA, Lowin A, Russell MA. Prescription of transdermal nicotine patches for smoking cessation in general practice: evaluation of cost-effectiveness. Lancet. 1999;354:210–5. [PubMed: 10421303]
386.
Johansson PM, Tillgren PE, Guldbrandsson KA. et al. A model for cost-effectiveness analyses of smoking cessation interventions applied to a quit-and-win contest for mothers of small children. Scand J Public Health. 2005;33:343–52. [PubMed: 16265801]
387.
Raw M, McNeill A, Coleman T. Lessons from the English smoking treatment services. Addiction. 2005;100(Suppl 2):84–91. [PubMed: 15755263]
388.
Parrott S, Godfrey C. Economics of smoking cessation. BMJ. 2004;328:947–949. [PMC free article: PMC390220] [PubMed: 15087348]
389.
Chirikos TN, Herzog TA, Meade CD. et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a complementary health intervention: the case of smoking relapse prevention. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2004;20:475–80. [PubMed: 15609798]
390.
Halpin HA, McMenamin SB, Rideout J. et al. The costs and effectiveness of different benefit designs for treating tobacco dependence: results from a randomized trial. Inquiry. 2006;43:54–65. [PubMed: 16838818]
391.
Schauffler HH, McMenamin S, Olson K. et al. Variations in treatment benefits influence smoking cessation: results of a randomised controlled trial. Tob Control. 2001;10:175–80. [PMC free article: PMC1747566] [PubMed: 11387540]
392.
Fung PR, Snape-Jenkinson SL, Godfrey MT. et al. Effectiveness of hospital-based smoking cessation. Chest. 2005;128:216–23. [PubMed: 16002938]
393.
Lennox AS, Osman LM, Reiter E. et al. Cost effectiveness of computer tailored and non-tailored smoking cessation letters in general practice: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2001;322:1396. [PMC free article: PMC32255] [PubMed: 11397745]
394.
Burns ME, Rosenberg MA, Fiore MC. Use and employer costs of a pharmacotherapy smoking-cessation treatment benefit. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32:139–42. [PubMed: 17196785]
395.
Fishman PA, Khan ZM, Thompson EE. et al. Health care costs among smokers, former smokers, and never smokers in an HMO. Health Serv Res. 2003;38:733–49. [PMC free article: PMC1360912] [PubMed: 12785570]
396.
Fishman PA, Thompson EE, Merikle E. et al. Changes in health care costs before and after smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8:393–401. [PubMed: 16801297]
397.
Musich S, Faruzzi SD, Lu C. et al. Pattern of medical charges after quitting smoking among those with and without arthritis, allergies, or back pain. Am J Health Promot. 2003;18:133–42. [PubMed: 14621408]
398.
Martinson BC, O'Connor PJ, Pronk NP. et al. Smoking cessation attempts in relation to prior health care charges: the effect of antecedent smoking-related symptoms? Am J Health Promot. 2003;18:125–32. [PubMed: 14621407]
399.
Wagner EH, Curry SJ, Grothaus L. et al. The impact of smoking and quitting on health care use. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:1789–95. [PubMed: 7654113]
400.
Warner KE, Smith RJ, Smith DG. et al. Health and economic implications of a work-site smoking-cessation program: a simulation analysis. J Occup Environ Med. 1996;38:981–92. [PubMed: 8899574]
401.
Halpern MT, Khan ZM, Young TL, Battista C. Economic model of sustained-release bupropion hydrochloride in health plan and work site smoking-cessation programs. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57:1421–9. [PubMed: 10938982]
402.
Halpern MT, Shikiar R, Rentz AM. et al. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity. Tob Control. 2001;10:233–8. [PMC free article: PMC1747570] [PubMed: 11544387]
403.
Jackson KC 2nd, Nahoopii R, Said Q. et al. An employer-based cost-benefit analysis of a novel pharmacotherapy agent for smoking cessation. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:453–60. [PubMed: 17426529]
404.
Ringen K, Anderson N, McAfee T. et al. Smoking cessation in a blue-collar population: results from an evidence-based pilot program. Am J Ind Med. 2002;42:367–77. [PubMed: 12382249]
405.
Lightwood J, Fleischmann KE, Glantz SA. Smoking cessation in heart failure: it is never too late. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37:1683–4. [PubMed: 11345384]
406.
Lightwood JM, Phibbs CS, Glantz SA. Short-term health and economic benefits of smoking cessation: low birth weight. Pediatrics. 1999;104:1312–20. [PubMed: 10585982]
407.
National Healthy Mothers Healthy Babies Coalition: Smoking cessation during pregnancy position statement. 2001.
408.
Ayadi MF, Adams EK, Melvin CL. et al. Costs of a smoking cessation counseling intervention for pregnant women: comparison of three settings. Public Health Rep. 2006;121:120–6. [PMC free article: PMC1525265] [PubMed: 16528943]
409.
Thorsen N, Khalil L. Cost savings associated with smoking cessation for low-income pregnant women. WMJ 2004;103:67–9, 73. [PubMed: 15553568]
410.
National Quality Forum. Available at: http://www​.qualityforum.org.
411.
Ambulatory Quality Alliance. Available at: http://www​.aqaalliance.org.
412.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of clinical preventive services by adults aged <65 years enrolled in health-maintenance organizations—United States, 1996. MMWR. 1998;47:613–9. [PubMed: 9699811]
413.
Davis RM. Healthcare report cards and tobacco measures. Tobacco Control. 1997;6(Suppl 1):S70–7. [PubMed: 9396129]
414.
Davis RM, Slade J, Ferry LH. Quality improvement and accountability in the treatment of tobacco dependence: the need for a national training and certification programme. Tobacco Control. 2000;9:355–8. [PMC free article: PMC1748399] [PubMed: 11106697]
415.
Kaper J, Wagena EJ, Willemsen MC. et al. Reimbursement for smoking cessation treatment may double the abstinence rate: results of a randomized trial. Addiction. 2005;100:1012–20. [PubMed: 15955017]
416.
Boyle RG, Solberg LI, Magnan S. et al. Does insurance coverage for drug therapy affect smoking cessation? Health Aff (Millwood) 2002;21:162–8. [PubMed: 12442851]
417.
An LC, Schillo BA, Kavanaugh AM. et al. Increased reach and effectiveness of a statewide tobacco quitline after the addition of access to free nicotine replacement therapy. Tob Control. 2006;15:286–93. [PMC free article: PMC2563594] [PubMed: 16885577]
418.
Vidrine DJ, Arduino RC, Gritz ER. Impact of a cell phone intervention on mediating mechanisms of smoking cessation in individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8(Suppl 1):S103–8. [PubMed: 17491177]
419.
Elzi L, Spoerl D, Voggensperger J. et al. A smoking cessation programme in HIV-infected individuals: a pilot study. Antivir Ther. 2006;11:787–95. [PubMed: 17310823]
420.
Rigotti N, Munafo M, Stead L. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007. [PubMed: 17636688]
421.
Taylor CB, Miller NH, Herman S. et al. A nurse-managed smoking cessation program for hospitalized smokers. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:1557–60. [PMC free article: PMC1380689] [PubMed: 8916520]
422.
Ratner PA, Johnson JL, Richardson CG. et al. Efficacy of a smoking-cessation intervention for elective-surgical patients. Res Nurs Health. 2004;27:148–61. [PubMed: 15141368]
423.
Simon JA, Carmody TP, Hudes ES. et al. Intensive smoking cessation counseling versus minimal counseling among hospitalized smokers treated with transdermal nicotine replacement: a randomized trial. Am J Med. 2003;114:555–62. [PubMed: 12753879]
424.
Stevens VJ, Glasgow RE, Hollis JF. et al. A smoking-cessation intervention for hospital patients. Med Care. 1993;31:65–72. [PubMed: 8417271]
425.
Miller NH, Smith PM, DeBusk RF. et al. Smoking cessation in hospitalized patients. Results of a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:409–15. [PubMed: 9046892]
426.
Groner JA, Ahijevych K, Grossman LK. et al. The impact of a brief intervention on maternal smoking behavior. Pediatrics. 2000;105:267–71. [PubMed: 10617734]
427.
Solomon LJ, Secker-Walker RH, Flynn BS. et al. Proactive telephone peer support to help pregnant women stop smoking. Tob Control. 2000;9(Suppl 3):III72–4. [PMC free article: PMC1766314] [PubMed: 10982914]
428.
Solomon LJ, Marcy TW, Howe KD. et al. Does extended proactive telephone support increase smoking cessation among low-income women using nicotine patches? Prev Med. 2005;40:306–13. [PubMed: 15533544]
429.
Davies SL, Kohler CL, Fish L. et al. Evaluation of an intervention for hospitalized African American smokers. Am J Health Behav. 2005;29:228–39. [PubMed: 15899686]
430.
Ockene J, Kristeller JL, Goldberg R. et al. Smoking cessation and severity of disease: the Coronary Artery Smoking Intervention Study. Health Psychol. 1992;11:119–26. [PubMed: 1582380]
431.
Taylor CB, Miller NH, Killen JD. et al. Smoking cessation after acute myocardial infarction: effects of a nurse-managed intervention. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:118–23. [PubMed: 2360750]
432.
DeBusk RF, Miller NH, Superko HR. et al. A case-management system for coronary risk factor modification after acute myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:721–9. [PubMed: 8147544]
433.
Chouinard MC, Robichaud-Ekstrand S. The effectiveness of a nursing inpatient smoking cessation program in individuals with cardiovascular disease. Nurs Res. 2005;54:243–54. [PubMed: 16027567]
434.
Dornelas EA, Sampson RA, Gray JF. et al. A randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation counseling after myocardial infarction. Prev Med. 2000;30:261–8. [PubMed: 10731452]
435.
Sivarajan Froelicher ES, Miller NH, Christopherson DJ. et al. High rates of sustained smoking cessation in women hospitalized with cardiovascular disease: the Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS) Circulation. 2004;109:587–93. [PubMed: 14769679]
436.
Quist-Paulsen P, Gallefoss F. Randomised controlled trial of smoking cessation intervention after admission for coronary heart disease. BMJ. 2003;327:1254–1257. [PMC free article: PMC286243] [PubMed: 14644967]
437.
Giallauria F, Paragliola T, Pilerci F. et al. Role of smokers in the household and of cardiac rehabilitation in smoking behaviour after acute myocardial infarction. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2005;64:110–5. [PubMed: 16499296]
438.
McHugh F, Lindsay GM, Hanlon P. et al. Nurse led shared care for patients on the waiting list for coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Heart. 2001;86:317–23. [PMC free article: PMC1729900] [PubMed: 11514487]
439.
Ludvig J, Miner B, Eisenberg MJ. Smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease. Am Heart J. 2005;149:565–72. [PubMed: 15990735]
440.
Taylor CB, Houston-Miller N, Haskell WL. et al. Smoking cessation after acute myocardial infarction: The effects of exercise training. Addict Behav. 1988;13:331–5. [PubMed: 3239464]
441.
Fowler B, Jamrozik K, Norman P. et al. Improving maximum walking distance in early peripheral arterial disease: randomised controlled trial. Aust J Physiother. 2002;48:269–75. [PubMed: 12443521]
442.
Tonstad S, Farsang C, Klaene G. et al. Bupropion SR for smoking cessation in smokers with cardiovascular disease: a multicentre, randomised study. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:946–55. [PubMed: 12714026]
443.
Rigotti NA, Thorndike AN, Regan S. et al. Bupropion for smokers hospitalized with acute cardiovascular disease. Am J Med. 2006;119:1080–7. [PubMed: 17145253]
444.
Christenhusz L, Pieterse M, Seydel E. et al. Prospective determinants of smoking cessation in COPD patients within a high intensity or a brief counseling intervention. Patient Educ Couns. 2007;66:162–6. [PubMed: 17196359]
445.
Wagena EJ, van der Meer RM, Ostelo RJ. et al. The efficacy of smoking cessation strategies in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a systematic review. Respir Med. 2004;98:805–15. [PubMed: 15338790]
446.
Tashkin D, Kanner R, Bailey W. et al. Smoking cessation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Lancet. 2001;357:1571–5. [PubMed: 11377644]
447.
Wagena EJ, Knipschild PG, Huibers MJ. et al. Efficacy of bupropion and nortriptyline for smoking cessation among people at risk for or with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:2286–92. [PubMed: 16246996]
448.
Tonnesen P, Mikkelsen KL. Smoking cessation with four nicotine replacement regimes in a lung clinic. Eur Respir J. 2000;16:717–22. [PubMed: 11106218]
449.
Duffy SA, Ronis DL, Valenstein M. et al. A tailored smoking, alcohol, and depression intervention for head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:2203–8. [PubMed: 17119047]
450.
Park ER, Puleo E, Butterfield RM. et al. A process evaluation of a telephone-based peer-delivered smoking cessation intervention for adult survivors of childhood cancer: the partnership for health study. Prev Med. 2006;42:435–42. [PubMed: 16626797]
451.
McClure JB, Westbrook E, Curry SJ. et al. Proactive, motivationally enhanced smoking cessation counseling among women with elevated cervical cancer risk. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:881–9. [PubMed: 16298723]
452.
Andrews JO, Heath J, Graham-Garcia J. Management of tobacco dependence in older adults: using evidence-based strategies. J Gerontol Nurs. 2004;30:13–24. [PubMed: 15624692]
453.
Boyd NR. Smoking cessation: a four-step plan to help older patients quit. Geriatrics. 1996;51:52–7. quiz 58. [PubMed: 8918483]
454.
Tait RJ, Hulse GK, Waterreus A. et al. Effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention in older adults. Addiction. 2007;102:148–55. [PubMed: 17207132]
455.
Burton LC, Paglia MJ, German PS. et al. The effect among older persons of a general preventive visit on three health behaviors: smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, and sedentary lifestyle. The Medicare Preventive Services Research Team. Prev Med. 1995;24:492–7. [PubMed: 8524724]
456.
Morgan GD, Noll EL, Orleans CT. et al. Reaching midlife and older smokers: tailored interventions for routine medical care. Prev Med. 1996;25:346–54. [PubMed: 8781013]
457.
Vetter NJ, Ford D. Smoking prevention among people aged 60 and over: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing. 1990;19:164–8. [PubMed: 2194387]
458.
Kviz FJ, Crittenden KS, Clark MA. et al. Buddy support among older smokers in a smoking cessation program. J Aging Health. 1994;6:229–54.
459.
Rimer BK, Orleans CT. Tailoring smoking cessation for older adults. Cancer. 1994;74:2051–4. [PubMed: 8087770]
460.
Rimer BK, Orleans CT, Fleisher L. et al. Does tailoring matter? The impact of a tailored guide on ratings and short-term smoking-related outcomes for older smokers. Health Educ Res. 1994;9:69–84. [PubMed: 10146734]
461.
Ossip-Klein DJ, Carosella AM, Krusch DA. Self-help interventions for older smokers. Tob Control. 1997;6:188–93. [PMC free article: PMC1759567] [PubMed: 9396102]
462.
Miller N, Frieden TR, Liu SY. et al. Effectiveness of a large-scale distribution programme of free nicotine patches: a prospective evaluation. Lancet. 2005;365:1849–54. [PubMed: 15924980]
463.
Orleans CT, Resch N, Noll E. et al. Use of transdermal nicotine in a state-level prescription plan for the elderly. A first look at ‘real-world’ patch users. JAMA. 1994;271:601–7. [PubMed: 8301792]
464.
El-Guebaly N, Cathcart J, Currie S. et al. Smoking cessation approaches for persons with mental illness or addictive disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 2002;53:1166–70. [PubMed: 12221317]
465.
Williams JM, Ziedonis D. Addressing tobacco among individuals with a mental illness or an addiction. Addict Behav. 2004;29:1067–83. [PubMed: 15236808]
466.
Ziedonis D, Williams JM, Smelson D. Serious mental illness and tobacco addiction: a model program to address this common but neglected issue. Am J Med Sci. 2003;326:223–30. [PubMed: 14557739]
467.
Evins AE, Cather C, Rigotti NA. et al. Two-year follow-up of a smoking cessation trial in patients with schizophrenia: increased rates of smoking cessation and reduction. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:307–11. quiz 452–303. [PubMed: 15096068]
468.
Kisely SR, Wise M, Preston N. et al. A group intervention to reduce smoking in individuals with psychiatric disorder: brief report of a pilot study. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2003;27:61–3. [PubMed: 14705269]
469.
Evins AE, Mays VK, Rigotti NA. et al. A pilot trial of bupropion added to cognitive behavioral therapy for smoking cessation in schizophrenia. Nicotine Tob Res. 2001;3:397–403. [PubMed: 11694208]
470.
George TP, Vessicchio JC, Termine A. et al. A placebo controlled trial of bupropion for smoking cessation in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;52:53–61. [PubMed: 12079730]
471.
Chou KR, Chen R, Lee JF, Ku CH, Lu RB. The effectiveness of nicotine-patch therapy for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Int J Nurs Stud. 2004;41:321–30. [PubMed: 14967189]
472.
George TP, Ziedonis DM, Feingold A. et al. Nicotine transdermal patch and atypical antipsychotic medications for smoking cessation in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1835–42. [PubMed: 11058482]
473.
Orleans CT, Hutchinson D. Tailoring nicotine addiction treatments for chemical dependency patients. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1993;10:197–208. [PubMed: 8389897]
474.
Burling TA, Burling AS, Latini D. A controlled smoking cessation trial for substance-dependent inpatients. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69:295–304. [PubMed: 11393606]
475.
Hurt RD, Eberman KM, Croghan IT. et al. Nicotine dependence treatment during inpatient treatment for other addictions: a prospective intervention trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1994;18:867–72. [PubMed: 7978097]
476.
Sussman S. Smoking cessation among persons in recovery. Subst Use Misuse. 2002;37:1275–98. [PubMed: 12180567]
477.
Bobo JK, McIlvain HE, Lando HA. et al. Effect of smoking cessation counseling on recovery from alcoholism: findings from a randomized community intervention trial. Addiction. 1998;93:877–87. [PubMed: 9744123]
478.
Ellingstad TP, Sobell LC, Sobell MB. et al. Alcohol abusers who want to quit smoking: implications for clinical treatment. Drug Alcohol Depen. 1999;54:259–65. [PubMed: 10372799]
479.
Burling TA, Marshall GD, Seidner AL. Smoking cessation for substance abuse inpatients. J Subst Abuse. 1991;3:269–76. [PubMed: 1668228]
480.
Shoptaw S, Rotheram-Fuller E, Yang X. et al. Smoking cessation in methadone maintenance. Addiction. 2002;97:1317–28. discussion 1325. [PubMed: 12359036]
481.
Myers MG, Brown SA. A controlled study of a cigarette smoking cessation intervention for adolescents in substance abuse treatment. Psychol Addict Behav. 2005;19:230–3. [PubMed: 16011397]
482.
Prochaska JJ, Delucchi K, Hall SM. A meta-analysis of smoking cessation interventions with individuals in substance abuse treatment or recovery. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:1144–56. [PubMed: 15612860]
483.
Joseph AM, Willenbring ML, Nugent SM. et al. A randomized trial of concurrent versus delayed smoking intervention for patients in alcohol dependence treatment. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65:681–91. [PubMed: 15700504]
484.
Ahluwalia JS, Harris KJ, Catley D. et al. Sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation in African Americans: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:468–74. [PubMed: 12132977]
485.
Ahluwalia JS, McNagny SE, Clark WS. Smoking cessation among inner-city African Americans using the nicotine transdermal patch. J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13:1–8. [PMC free article: PMC1496888] [PubMed: 9462488]
486.
Lipkus IM, Lyna PR, Rimer BK. Using tailored interventions to enhance smoking cessation among African Americans at a community health center. Nicotine Tob Res. 1999;1:77–85. [PubMed: 11072391]
487.
Royce JM, Ashford A, Resnicow K. et al. Physician- and nurse-assisted smoking cessation in Harlem. J Natl Med Assoc. 1995;87:291–300. [PMC free article: PMC2607804] [PubMed: 7752283]
488.
Schorling JB, Roach J, Siegel M. et al. A trial of church-based smoking cessation interventions for rural African Americans. Prev Med. 1997;26:92–101. [PubMed: 9010903]
489.
McBride CM, Bepler G, Lipkus IM. et al. Incorporating genetic susceptibility feedback into a smoking cessation program for African American smokers with low income. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:521–8. [PubMed: 12050092]
490.
Orleans CT, Boyd NR, Bingler R. et al. A self-help intervention for African American smokers: tailoring cancer information service counseling for a special population. Prev Med. 1998;27:S61–70. [PubMed: 9808825]
491.
Leischow SJ, Hill A, Cook G. et al. The effects of transdermal nicotine for the treatment of Hispanic smokers. Am J Health Behav. 1996;20:304–11.
492.
Miguez MC, Vazquez FL, Becona E. Effectiveness of telephone contact as an adjunct to a self-help program for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial in Spanish smokers. Addict Behav. 2002;27:139–44. [PubMed: 11800220]
493.
Munoz RF, Marin BV, Posner SF. et al. Mood management mail intervention increases abstinence rates for Spanish-speaking Latino smokers. Am J Community Psychol. 1997;25:325–43. [PubMed: 9332966]
494.
Woodruff SI, Talavera GA, Elder JP. Evaluation of a culturally appropriate smoking cessation intervention for Latinos. Tob Control. 2002;11:361–8. [PMC free article: PMC1747696] [PubMed: 12432162]
495.
Johnson KM, Lando HA, Schmid LS, Solberg LI. The GAINS project: outcome of smoking cessation strategies in four urban Native American clinics. Giving American Indians no-smoking strategies. Addictive Behaviors. 1997;22:207–218. [PubMed: 9113215]
496.
Gonzales D, Rennard SI, Nides M. et al. Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296:47–55. [PubMed: 16820546]
497.
Scharf D, Shiffman S. Are there gender differences in smoking cessation, with and without bupropion? Pooled- and meta-analyses of clinical trials of Bupropion SR. Addiction. 2004;99:1462–9. [PubMed: 15500599]
498.
Wetter DW, Kenford SL, Smith SS. et al. Gender differences in smoking cessation. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67:555–62. [PubMed: 10450626]
499.
Copeland AL, Martin PD, Geiselman PJ. et al. Smoking cessation for weight-concerned women: group vs. individually tailored, dietary, and weight-control follow-up sessions. Addict Behav. 2006;31:115–27. [PubMed: 15925449]
500.
Yilmaz G, Karacan C, Yoney A. et al. Brief intervention on maternal smoking: a randomized controlled trial. Child Care Health Dev. 2006;32:73–9. [PubMed: 16398793]
501.
Marcus BH, Albrecht AE, King TK. et al. The efficacy of exercise as an aid for smoking cessation in women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1229–34. [PubMed: 10371231]
502.
Marcus BH, Albrecht AE, Niaura RS. et al. Exercise enhances the maintenance of smoking cessation in women. Addict Behav. 1995;20:87–92. [PubMed: 7785485]
503.
Keller PA, Bailey LA, Koss KJ. et al. Organization, financing, promotion, and cost of U.S. quitlines, 2004. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32:32–7. [PubMed: 17184958]
504.
Pierce J, Giovino G, Hatziandreu E. et al. National age and sex differences in quitting smoking. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 1989;21:293–8. [PubMed: 2809895]
505.
Sorensen G, Barbeau E, Hunt MK. et al. Reducing social disparities in tobacco use: a social-contextual model for reducing tobacco use among blue-collar workers. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:230–9. [PMC free article: PMC1448233] [PubMed: 14759932]
506.
Doolan DM, Froelicher ES. Efficacy of smoking cessation intervention among special populations: review of the literature from 2000 to 2005. Nurs Res. 2006;55:S29–37. [PubMed: 16829774]
507.
Burkhalter JE, Springer CM, Chhabra R. et al. Tobacco use and readiness to quit smoking in low-income HIV-infected persons. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:511–22. [PubMed: 16085522]
508.
Mamary EM, Bahrs D, Martinez S. Cigarette smoking and the desire to quit among individuals living with HIV. Aids Patient Care STDS. 2002;16:39–42. [PubMed: 11839217]
509.
Niaura R, Shadel WG, Morrow K. et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and smoking cessation: the time is now. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:808–12. [PubMed: 11017836]
510.
Gritz ER, Vidrine DJ, Lazev AB. et al. Smoking behavior in a low-income multiethnic HIV/AIDS population. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:71–7. [PubMed: 14982690]
511.
Boerma JT, Nunn AJ, Whitworth JA. Mortality impact of the AIDS epidemic: evidence from community studies in less developed countries. AIDS. 1998;12(Suppl 1):S3–14. [PubMed: 9677185]
512.
Patel N, Talwar A, Reichert VC, et al. Tobacco and HIV. Clin Occup Environ Med 2006;5:193–207, xi. [PubMed: 16446262]
513.
Crothers K, Griffith TA, McGinnis KA. et al. The impact of cigarette smoking on mortality, quality of life, and comorbid illness among HIV-positive veterans. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20:1142–5. [PMC free article: PMC1490270] [PubMed: 16423106]
514.
Nuorti JP, Butler JC, Gelling L. et al. Epidemiologic relation between HIV and invasive pneumococcal disease in San Francisco County, California. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:182–90. [PubMed: 10651598]
515.
Tirelli U, Spina M, Sandri S. et al. Lung carcinoma in 36 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and Tumors. Cancer. 2000;88:563–9. [PubMed: 10649248]
516.
Turner J, Page-Shafer K, Chin DP. et al. Adverse impact of cigarette smoking on dimensions of health-related quality of life in persons with HIV infection. Aids Patient Care STDS. 2001;15:615–24. [PubMed: 11788076]
517.
Hajjeh RA, Conn LA, Stephens DS. et al. Cryptococcosis: population-based multistate active surveillance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. Cryptococcal Active Surveillance Group. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:449–54. [PubMed: 9878030]
518.
Shiboski CH, Neuhaus JM, Greenspan D. et al. Effect of receptive oral sex and smoking on the incidence of hairy leukoplakia in HIV-positive gay men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999;21:236–42. [PubMed: 10421248]
519.
Chattopadhyay A, Caplan DJ, Slade GD. et al. Incidence of oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV-infected adults in North Carolina. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;99:39–47. [PubMed: 15599347]
520.
Slavinsky J 3rd, Myers T, Swoboda RK. et al. Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in saliva of HIV-positive smokers with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002;17:38–43. [PubMed: 11860554]
521.
Metersky ML, Colt HG, Olson LK. et al. AIDS-related spontaneous pneumothorax. Risk factors and treatment. Chest. 1995;108:946–51. [PubMed: 7555166]
522.
Reynolds NR, Neidig JL, Wewers ME. Illness representation and smoking behavior: a focus group study of HIV-positive men. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2004;15:37–47. [PubMed: 15296657]
523.
Suskin N, Sheth T, Negassa A. et al. Relationship of current and past smoking to mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37:1677–82. [PubMed: 11345383]
524.
Reid ME, Marshall JR, Roe D. et al. Smoking exposure as a risk factor for prevalent and recurrent colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:1006–11. [PubMed: 14578135]
525.
Ryan WR, Ley C, Allan RN. et al. Patients with Crohn's disease are unaware of the risks that smoking has on their disease. J Gastrointest Surg. 2003;7:706–11. [PubMed: 12850686]
526.
Pacchioni D, Martone T, Ghisolfi G. et al. Tobacco smoke, recurrences, and p53/bcl-2 expression in bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis. 1997;18:1659–61. [PubMed: 9276645]
527.
Browman GP, Mohide EA, Willan A. et al. Association between smoking during radiotherapy and prognosis in head and neck cancer: a follow-up study. Head Neck. 2002;24:1031–7. [PubMed: 12454940]
528.
Gritz ER, Carr CR, Rapkin D. et al. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation in head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1993;2:261–70. [PubMed: 8318879]
529.
Kawahara M, Ushijima S, Kamimori T. et al. Second primary tumours in more than 2-year disease-free survivors of small-cell lung cancer in Japan: the role of smoking cessation. Br J Cancer. 1998;78:409–12. [PMC free article: PMC2063017] [PubMed: 9703291]
530.
Richardson GE, Tucker MA, Venzon DJ. et al. Smoking cessation after successful treatment of small-cell lung cancer is associated with fewer smoking-related second primary cancers. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:383–90. [PubMed: 8393311]
531.
Rennard SI, Togo S, Holz O. Cigarette smoke inhibits alveolar repair: a mechanism for the development of emphysema. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006;3:703–8. [PMC free article: PMC2647656] [PubMed: 17065377]
532.
Ziran BH, Hendi P, Smith WR. et al. Osseous healing with a composite of allograft and demineralized bone matrix: adverse effects of smoking. Am J Orthop. 2007;36:207–9. [PubMed: 17515188]
533.
Moller A, Tonnesen H. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2006;20:237–48. [PubMed: 16850775]
534.
Rogliani M, Labardi L, Silvi E. et al. Smokers: risks and complications in abdominal dermolipectomy. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2006;30:422–4. discussion 425. [PubMed: 16786202]
535.
Levin L, Schwartz-Arad D. The effect of cigarette smoking on dental implants and related surgery. Implant Dent. 2005;14:357–61. [PubMed: 16361886]
536.
Spear SL, Ducic I, Cuoco F. et al. The effect of smoking on flap and donor-site complications in pedicled TRAM breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:1873–80. [PubMed: 16327598]
537.
Willemse BW, Ten Hacken NH, Rutgers B. et al. Effect of 1-year smoking cessation on airway inflammation in COPD and asymptomatic smokers. Eur Respir J. 2005;26:835–45. [PubMed: 16264044]
538.
Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Waller LA. et al. Smoking cessation and lung function in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Lung Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:381–90. [PubMed: 10673175]
539.
Emmons KM, Butterfield RM, Puleo E. et al. Smoking among participants in the childhood cancer survivors cohort: the Partnership for Health Study. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:189–96. [PubMed: 12525509]
540.
Hurt RD, Berge KG, Offord KP. et al. The making of a smoke-free medical center. JAMA. 1989;261:95–7. [PubMed: 2909002]
541.
Maryland Hospital Association. Smoke-free hospital campus tool-kit. Available at: http://www​.mdhospitals​.org/mha/Community_Health_Resources​/Smoke​_Free_Hospital_Campuses.shtml.
542.
Michigan Health and Hospital Association. It's a matter of life & health: MHA campaign for smoke-free hospitals. Available at: http://www​.mha.org/mha_app​/public_site/smokefree.jsp.
543.
Suplee PD. The importance of providing smoking relapse counseling during the postpartum hospitalization. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2005;34:703–12. [PubMed: 16282228]
544.
Houston TK, Allison JJ, Person S. et al. Post-myocardial infarction smoking cessation counseling: associations with immediate and late mortality in older Medicare patients. Am J Med. 2005;118:269–75. [PubMed: 15745725]
545.
Ong KC, Cheong GN, Prabhakaran L. et al. Predictors of success in smoking cessation among hospitalized patients. Respirology. 2005;10:63–9. [PubMed: 15691240]
546.
Reid RD, Pipe AL, Quinlan B. Promoting smoking cessation during hospitalization for coronary artery disease. Can J Cardiol. 2006;22:775–80. [PMC free article: PMC2560518] [PubMed: 16835672]
547.
Rigotti NA, Munafo MR, Stead LF. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalized patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2007;3:1–28. [PubMed: 17636688]
548.
Greenwood GL, Paul JP, Pollack LM. et al. Tobacco use and cessation among a household-based sample of US urban men who have sex with men. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:145–51. [PMC free article: PMC1449867] [PubMed: 15623875]
549.
Ryan H, Wortley PM, Easton A. et al. Smoking among lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: a review of the literature. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21:142–9. [PubMed: 11457635]
550.
Tang H, Greenwood GL, Cowling DW. et al. Cigarette smoking among lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: how serious a problem? (United States) Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15:797–803. [PubMed: 15456993]
551.
Stevens P, Carlson LM, Hinman JM. An analysis of tobacco industry marketing to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations: strategies for mainstream tobacco control and prevention. Health Promot Pract. 2004;5:129S–134S. [PubMed: 15231106]
552.
Offen N, Smith EA, Malone RE. From adversary to target market: the ACT-UP boycott of Philip Morris. Tob Control. 2003;12:203–7. [PMC free article: PMC1747705] [PubMed: 12773732]
553.
Smith EA, Malone RE. The outing of Philip Morris: advertising tobacco to gay men. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:988–93. [PMC free article: PMC1447881] [PubMed: 12773366]
554.
Washington HA. Burning love: big tobacco takes aim at LGBT youths. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1086–95. [PMC free article: PMC3222279] [PubMed: 12084686]
555.
Cochran SD, Mays VM, Sullivan JG. Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health services use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71:53–61. [PMC free article: PMC4197971] [PubMed: 12602425]
556.
Gilman SE, Cochran SD, Mays VM. et al. Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Public Health. 2001;91:933–9. [PMC free article: PMC1446471] [PubMed: 11392937]
557.
Lewis RJ, Derlega VJ, Berndt A. et al. An empirical analysis of stressors for gay men and lesbians. J Homosex. 2001;42:63–88. [PubMed: 11991567]
558.
Mays VM, Cochran SD. Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2001;91:1869–76. [PMC free article: PMC1446893] [PubMed: 11684618]
559.
Kanjilal S, Gregg EW, Cheng YJ. et al. Socioeconomic status and trends in disparities in 4 major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among US adults, 1971-2002. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2348–55. [PubMed: 17130388]
560.
Schroeder SA. Shattuck Lecture. We can do better-improving the health of the American people. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1221–8. [PubMed: 17881753]
561.
Butler J, Okuyemi KS, Jean S. et al. Smoking characteristics of a homeless population. Subst Abus. 2002;23:223–31. [PubMed: 12438835]
562.
Okuyemi KS, Caldwell AR, Thomas JL. et al. Homelessness and smoking cessation: insights from focus groups. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8:287–96. [PubMed: 16766421]
563.
Connor SE, Cook RL, Herbert MI. et al. Smoking cessation in a homeless population: there is a will, but is there a way? J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17:369–72. [PMC free article: PMC1495046] [PubMed: 12047734]
564.
Murphy JM, Mahoney MC, Hyland AJ. et al. Disparity in the use of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy among Medicaid and general population smokers. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2005;11:341–5. [PubMed: 15958934]
565.
Cummings KM, Hyland A, Giovino GA. et al. Are smokers adequately informed about the health risks of smoking and medicinal nicotine? Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(Suppl 3):S333–40. [PubMed: 15799596]
566.
Apollonio DE, Malone RE. Marketing to the marginalised: tobacco industry targeting of the homeless and mentally ill. Tob Control. 2005;14:409–15. [PMC free article: PMC1748120] [PubMed: 16319365]
567.
Hoffman C, Carbaugh A, Cook A. Health insurance coverage in America: 2003 data update. Kaiser Commision on Medicaid and the Unisured. Kaiser Commision on Medicaid and the Unisured. Washington, DC, Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004.
568.
Wadland WC, Soffelmayr B, Ives K. Enhancing smoking cessation of low-income smokers in managed care. J Fam Prac. 2001;50:138–44. [PubMed: 11219562]
569.
Dermer A. Smoking, tobacco exposure through breast milk, and SIDS. JAMA. 1995;274:214–5. [PubMed: 7609222]
570.
Jaen CR, Cummings KM, Shah D. et al. Patterns of use of a free nicotine patch program for Medicaid and uninsured patients. J Natl Med Assoc. 1997;89:325–8. [PMC free article: PMC2608159] [PubMed: 9170833]
571.
Leone A. Smoking, haemostatic factors, and cardiovascular risk. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:1661–7. [PubMed: 17584096]
572.
Lavie L, Lavie P. Smoking interacts with sleep apnea to increase cardiovascular risk. Sleep Med 2007;May 18; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed: 17513169]
573.
Wilson PW. Smoking, smoking cessation, and risk of cardiovascular disease. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2006;8:276–81. [PubMed: 17038267]
574.
Twardella D, Rothenbacher D, Hahmann H. et al. The underestimated impact of smoking and smoking cessation on the risk of secondary cardiovascular disease events in patients with stable coronary heart disease: prospective cohort study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:887–9. [PubMed: 16487863]
575.
Walker MS, Vidrine DJ, Gritz ER. et al. Smoking relapse during the first year after treatment for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:2370–7. [PubMed: 17132767]
576.
Jensen K, Jensen AB, Grau C. Smoking has a negative impact upon health related quality of life after treatment for head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol. 2007;43:187–92. [PubMed: 16860590]
577.
Bellido Casado J. Asthma and smoking: an unfortunate combination. Arch Bronconeumol. 2007;43:340–5. [PubMed: 17583644]
578.
Eisner MD, Iribarren C. The influence of cigarette smoking on adult asthma outcomes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:53–6. [PubMed: 17365736]
579.
Orth SR, Schroeder T, Ritz E. et al. Effects of smoking on renal function in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:2414–9. [PubMed: 16046507]
580.
Gambaro G, Bax G, Fusaro M. et al. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for nephropathy and its progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2001;14:337–342. [PubMed: 11853366]
581.
Chuahirun T, Simoni J, Hudson C. et al. Cigarette smoking exacerbates and its cessation ameliorates renal injury in type 2 diabetes. Am J Med Sci. 2004;327:57–67. [PubMed: 14770020]
582.
Ebbert JO, Sood A, Hays JT. et al. Treating tobacco dependence: review of the best and latest treatment options. J Thorac Oncol. 2007;2:249–56. [PubMed: 17410050]
583.
Taylor KL, Cox LS, Zincke N. et al. Lung cancer screening as a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Lung Cancer. 2007;56:125–34. [PubMed: 17196298]
584.
McBride CM, Emmons KM, Lipkus IM. Understanding the potential of teachable moments: the case of smoking cessation. Health Edu Res. 2003;18:156–70. [PubMed: 12729175]
585.
Guilmette TJ, Motta SI, Shadel WG. et al. Promoting smoking cessation in the rehabilitation setting. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;80:560–2. [PubMed: 11475474]
586.
Everett KD, Gage J, Bullock L. et al. A pilot study of smoking and associated behaviors of low-income expectant fathers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:269–76. [PubMed: 16036284]
587.
Henderson PN, Rhoades D, Henderson JA. et al. Smoking cessation and its determinants among older American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. Ethn Dis. 2004;14:274–9. [PubMed: 15132214]
588.
Shoham V, Rohrbaugh MJ, Trost SE. et al. A family consultation intervention for health-compromised smokers. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2006;31:395–402. [PMC free article: PMC2773613] [PubMed: 17084793]
589.
National Center for Health Statistics. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2005. Available at: http://www​.cdc.gov/nchs​/data/series/sr_10/sr10_232.pdf.)
590.
Malarcher AM, Torne SL, Jackson K, et al. Surveillance for selected tobacco use behaviors—United States, 1900-2005. MMWR. In press.
591.
Taylor DH Jr, Hasselblad V, Henley SJ. et al. Benefits of smoking cessation for longevity. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:990–6. [PMC free article: PMC1447499] [PubMed: 12036794]
592.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health benefits of smoking cessation: a report of the Surgeon General. Publication No.(CDC) 90-8416. Rockville, MD, U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 1990.
593.
Dresler C, Leon M. Tobacco control: reversal of risk after quitting smoking. IARC Handbooks on Cancer Prevention No. 11, World Health Organization, 2007.
594.
Kuri M, Nakagawa M, Tanaka H. et al. Determination of the duration of preoperative smoking cessation to improve wound healing after head and neck surgery. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:892–6. [PubMed: 15851873]
595.
Yamashita K, Kobayashi S, Yamaguchi S. Cerebral blood flow and cessation of cigarette smoking in healthy volunteers. Intern Med. 2000;39:891–3. [PubMed: 11065238]
596.
Hall SM, Humfleet GL, Gorecki JA. et al. Older versus younger treatment-seeking smokers: differences in smoking behavior, drug and alcohol use, and psychosocial and physical functioning. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(3):463–70. [PMC free article: PMC3247917] [PubMed: 18324565]
597.
Appel DW, Aldrich TK. Smoking cessation in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med. 2003;19:77–100. [PubMed: 12735116]
598.
Steinberg MB, Alvarez MS, Delnevo CD. et al. Disparity of physicians' utilization of tobacco treatment services. Am J Health Behav. 2006;30:375–86. [PubMed: 16787128]
599.
Blalock JA, Fouladi RT, Wetter DW. et al. Depression in pregnant women seeking smoking cessation treatment. Addict Behav. 2005;30:1195–208. [PubMed: 15925128]
600.
Anda RF, Williamson DF, Escobedo LG. et al. Depression and the dynamics of smoking. A national perspective. JAMA. 1990;264:1541–5. [PubMed: 2395193]
601.
Humfleet G, Munoz R, Sees K. et al. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking. Addict Behav. 1999;24:149–54. [PubMed: 10189984]
602.
Barrett SP, Tichauer M, Leyton M. et al. Nicotine increases alcohol self-administration in non-dependent male smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;81:197–204. [PubMed: 16054779]
603.
Romberger DJ, Grant K. Alcohol consumption and smoking status: the role of smoking cessation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2004;58:77–83. [PubMed: 14992787]
604.
Berggren U, Berglund K, Fahlke C. et al. Tobacco use is associated with more severe alcohol dependence, as assessed by the number of DSM-IV criteria, in Swedish male type 1 alcoholics. Alcohol Alcohol. 2007;42:247–51. [PubMed: 17526635]
605.
Martin RA, Rohsenow DJ, MacKinnon SV. et al. Correlates of motivation to quit smoking among alcohol dependent patients in residential treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;83:73–8. [PMC free article: PMC1570755] [PubMed: 16314049]
606.
Jackson KM, Sher KJ, Wood PK. et al. Alcohol and tobacco use disorders in a general population: short-term and long-term associations from the St. Louis epidemiological catchment area study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;71:239–53. [PMC free article: PMC2898709] [PubMed: 12957342]
607.
Kalman D, Morissette SB, George TP. Co-morbidity of smoking in patients with psychiatric and substance use disorders. Am J Addict. 2005;14:106–23. [PMC free article: PMC1199553] [PubMed: 16019961]
608.
Hurt RD, Offord KP, Croghan IT. et al. Mortality following inpatient addictions treatment. Role of tobacco use in a community-based cohort. JAMA. 1996;275:1097–103. [PubMed: 8601929]
609.
Hall SM, Tsoh JY, Prochaska JJ. et al. Treatment for cigarette smoking among depressed mental health outpatients: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1808–14. [PMC free article: PMC1586139] [PubMed: 17008577]
610.
Snyder M. Serious mental illness and smoking cessation. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2006;27:635–45. [PubMed: 16923734]
611.
Carton S, Le Houezec J, Lagrue G. et al. Early emotional disturbances during nicotine patch therapy in subjects with and without a history of depression. J Affect Disord. 2002;72:195–9. [PubMed: 12200210]
612.
Brandon TH. Negative affect as motivation to smoke. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 1994;3:33–7.
613.
Glassman AH. Cigarette smoking: implications for psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:546–53. [PubMed: 8465868]
614.
Hughes JR, Kalman D. Do smokers with alcohol problems have more difficulty quitting? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;82:91–102. [PubMed: 16188401]
615.
Dalack GW, Becks L, Hill E. et al. Nicotine withdrawal and psychiatric symptoms in cigarette smokers with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;21:195–202. [PubMed: 10432467]
616.
Hempel AG, Kownacki R, Malin DH. et al. Effect of a total smoking ban in a maximum security psychiatric hospital. Behav Sci Law. 2002;20:507–22. [PubMed: 12239709]
617.
Lawn S, Pols R. Smoking bans in psychiatric inpatient settings? A review of the research. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005;39:866–85. [PubMed: 16168014]
618.
Covey LS, Glassman AH, Stetner F. Cigarette smoking and major depression. J Addict Dis. 1998;17:35–46. [PubMed: 9549601]
619.
Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Schatzberg A. et al. Onset of major depression during treatment for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2003;28:461–70. [PubMed: 12628619]
620.
Hurt RD, Dale LC, Offord KP. et al. Nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation in recovering alcoholics. Addiction. 1995;90:1541–6. [PubMed: 8528039]
621.
Hughes JR. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation: unvalidated assumptions, anomalies, and suggestions for future research. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993;61:751–60. [PubMed: 8245273]
622.
Abidoye O, Ferguson MK, Salgia R. Lung carcinoma in African Americans. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2007;4:118–29. [PubMed: 17259932]
623.
Yancy CW. Executive summary of the African American Initiative. MedGenMed. 2007;9:28. [PMC free article: PMC1925009] [PubMed: 17435635]
624.
Kurian AK, Cardarelli KM. et al. Racial and ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review. Ethn Dis. 2007;17:143–52. [PubMed: 17274224]
625.
Unger B, Kemp JS, Wilkins D. et al. Racial disparity and modifiable risk factors among infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly. Pediatrics. 2003;111:E127–31. [PubMed: 12563085]
626.
Headley AJ. Generations of loss: contemporary perspectives on black infant mortality. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96:987–94. [PMC free article: PMC2568419] [PubMed: 15253333]
627.
Hafez N, Ling PM. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes. Tob Control. 2006;15:359–66. [PMC free article: PMC2563654] [PubMed: 16998169]
628.
White VM, White MM, Freeman K. et al. Cigarette promotional offers: who takes advantage? Am J Prev Med. 2006;30:225–31. [PubMed: 16476638]
629.
Sutton CD, Robinson RG. The marketing of menthol cigarettes in the United States: populations, messages, and channels. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(Suppl 1):S83–91. [PubMed: 14982711]
630.
Iyasu S, Randall LL, Welty TK. et al. Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome among northern plains Indians. JAMA. 2002;288:2717–23. [PubMed: 12460095]
631.
Brenneman G, Rhoades E, Chilton L. Forty years in partnership: the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Indian Health Service. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e1257–63. [PubMed: 17015514]
632.
Shi L, Stevens GD. Vulnerability and the receipt of recommended preventive services: the influence of multiple risk factors. Med Care. 2005;43:193–8. [PubMed: 15655434]
633.
Lurie N, Dubowitz T. Health disparities and access to health. JAMA. 2007;297:1118–21. [PubMed: 17356034]
634.
McMenamin SB, Halpin HA, Bellows NM. Knowledge of Medicaid coverage and effectiveness of smoking treatments. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:369–74. [PubMed: 17046407]
635.
Murphy JM, Shelley D, Repetto PM. et al. Impact of economic policies on reducing tobacco use among Medicaid clients in New York. Prev Med. 2003;37:68–70. [PubMed: 12799131]
636.
Fu SS, Burgess D, van Ryn M. et al. Views on smoking cessation methods in ethnic minority communities: a qualitative investigation. Prev Med. 2007;44:235–40. [PubMed: 17175016]
637.
Levinson AH, Borrayo EA, Espinoza P. et al. An exploration of Latino smokers and the use of pharmaceutical aids. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31:167–71. [PubMed: 16829334]
638.
Wiltshire S, Bancroft A, Parry O. et al. ‘I came back here and started smoking again’: perceptions and experiences of quitting among disadvantaged smokers. Health Educ Res. 2003;18:292–303. [PubMed: 12828231]
639.
Bansal MA, Cummings KM, Hyland A. et al. Stop-smoking medications: who uses them, who misuses them, and who is misinformed about them? Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(Suppl 3):S303–10. [PubMed: 15799593]
640.
Houston TK, Scarinci IC, Person SD. et al. Patient smoking cessation advice by health care providers: the role of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:1056–61. [PMC free article: PMC1449308] [PubMed: 15914833]
641.
Lopez-Quintero C, Crum RM, Neumark YD. Racial/ethnic disparities in report of physician-provided smoking cessation advice: analysis of the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:2235–9. [PMC free article: PMC1698147] [PubMed: 16809587]
642.
Levinson AH, Perez-Stable EJ, Espinoza P. et al. Latinos report less use of pharmaceutical aids when trying to quit smoking. Am J Prev Med. 2004;26:105–11. [PubMed: 14751320]
643.
Fagan P, King G, Lawrence D. et al. Eliminating tobacco-related health disparities: directions for future research. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:211–7. [PMC free article: PMC1448230] [PubMed: 14759929]
644.
Chae DH, Gavin AR, Takeuchi DT. Smoking prevalence among Asian Americans: findings from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) Public Health Rep. 2006;121:755–63. [PMC free article: PMC1781917] [PubMed: 17278411]
645.
Trinidad DR, Gilpin EA, White MM. et al. Why does adult African American smoking prevalence in California remain higher than for non-Hispanic whites? Ethn Dis. 2005;15:505–11. [PubMed: 16108312]
646.
Schlundt DG, Niebler S, Brown A. et al. Disparities in smoking: data from the Nashville REACH 2010 project. J Ambul Care Manage. 2007;30:150–8. [PubMed: 17495684]
647.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics: prevalence of current smoking among adults aged 18 years and over: United States, 1997-2004 (Early release data) Available at: http://www​.cdc.gov/nchs​/data/nhis/earlyrelease/200503_08.pdf. 2004.
648.
Anderson C, Burns DM. Patterns of adolescent smoking initiation rates by ethnicity and sex. Tob Control. 2000;9(Suppl 2):II4–8. [PMC free article: PMC1766284] [PubMed: 10841585]
649.
Barbeau EM, Krieger N, Soobader MJ. Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender, and smoking in NHIS 2000. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:269–78. [PMC free article: PMC1448243] [PubMed: 14759942]
650.
Watson JM, Scarinci IC, Klesges RC. et al. Relationships among smoking status, ethnicity, socioeconomic indicators, and lifestyle variables in a biracial sample of women. Prev Med. 2003;37:138–47. [PubMed: 12855213]
651.
King G, Polednak A, Bendel RB. et al. Disparities in smoking cessation between African Americans and whites: 1990-2000. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1965–71. [PMC free article: PMC1448570] [PubMed: 15514238]
652.
Benowitz NL, Perez-Stable EJ, Herrera B. et al. Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese Americans. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:108–15. [PubMed: 11792749]
653.
Lemogoum D, Van Bortel L, Leeman M. et al. Ethnic differences in arterial stiffness and wave reflections after cigarette smoking. J Hypertens. 2006;24:683–9. [PubMed: 16531796]
654.
Lea R, Benowitz N, Green M. et al. Ethnic differences in nicotine metabolic rate among New Zealanders. N Z Med J. 2005;118:U1773. [PubMed: 16372023]
655.
Nakajima M, Yokoi T. Interindividual variability in nicotine metabolism: C-oxidation and glucuronidation. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005;20:227–35. [PubMed: 16141602]
656.
Mwenifumbo JC, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF. Nicotine metabolism and CYP2A6 activity in a population of black African descent: impact of gender and light smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;89:24–33. [PubMed: 17161559]
657.
Moolchan ET, Schroeder JR. Quit attempts among African American teenage smokers seeking treatment: gender differences. Prev Med. 2004;39:1180–6. [PubMed: 15539053]
658.
Woods MN, Harris KJ, Ahluwalia JS. et al. Smoking in urban African Americans: behaviors, gender differences, and motivation to quit. Ethn Dis. 2001;11:532–9. [PubMed: 11572418]
659.
Maher JE, Boysun MJ, Rohde K. et al. Are Latinos really less likely to be smokers? Lessons from Oregon. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:283–7. [PubMed: 16036286]
660.
Ji M, Hofstetter CR, Hovell M. et al. Smoking cessation patterns and predictors among adult Californians of Korean descent. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:59–69. [PubMed: 15804678]
661.
Shelley D, Fahs M, Scheinmann R. et al. Acculturation and tobacco use among Chinese Americans. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:300–7. [PMC free article: PMC1448247] [PubMed: 14759946]
662.
Klonoff EA, Landrine H. Acculturation and cigarette smoking among African Americans: replication and implications for prevention and cessation programs. J Behav Med. 1999;22:195–204. [PubMed: 10374143]
663.
Kim SS, Ziedonis D, Chen KW. Tobacco use and dependence in Asian Americans: a review of the literature. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:169–84. [PubMed: 17365748]
664.
Burgess D, Fu SS, Joseph AM. et al. Beliefs and experiences regarding smoking cessation among American Indians. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9(Suppl 1):S19–28. [PubMed: 17365723]
665.
Hodge FS, Struthers R. Persistent smoking among Northern Plains Indians: lenient attitudes, low harm value, and partiality toward cigarette smoking. J Cult Divers. 2006;13:181–5. [PubMed: 17338487]
666.
Manfredi C, Lacey L, Warnecke R. et al. Smoking-related behavior, beliefs, and social environment of young black women in subsidized public housing in Chicago. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:267–72. [PMC free article: PMC1694285] [PubMed: 1739162]
667.
Brownson RC, Jackson-Thompson J, Wilkerson JC. et al. Demographic and socioeconomic differences in beliefs about the health effects of smoking. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:99–103. [PMC free article: PMC1694417] [PubMed: 1536345]
668.
Ward KD, Vander Weg MW, Sell MA. et al. Characteristics and correlates of quitting among black and white low-income pregnant smokers. Am J Health Behav. 2006;30:651–62. [PubMed: 17096622]
669.
Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Banks R. et al. Differences in smoking and quitting experiences by levels of smoking among African Americans. Ethn Dis. 2004;14:127–33. [PubMed: 15002932]
670.
Joseph A, Lexau B, Willenbring M. et al. Factors associated with readiness to stop smoking among patients in treatment for alcohol use disorder. Am J Addict. 2004;13:405–17. [PubMed: 15370939]
671.
Audrain J, Gomez-Caminero A, Robertson AR. et al. Gender and ethnic differences in readiness to change smoking behavior. Womens Health. 1997;3:139–50. [PubMed: 9332155]
672.
Jasek J, Ellis JA, VanWye G. et al. Who's still smoking? Cigarette use among adults in New York City. NYC Vital Signs. 2007;6:1–4.
673.
Zhu S, Melcer T, Sun J. et al. Smoking cessation with and without assistance: a population-based analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18:305–11. [PubMed: 10788733]
674.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth and tobacco use: current estimates. 2006. Available at: http://www​.cdc.gov/tobacco/youth/index​.htm.
675.
American Lung Association. Adolescent smoking statistics 2003 Available at: http://www​.lungusa.org​/site/apps/s/content​.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b​=34706&ct=66697.
676.
Baker TB, Brandon TH, Chassin L. Motivational influences on cigarette smoking. Annu Rev Psychol. 2004;55:463–91. [PubMed: 14744223]
677.
Jackson C, Brown JD, L'Engle KL. R-rated movies, bedroom televisions, and initiation of smoking by white and black adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:260–8. [PubMed: 17339507]
678.
Lovato C, Linn G, Stead LF, et al. Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD003439. [PubMed: 14583977]
679.
McCool JP, Cameron LD, Petrie KJ. The influence of smoking imagery on the smoking intentions of young people. Testing a media interpretation model. J Adolesc Health. 2005;36:475–85. [PubMed: 15901512]
680.
Braverman MT, Aaro LE. Adolescent smoking and exposure to tobacco marketing under a tobacco advertising ban: findings from 2 Norwegian national samples. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1230–8. [PMC free article: PMC1448426] [PubMed: 15226148]
681.
Kobus K. Peers and adolescent smoking. Addiction. 2003;98:37–55. [PubMed: 12752361]
682.
Hill KG, Hawkins JD, Catalano RF. et al. Family influences on the risk of daily smoking initiation. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37:202–10. [PubMed: 16109339]
683.
Weiss JW, Merrill V, Gritz ER. Ethnic variation in the association between weight concern and adolescent smoking. Addict Behav. 2007;32:2311–6. [PubMed: 17307301]
684.
Cawley J, Markowitz S, Tauras J. Lighting up and slimming down: the effects of body weight and cigarette prices on adolescent smoking initiation. J Health Econ. 2004;23:293–311. [PubMed: 15019756]
685.
Maggi S, Hertzman C, Vaillancourt T. Changes in smoking behaviors from late childhood to adolescence: insights from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Health Psychol. 2007;26:232–40. [PubMed: 17385975]
686.
Colby SM, Tiffany S, Shiffman S. et al. Measuring nicotine dependence among youth: a review of available approaches and instruments. J Drug Alcohol Depen. 2000;59:S23–S29. [PubMed: 10773436]
687.
DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K. et al. Symptoms of tobacco dependence after brief intermittent use: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth-2 study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:704–10. [PubMed: 17606835]
688.
O'Loughlin J, DiFranza J, Tyndale RF. et al. Nicotine-dependence symptoms are associated with smoking frequency in adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:219–25. [PubMed: 14507528]
689.
DiFranza JR, Rigotti NA, McNeill AD. et al. Initial symptoms of nicotine dependence in adolescents. Tob Control. 2000;9:313–9. [PMC free article: PMC1748379] [PubMed: 10982576]
690.
Kaufman NJ, Castrucci BC, Mowery PD. et al. Predictors of change on the smoking uptake continuum among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156:581–8. [PubMed: 12038891]
691.
Garrison MM, Christakis DA, Ebel BE. et al. Smoking cessation interventions for adolescents: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:363–7. [PubMed: 14580641]
692.
Christakis DA, Garrison MM, Ebel BE. et al. Pediatric smoking prevention interventions delivered by care providers: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:358–62. [PubMed: 14580640]
693.
Curry SJ, Emery S, Sporer AK. et al. A national survey of tobacco cessation programs for youths. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:171–7. [PMC free article: PMC1716253] [PubMed: 17138932]
694.
Institute of Medicine. Growing up tobacco free: preventing nicotine addiction in children and youth. Available at: http://www​.nap.edu/catalog​.php?record_id=4757. 1994.
695.
Benuck I. Tobacco, heart disease, and practical counseling. Pediatr Ann. 2006;35:802–7. [PubMed: 17153126]
696.
Albert DA, Severson HH, Andrews JA. Tobacco use by adolescents: the role of the oral health professional in evidence-based cessation programs. Pediatr Dent. 2006;28:177–87. [PubMed: 16708794]
697.
Al-Delaimy WK, White MM, Pierce JP. Adolescents' perceptions about quitting and nicotine replacement therapy: findings from the California Tobacco Survey. J Adolesc Health. 2006;38:465–8. [PubMed: 16549315]
698.
Zhu SH, Sun J, Billings SC. et al. Predictors of smoking cessation in U.S. adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 1999;16:202–7. [PubMed: 10198659]
699.
Engels RC, Knibbe RA, de Vries H. et al. Antecedents of smoking cessation among adolescents: who is motivated to change? Prev Med. 1998;27:348–57. [PubMed: 9612825]
700.
Health Research Inc: National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey. 2004. Available at: http://www​.rwjf.org/programareas​/resources/product​.jsp?id=15433&pid=1141.
701.
Hollis JF, Polen MR, Lichtenstein E. et al. Tobacco use patterns and attitudes among teens being seen for routine primary care. Am J Health Promot. 2003;17:231–9. [PubMed: 12640779]
702.
Barker DC, Giovinno G, Tworek C, et al. The National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey. Presented at the Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care Conference, Miami, FL, April, 2004.
703.
McCuller WJ, Sussman S, Wapner M. et al. Motivation to quit as a mediator of tobacco cessation among at-risk youth. Addict Behav. 2006;31:880–8. [PubMed: 16139963]
704.
Sussman S, Sun P, Dent CW. A meta-analysis of teen cigarette smoking cessation. Health Psychol. 2006;25:549–57. [PubMed: 17014271]
705.
Grimshaw GM, Stanton A. Tobacco cessation interventions for young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD003289. [PubMed: 17054164]
706.
Colby SM, Monti PM, O'Leary Tevyaw T. et al. Brief motivational intervention for adolescent smokers in medical settings. Addict Behav. 2005;30:865–74. [PubMed: 15893085]
707.
Sussman S, Dent CW, Lichtman KL. Project EX: outcomes of a teen smoking cessation program. Addict Behav. 2001;26:425–38. [PubMed: 11436934]
708.
Dino G, Horn K, Abdulkadri A. et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the Not On Tobacco Program for adolescent smoking cessation. Prev Sci. 2008;9:38–46. [PubMed: 18286372]
709.
Horn KA, Dino GA, Kalsekar ID. et al. Appalachian teen smokers: Not On Tobacco 15 months later. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:181–4. [PMC free article: PMC1448225] [PubMed: 14759924]
710.
Horn K, Fernandes A, Dino G. et al. Adolescent nicotine dependence and smoking cessation outcomes. Addict Behav. 2003;28:769–76. [PubMed: 12726789]
711.
Horn K, Dino G, Kalsekar I. et al. The impact of Not On Tobacco on teen smoking cessation: end-of-program evaluation results, 1998-2003. J Adolesc Res. 2005;20:640–61.
712.
Dino GA, Horn KA, Goldcamp J. et al. Statewide demonstration of Not On Tobacco: a gender-sensitive teen smoking cessation program. J Sch Nurs. 2001;17:90–7. [PubMed: 11885118]
713.
Dino G, Kamal K, Horn K. et al. Stage of change and smoking cessation outcomes among adolescents. Addict Behav. 2004;29:935–40. [PubMed: 15219338]
714.
Horn K, Dino G, Gao X. et al. Feasibility evaluation of Not On Tobacco: The American Lung Association's new stop smoking programme for adolescents. Health Educ. 1999;5:192–206.
715.
Horn K, Dino G, Kalsekar I. et al. Exploring the relationship between mental health and smoking cessation: a study of rural teens. Prev Sci. 2004;5:113–26. [PubMed: 15134316]
716.
Horn K, McGloin T, Dino G. et al. Quit and reduction rates for a pilot study of the American Indian Not On Tobacco (N-O-T) program. Prev Chronic Dis. 2005;2:A13. [PMC free article: PMC1435710] [PubMed: 16164817]
717.
Husten CG. Smoking cessation in young adults. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1354–6. [PMC free article: PMC1931456] [PubMed: 17600239]
718.
Alfano CM, Zbikowski SM, Robinson LA. et al. Adolescent reports of physician counseling for smoking. Pediatrics. 2002;109:e47. [PubMed: 11875175]
719.
Sims TH, Meurer JR, Sims M. et al. Factors associated with physician interventions to address adolescent smoking. Health Serv Res. 2004;39:571–86. [PMC free article: PMC1361025] [PubMed: 15149479]
720.
Kelly AB, Lapworth K. The HYP program-targeted motivational interviewing for adolescent violations of school tobacco policy. Prev Med. 2006;43:466–71. [PubMed: 16920183]
721.
Colby SM, Monti PM, Barnett NP. et al. Brief motivational interviewing in a hospital setting for adolescent smoking: a preliminary study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998;66:574–8. [PubMed: 9642898]
722.
Winickoff JP, Hibberd PL, Case B. et al. Child hospitalization: an opportunity for parental smoking intervention. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21:218–20. [PubMed: 11567844]
723.
Wall MA, Severson HH, Andrews JA. et al. Pediatric office-based smoking intervention: impact on maternal smoking and relapse. Pediatrics. 1995;96:622–8. [PubMed: 7567321]
724.
Severson HH, Andrews JA, Lichtenstein E. et al. Reducing maternal smoking and relapse: long-term evaluation of a pediatric intervention. Prev Med. 1997;26:120–30. [PubMed: 9010907]
725.
Sharif I, Oruwariye T, Waldman G. et al. Smoking cessation counseling by pediatricians in an inner-city setting. J Natl Med Assoc. 2002;94:841–5. [PMC free article: PMC2594142] [PubMed: 12392048]
726.
American Medical Association. Policy Finder. Available at: http://www​.ama-assn.org​/apps/pf_new/pf_online.
727.
Hanson K, Allen S, Jensen S. et al. Treatment of adolescent smokers with the nicotine patch. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:515–26. [PubMed: 12959789]
728.
Houtsmuller EJ, Henningfield JE, Stitzer ML. Subjective effects of the nicotine lozenge: assessment of abuse liability. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2003;167:20–7. [PubMed: 12616334]
729.
Moolchan ET, Robinson ML, Ernst M. et al. Safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for the treatment of adolescent tobacco addiction. Pediatrics. 2005;115:e407–14. [PubMed: 15805342]
730.
Niederhofer H, Huber M. Bupropion may support psychosocial treatment of nicotine-dependent adolescents: preliminary results. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24:1524–8. [PubMed: 15537557]
731.
Muramoto ML, Leischow SJ, Sherrill D. et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 dosages of sustained-release bupropion for adolescent smoking cessation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:1068–74. [PubMed: 17984409]
732.
Roddy E, Romilly N, Challenger A. et al. Use of nicotine replacement therapy in socioeconomically deprived young smokers: a community-based pilot randomised controlled trial. Tob Control. 2006;15:373–6. [PMC free article: PMC2563666] [PubMed: 16998171]
733.
Hatsukami DK, Le CT, Zhang Y. et al. Toxicant exposure in cigarette reducers versus light smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:2355–8. [PubMed: 17164356]
734.
Okuyemi KS, Harris KJ, Scheibmeir M. et al. Light smokers: issues and recommendations. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002;4(Suppl 2):S103–12. [PubMed: 12573172]
735.
Bjartveit K, Tverdal A. Health consequences of smoking 1–4 cigarettes per day. Tob Control. 2005;14:315–20. [PMC free article: PMC1748107] [PubMed: 16183982]
736.
Luoto R, Uutela A, Puska P. Occasional smoking increases total and cardiovascular mortality among men. Nicotine Tob Res. 2000;2:133–9. [PubMed: 11072451]
737.
Bitton A, Fichtenberg C, Glantz S. msJAMA: reducing smoking prevalence to 10% in five years. JAMA. 2001;286:2733–4. [PubMed: 11730453]
738.
Kandel DB, Chen K. Extent of smoking and nicotine dependence in the United States: 1991-1993. Nicotine Tob Res. 2000;2:263–74. [PubMed: 11082827]
739.
Okuyemi KS, Pulvers KM, Cox LS. et al. Nicotine dependence among African American light smokers: a comparison of three scales. Addict Behav. 2007;32:1989–2002. [PubMed: 17307303]
740.
Tong EK, Ong MK, Vittinghoff E. et al. Nondaily smokers should be asked and advised to quit. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30:23–30. [PubMed: 16414420]
741.
Shiffman S. Nicotine lozenge efficacy in light smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;77:311–4. [PubMed: 15734231]
742.
Husten CG, Thorn SL. Tobacco: health effects and control. Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Appleton & Lange. In press.
743.
National Cancer Institute. Smokeless tobacco or health. Smoking and tobacco control monograph No. 2. Bethesda, MD, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 92-3461, 1992.
744.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Using Smokeless Tobacco: a report of the Surgeon General. NIH Publication No. 86-2874, 1986.
745.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless tobacco fact sheet. 2007. Available at: http://www​.cdc.gov/tobacco​/data_statistics​/Factsheets/smokeless_tobacco.htm.
746.
Hatsukami DK, Lemmonds C, Tomar SL. Smokeless tobacco use: harm reduction or induction approach? Prev Med. 2004;38:309–17. [PubMed: 14766113]
747.
Henley SJ, Connell CJ, Richter P. et al. Tobacco-related disease mortality among men who switched from cigarettes to spit tobacco. Tob Control. 2007;16:22–8. [PMC free article: PMC2598436] [PubMed: 17297069]
748.
Severson HH, Andrews JA, Lichtenstein E. et al. Self-help cessation programs for smokeless tobacco users: long-term follow-up of a randomized trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:281–9. [PubMed: 17365759]
749.
Gansky SA, Ellison JA, Rudy D. et al. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of An Athletic Trainer-Directed Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco Intervention for Collegiate Baseball Athletes: Results After 1 Year. J Athl Train. 2005;40:76–87. [PMC free article: PMC1150230] [PubMed: 15970953]
750.
Ebbert JO, Dale LC, Patten CA. et al. Effect of high-dose nicotine patch therapy on tobacco withdrawal symptoms among smokeless tobacco users. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:43–52. [PubMed: 17365735]
751.
Ebbert JO, Rowland LC, Montori V, et al. Interventions for smokeless tobacco use cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD004306. [PubMed: 15266527]
752.
Symm B, Morgan MV, Blackshear Y. et al. Cigar smoking: an ignored public health threat. J Prim Prev. 2005;26:363–75. [PubMed: 15995804]
753.
Henningfield JE, Hariharan M, Kozlowski LT. Nicotine content and health risks of cigars. JAMA. 1996;276:1857–8. [PubMed: 8967995]
754.
Baker F, Ainsworth SR, Dye JT. et al. Health risks associated with cigar smoking. JAMA. 2000;284:735–40. [PubMed: 10927783]
755.
National Cancer Institute. Questions and answers about cigar smoking and cancer. 2000. Available at: http://cancerweb​.ncl​.ac.uk/cancernet/600365.html.
756.
Streppel MT, Boshuizen HC, Ocke MC. et al. Mortality and life expectancy in relation to long-term cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking: the Zutphen Study. Tob Control. 2007;16:107–13. [PMC free article: PMC2598467] [PubMed: 17400948]
757.
Maxwell JC. Cigar industry in 2005. Richmond, VA, The Maxwell Report, 2006,
758.
Delnevo CD, Hrywna M. “A Whole 'Nother Smoke” or a Cigarette in Disguise: How RJ Reynolds Reframed the Image of Little Cigars. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1368–75. [PMC free article: PMC1931466] [PubMed: 17600253]
759.
Nyman AL, Taylor TM, Biener L. Trends in cigar smoking and perceptions of health risks among Massachusetts adults. Tob Control. 2002;11(Suppl 2):ii25–8. [PMC free article: PMC1766069] [PubMed: 12034977]
760.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2004. [PubMed: 15285078]
761.
Wetter DW, McClure JB, de Moor C. et al. Concomitant use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco: prevalence, correlates, and predictors of tobacco cessation. Prev Med. 2002;34:638–48. [PubMed: 12052025]
762.
Tomar SL. Is use of smokeless tobacco a risk factor for cigarette smoking? The U.S. experience. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:561–9. [PubMed: 12959794]
763.
Ebbert JO, Dale LC, Severson H. et al. Nicotine lozenges for the treatment of smokeless tobacco use. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:233–40. [PubMed: 17365754]
764.
Dale LC, Ebbert JO, Glover ED. et al. Bupropion SR for the treatment of smokeless tobacco use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;90:56–63. [PMC free article: PMC1994655] [PubMed: 17353101]
765.
Heath AC, Knopik VS, Madden PA. et al. Accuracy of mothers' retrospective reports of smoking during pregnancy: comparison with twin sister informant ratings. Twin Res. 2003;6:297–301. [PubMed: 14511436]
766.
Wong M, Koren G. Bias in maternal reports of smoking during pregnancy associated with fetal distress. Can J Public Health. 2001;92:109–12. [PubMed: 11338147]
767.
Campbell E, Sanson-Fisher R, Walsh R. Smoking status in pregnant women assessment of self-report against carbon monoxide (CO) Addict Behav. 2001;26:1–9. [PubMed: 11196282]
768.
Walsh RA, Redman S, Adamson L. The accuracy of self-report of smoking status in pregnant women. Addict Behav. 1996;21:675–9. [PubMed: 8876767]
769.
Kendrick JS, Zahniser SC, Miller N. et al. Integrating smoking cessation into routine public prenatal care: the Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy project. Am J Public Health. 1995;85:217–22. [PMC free article: PMC1615299] [PubMed: 7856781]
770.
Lumley J, Oliver SS, Chamberlain C, et al. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD001055. [PubMed: 15495004]
771.
Rigotti NA, Park ER, Regan S. et al. Efficacy of telephone counseling for pregnant smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:83–92. [PubMed: 16816060]
772.
Ershoff DH, Quinn VP, Boyd NR. et al. The Kaiser Permanente prenatal smoking-cessation trial: when more isn't better, what is enough? Am J Prev Med. 1999;17:161–8. [PubMed: 10987630]
773.
Walsh RA, Redman S, Brinsmead MW. et al. A smoking cessation program at a public antenatal clinic. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:1201–4. [PMC free article: PMC1380897] [PubMed: 9240113]
774.
Windsor RA, Cutter G, Morris J. et al. The effectiveness of smoking cessation methods for smokers in public health maternity clinics: a randomized trial. Am J Public Health. 1985;75:1389–92. [PMC free article: PMC1646449] [PubMed: 4061709]
775.
Dornelas EA, Magnavita J, Beazoglou T. et al. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a clinic-based counseling intervention tested in an ethnically diverse sample of pregnant smokers. Patient Educ Couns. 2006;64:342–9. [PubMed: 16859864]
776.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006.
777.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Smoking cessation during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:883–8. [PubMed: 16199654]
778.
Walsh RA, Lowe JB, Hopkins PJ. Quitting smoking in pregnancy. Med J Aust. 2001;175:320–3. [PubMed: 11665947]
779.
Pletsch PK, Kratz AT. Why do women stop smoking during pregnancy? Cigarettes taste and smell bad. Health Care Women Int. 2004;25:671–9. [PubMed: 15487485]
780.
Solomon L, Quinn V. Spontaneous quitting: self-initiated smoking cessation in early pregnancy. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(Suppl 2):S203–16. [PubMed: 15203822]
781.
England LJ, Grauman A, Qian C. et al. Misclassification of maternal smoking status and its effects on an epidemiologic study of pregnancy outcomes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:1005–13. [PubMed: 17852766]
782.
Webb DA, Boyd NR, Messina D. et al. The discrepancy between self-reported smoking status and urine continine levels among women enrolled in prenatal care at four publicly funded clinical sites. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2003;9:322–5. [PubMed: 12836515]
783.
Mullen PD, Carbonari JP, Tabak ER. et al. Improving disclosure of smoking by pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165:409–13. [PubMed: 1872348]
784.
Lindqvist R, Lendahls L, Tollbom O. et al. Smoking during pregnancy: comparison of self-reports and cotinine levels in 496 women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81:240–4. [PubMed: 11966481]
785.
England LJ, Kendrick JS, Wilson HG. et al. Effects of smoking reduction during pregnancy on the birth weight of term infants. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154:694–701. [PubMed: 11590081]
786.
Lieberman E, Gremy I, Lang JM. et al. Low birthweight at term and the timing of fetal exposure to maternal smoking. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:1127–31. [PMC free article: PMC1614741] [PubMed: 8017537]
787.
DiClemente CC, Dolan-Mullen P, Windsor RA. The process of pregnancy smoking cessation: implications for interventions. Tob Control. 2000;9(Suppl 3):III16–21. [PMC free article: PMC1766302] [PubMed: 10982900]
788.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Women and smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2001.
789.
American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Smoking and infertility. Available at: http://www​.asrm.org/Patients​/FactSheets/smoking.pdf.
790.
Smoking and infertility. Fertil Steril 2006;86:S172–7. [PubMed: 17055816]
791.
Colman GJ, Joyce T. Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy in ten states. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24:29–35. [PubMed: 12554021]
792.
Lelong N, Kaminski M, Saurel-Cubizolles MJ. et al. Postpartum return to smoking among usual smokers who quit during pregnancy. Eur J Public Health. 2001;11:334–9. [PubMed: 11582616]
793.
Matturri L, Ottaviani G, Lavezzi AM. Maternal smoking and sudden infant death syndrome: epidemiological study related to pathology. Virchows Arch. 2006;449:697–706. [PubMed: 17091255]
794.
Lannero E, Wickman M, Pershagen G. et al. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE) Respir Res. 2006;7:3. [PMC free article: PMC1360665] [PubMed: 16396689]
795.
Billaud N. [What are the other long-term consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy?] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2005;34(Spec No 1):3S234–40. [PubMed: 15980794]
796.
Shenassa ED, Brown MJ. Maternal smoking and infantile gastrointestinal dysregulation: the case of colic. Pediatrics. 2004;114:e497–505. [PubMed: 15466076]
797.
Schmitz M, Denardin D, Laufer Silva T. et al. Smoking during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type: a case-control study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45:1338–45. [PubMed: 17075356]
798.
Vielwerth SE, Jensen RB, Larsen T. et al. The impact of maternal smoking on fetal and infant growth. Early Hum Dev. 2007;83:491–5. [PubMed: 17079098]
799.
French GM, Groner JA, Wewers ME. et al. Staying smoke free: an intervention to prevent postpartum relapse. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:663–70. [PubMed: 17558823]
800.
Windsor RA, Woodby LL, Miller TM. et al. Effectiveness of Agency for Health Care Policy and Research clinical practice guideline and patient education methods for pregnant smokers in Medicaid maternity care. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182:68–75. [PubMed: 10649158]
801.
Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, Jespersen LB. et al. Nicotine patches for pregnant smokers: a randomized controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:967–71. [PubMed: 11084187]
802.
Kapur B, Hackman R, Selby P. et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2001;62:274–8.
803.
Pollack KI, Oncken C, Lipkus IM. et al. Nicotine replacement and behavioral therapy for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Prev Med. 2007 Oct;33(4):297–305. [PMC free article: PMC3602964] [PubMed: 17888856]
804.
Armour BS, Campbell VA, Crews JE. et al. Nicotine replacement and behavioral therapy for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Oct;33(4):297–305. [PMC free article: PMC3602964] [PubMed: 17888856]
805.
Nielsen A, Hannibal CG, Lindekilde BE. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:1057–65. [PubMed: 16929410]
806.
Kyrklund-Blomberg NB, Granath F, Cnattingius S. Maternal smoking and causes of very preterm birth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84:572–7. [PubMed: 15901269]
807.
Ananth CV, Cnattingius S. Influence of maternal smoking on placental abruption in successive pregnancies: a population-based prospective cohort study in Sweden. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:289–95. [PubMed: 17548787]
808.
Jaddoe VW, Verburg BO, de Ridder MA. et al. Maternal smoking and fetal growth characteristics in different periods of pregnancy: the generation R study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:1207–15. [PubMed: 17329715]
809.
Lampl M, Kuzawa CW, Jeanty P. Growth patterns of the heart and kidney suggest inter-organ collaboration in facultative fetal growth. Am J Hum Biol. 2005;17:178–194. [PubMed: 15736176]
810.
Dejmek J, Solansky I, Podrazilova K. et al. The exposure of nonsmoking and smoking mothers to environmental tobacco smoke during different gestational phases and fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:601–6. [PMC free article: PMC1240877] [PubMed: 12055052]
811.
McMartin KI, Platt MS, Hackman R. et al. Lung tissue concentrations of nicotine in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) J Pediatr. 2002;140:205–9. [PubMed: 11865272]
812.
Shah T, Sullivan K, Carter J. Sudden infant death syndrome and reported maternal smoking during pregnancy. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1757–9. [PMC free article: PMC1586150] [PubMed: 17008569]
813.
Chiolero A, Bovet P, Paccaud F. Association between maternal smoking and low birth weight in Switzerland: the EDEN study. Swiss Med Wkly. 2005;135:525–30. [PubMed: 16323070]
814.
Benowitz N, Dempsey D. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(Suppl 2):S189–202. [PubMed: 15203821]
815.
Woody RC, Brewster MA. Telencephalic dysgenesis associated with presumptive maternal carbon monoxide intoxication in the first trimester of pregnancy. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1990;28:467–75. [PubMed: 2125322]
816.
Okeda R, Matsuo T, Kuroiwa T. et al. Experimental study on pathogenesis of the fetal brain damage by acute carbon monoxide intoxication of the pregnant mother. Acta Neuropathol. 1986;69:244–52. [PubMed: 3962602]
817.
Molinari C, Grossini E, Mary DA. et al. The role of nitric oxide in the peripheral vasoconstriction caused by human placental lactogen in anaesthetized pigs. Exp Physiol. 2006;91:603–10. [PubMed: 16513823]
818.
Stennett AK, Khalil RA. Neurovascular mechanisms of hypertension in pregnancy. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2006;3:131–48. [PubMed: 16719796]
819.
Jacobsen LK, Slotkin TA, Mencl WE. et al. Gender-specific effects of prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on auditory and visual attention. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:2453–64. [PubMed: 17375135]
820.
Ginzel KH, Maritz GS, Marks DF. et al. Critical review: nicotine for the fetus, the infant and the adolescent? J Health Psychol. 2007;12:215–24. [PubMed: 17284486]
821.
Slotkin TA, Ryde IT, Tate CA. et al. Lasting effects of nicotine treatment and withdrawal on serotonergic systems and cell signaling in rat brain regions: separate or sequential exposure during fetal development and adulthood. Brain Res Bull. 2007;73:259–72. [PubMed: 17562392]
822.
Oncken CA, Kranzler HR. Pharmacotherapies to enhance smoking cessation during pregnancy. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2003;22:191–202. [PubMed: 12850906]
823.
Morales-Suarez-Varela MM, Bille C, Christensen K. et al. Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:51–7. [PubMed: 16394039]
824.
Eisenberg D, Quinn BC. Estimating the effect of smoking cessation on weight gain: an instrumental variable approach. Health Serv Res. 2006;41:2255–66. [PMC free article: PMC1955320] [PubMed: 17116119]
825.
John U, Meyer C, Rumpf HJ. et al. No considerable long-term weight gain after smoking cessation: evidence from a prospective study. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2005;14:289–95. [PubMed: 15902001]
826.
Klesges RC, Winders SE, Meyers AW. et al. How much weight gain occurs following smoking cessation? A comparison of weight gain using both continuous and point prevalence abstinence. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65:286–91. [PubMed: 9086692]
827.
O'Hara P, Connett JE, Lee WW. et al. Early and late weight gain following smoking cessation in the Lung Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148:821–30. [PubMed: 9801011]
828.
Williamson DF, Madans J, Anda RF. et al. Smoking cessation and severity of weight gain in a national cohort. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:739–45. [PubMed: 1997840]
829.
Froom P, Melamed S, Benbassat J. Smoking cessation and weight gain. J Fam Pract. 1998;46:460–4. [PubMed: 9638109]
830.
Klesges RC, Ward KD, Ray JW. et al. The prospective relationships between smoking and weight in a young, biracial cohort: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998;66:987–93. [PubMed: 9874912]
831.
Vander Weg MW, Klesges RC, Ward KD. Differences in resting energy expenditure between black and white smokers: implications for postcessation weight gain. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54:895–9. [PubMed: 11114688]
832.
Borrelli B, Spring B, Niaura R. et al. Influences of gender and weight gain on short-term relapse to smoking in a cessation trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69:511–5. [PubMed: 11495180]
833.
Delnevo CD, Hrywna M, Abatemarco DJ. et al. Relationships between cigarette smoking and weight control in young women. Fam Community Health. 2003;26:140–6. [PubMed: 12802119]
834.
Meyers AW, Klesges RC, Winders SE. et al. Are weight concerns predictive of smoking cessation? A prospective analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65:448–52. [PubMed: 9170768]
835.
Plotnikoff RC, Bercovitz K, Rhodes RE. et al. Testing a conceptual model related to weight perceptions, physical activity and smoking in adolescents. Health Educ Res. 2007;22:192–202. [PubMed: 16861363]
836.
Pomerleau CS, Zucker AN, Stewart AJ. Characterizing concerns about post-cessation weight gain: results from a national survey of women smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2001;3:51–60. [PubMed: 11260811]
837.
Vidrine JI, Anderson CB, Pollak KI. et al. Gender differences in adolescent smoking: mediator and moderator effects of self-generated expected smoking outcomes. Am J Health Promot. 2006;20:383–7. [PubMed: 16871816]
838.
Wahl SK, Turner LR, Mermelstein RJ. et al. Adolescents' smoking expectancies: psychometric properties and prediction of behavior change. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:613–23. [PubMed: 16085531]
839.
Fulkerson JA, French SA. Cigarette smoking for weight loss or control among adolescents: gender and racial/ethnic differences. J Adolesc Health. 2003;32:306–13. [PubMed: 12667735]
840.
Cooper TV, Klesges RC, Debon MW. et al. A placebo controlled randomized trial of the effects of phenylpropanolamine and nicotine gum on cessation rates and postcessation weight gain in women. Addict Behav. 2005;30:61–75. [PubMed: 15561449]
841.
Perkins KA, Marcus MD, Levine MD. et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce weight concerns improves smoking cessation outcome in weight-concerned women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69:604–13. [PubMed: 11550727]
842.
Ussher M, West R, McEwen A. et al. Efficacy of exercise counseling as an aid for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. Addiction. 2003;98:523–32. [PubMed: 12653822]
843.
Allen SS, Hatsukami D, Brintnell DM. et al. Effect of nicotine replacement therapy on post-cessation weight gain and nutrient intake: a randomized controlled trial of postmenopausal female smokers. Addict Behav. 2005;30:1273–80. [PubMed: 16022925]
844.
Hill AL, Roe DJ, Taren DL. et al. Efficacy of transdermal nicotine in reducing post-cessation weight gain in a Hispanic sample. Nicotine Tob Res. 2000;2:247–53. [PubMed: 11082825]
845.
Jorenby D. Clinical efficacy of bupropion in the management of smoking cessation. Drugs. 2002;62(Suppl 2):25–35. [PubMed: 12109933]
846.
Assali AR, Beigel Y, Schreibman R. et al. Weight gain and insulin resistance during nicotine replacement therapy. Clin Cardiol. 1999;22:357–60. [PubMed: 10326169]
847.
Hurt RD, Sachs DP, Glover ED. et al. A comparison of sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1195–202. [PubMed: 9337378]
848.
Nides M, Rand C, Dolce J. et al. Weight gain as a function of smoking cessation and 2-mg nicotine gum use among middle-aged smokers with mild lung impairment in the first 2 years of the Lung Health Study. Health Psychol. 1994;13:354–61. [PubMed: 7957014]
849.
Filozof C, Fernandez Pinilla MC, Fernandez-Cruz A. Smoking cessation and weight gain. Obes Rev. 2004;5:95–103. [PubMed: 15086863]
850.
Gray CL, Cinciripini PM, Cinciripini LG. The relationship of gender, diet patterns, and body type to weight change following smoking reduction: a multivariate approach. J Subst Abuse. 1995;7:405–23. [PubMed: 8838624]
851.
Munafo MR, Murphy MF, Johnstone EC. Smoking cessation, weight gain, and DRD4 - 521 genotype. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141:398–402. [PubMed: 16526060]
852.
Pisinger C, Jorgensen T. Waist circumference and weight following smoking cessation in a general population: the Inter99 study. Prev Med. 2007;44:290–5. [PubMed: 17222450]
853.
Marcus BH, Lewis BA, Hogan J. et al. The efficacy of moderate-intensity exercise as an aid for smoking cessation in women: a randomized controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:871–80. [PubMed: 16298722]
854.
Ussher M: Exercise interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005:CD002295. [PubMed: 15674895]
855.
Taylor AH, Ussher MH, Faulkner G. The acute effects of exercise on cigarette cravings, withdrawal symptoms, affect and smoking behaviour: a systematic review. Addiction. 2007;102:534–43. [PubMed: 17286639]
856.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical activity and health. 2005. Available at: http://www​.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/chap1.htm.
Bookshelf ID: NBK63944
PubReader format: click here to try

Views

  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page

Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to pubmed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...