TABLE 4-6Gains in e50 During 1950-2003 and Amount of Gain Attributable to Changes in Smoking and Other Factors

CountryMenWomen
Total Gain in e50Contribution due to:Total Gain in e50Contribution due to:
SmokingOther FactorsSmokingOther Factors
Australia7.88−0.378.257.95−0.678.61
Austria5.850.864.986.73−0.347.07
Belgium5.42−0.636.056.80−0.477.27
Canada5.89−0.996.887.06−1.398.44
Denmark2.58−0.933.514.97−1.486.45
Finland6.971.085.898.16−0.138.29
France6.34−1.067.408.13−0.228.35
Hungary−1.09−2.831.743.40−1.154.55
Iceland4.71−0.815.525.03−1.476.50
Ireland5.14−0.946.087.15−0.918.06
Italy5.85−1.187.038.29−0.298.57
Japan9.48−0.9210.4012.74−0.3113.05
Netherlands2.54−1.073.615.63−0.896.51
New Zealand6.11−0.346.456.47−1.017.48
Norway2.52−1.123.644.76−0.825.57
Portugal4.93−0.775.705.95−0.086.03
Spain7.22−1.288.519.40−0.069.45
Sweden4.58−0.445.026.96−0.567.51
Switzerland7.030.076.968.47−0.398.86
United Kingdom6.220.515.716.03−0.906.93
United States5.82−0.826.645.70−1.587.28
Non-U.S. average5.31−0.665.977.00−0.687.68

NOTES: 1951-2003 for Iceland, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland; 1952-2003 for Denmark and Finland; 1954-2004 for Belgium; 1955-2003 for Austria, Hungary, and Portugal.

SOURCES: Calculations by authors based on data in the Human Mortality Database (accessed November 2009) and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (accessed December 2009).

From: 4, Contribution of Smoking to International Differences in Life Expectancy

Cover of International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages
International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources.
National Research Council (US) Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries; Crimmins EM, Preston SH, Cohen B, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2010.
Copyright © 2010, National Academy of Sciences.

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