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Figure 2. The macroautophagic pathway is induced by a stimulus (1) such as amino acid starvation.

Figure 2

The macroautophagic pathway is induced by a stimulus (1) such as amino acid starvation. After induction, a flat membrane sack wraps around a portion of cytoplasm (2) and finally forms a closed structure, autophagosome (3), which has two limiting membranes. Vesicular traffic from endosomal compartments delivers lysosomal membrane proteins to autophagosomes (4). Autophagosomes finally fuse with late endosomes, multivesicular bodies (MVB), or lysosomes, (5) delivering the sequestered cytoplasm, still surrounded by the inner limiting membrane, to the endo/lysosomal lumen. Both the remaining limiting membrane and cytoplasm are then degraded and the degradation products transported back to cytoplasm.

From: Macroautophagy in Mammalian Cells

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