Table 3

Organism AntigenHost Immune ResponseChallengeProtectionReadoutRef(s)Notes
Bacillus anthracis PAMouseSerum IgG IFN-γ, IL-4Anthrax toxin (2 component) 75 – 100 %Death[78]  
Borrelia burgdorfori OspAMouse Serum IgG Splenocyte proliferation IFN-γ, IL-4 B. burgdorfori ZS7100%Spirochete recultivation[80]i
 OspAMouseSerum Ig B. burgdorfori Sh-2-82; N40100%Spirochete recultivation[79] 
 OspBMouse  None   
Brucella abortus L7/L12 MouseSerum IgG Splenocyte proliferation B. abortus S23080.5 – 1.3 log Spleen CFU[81]  
Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60MouseSerum IgG Splenocyte proliferation IFN-γ C. pneumoniae Kajaani 0.7 – 1.3 log Lung IFU [85]ii
 MOMPNpt1Cp MouseNot determined C. pneumoniae AR39˜0.6 – 0.9 log˜0.6 log Lung IFU  
 HSP60MOMPOmp2 Cocktail MouseSerum Ig Splenocyte proliferation C. pneumoniae Kajaani1.5 log 0.6 – 1.2 log 0.9 log 1.0 log Lung IFU[92]  
Chlamydia psittaci MOMPTurkey Serum IgM, IgG, IgAPBL proliferation C. psittaci 84/55Up to 100%Bacterial shedding[86] [87] iii
Chlamydia trachomatis MOMPMouseWestern blot C. trachomatis L2ClaimedDeath[95] 
  MouseSerum IgGDTH Splenocyte proliferation C. trachomatis MoPnUp to 4 log None Lung IFU Vaginal IFU [88*-90][91] *iv
 CTP IFN-γ, IL-10  NoneLung IFU[89] 
 STK Serum IgG 2 – 3 logLung IFU[94] 
Clostridium tetani tetC MouseSerum IgG Splenocyte proliferation IFN-γ Tetanus toxoid70 – 100 %Death[96]v
  tetC MouseSerum IgG Splenocyte proliferation IFN-γCTL Tetanus toxoid75 – 100 %Death[97] 
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Genetically-detoxified PLDSheepSerum Ig C. pseudotuberculosisC231 45 – 70 %Abscess formation[98] vi
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CFA/IMouseSerum IgIgA None  [100-105*]*vii
  faeG Mouse, pig Serum IgGNone  [106] 
Francisella tularensis Chromosomal DNAMouseIFN-γ, IL-6, IL-12 F. tularensis LVSUp to 100%Death[107]viii
Helicobacter pylori Hsp AMouseSerum IgG, IgA H. pylori SS1˜0.7 logGastric CFU[109] 
 Hsp B   ˜1.3 log   
Leptospira interrogans P68Guinea pigNot examined L. interrogans serovar lai77% Death[110] ix
Listeria monocytogenes LLO Act A MouseSerum IgG, IgA Splenocyte proliferation IFN-γ, IL-4 CTL L. monocytogenes 60 – 100% None Death[113]x
 LLO epitopeMouseIFN-γ CTL L. monocytogenes 1.7 – 2.7 logOrgan CFU[114] xi
 LLO MouseCTL L. monocytogenes 0.6 – 1.9 logSpleen CFU[116] xii
 CpG ODNMouse  L. monocytogenes 100 %Death[107]xiii
 LLO, p60MouseSerum IgG Splenocyte proliferation IFN-γCTL L. monocytogenes 0 – 3 log Spleen CFU[117]xiv
Mycoplasma pulmonis Genomic libraryMouseSerum IgD TH Macrophage migration inhibition M. pulmonis 4.0 log - completeLung CFU[118]xv
 A7-1 A8-1 MouseSerum Ig, Wetern blot Splenocyte proliferation DTHMacrophage migration inhibition M. pulmonis Complete Lavage CFU [119]xvi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Non-toxic form of ToxAMouseSerum IgGIFN-γ Wild-type ToxA100 %˜75 – 100%Death Death [120] [121]  
  oprF  Serum IgG P. aeruginosa Sig. reduction Lung lesions Lung CFU [121] [125]  
Salmonella typhi OmpCMouseSerum IgG, Western blotNone   [126] 
Methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus mecA MouseSerum Ig, Western blotMRSA 1191 0.4 log Kidney CFU [129] 
Streptococcus pneumoniae pspAMouseSerum Ig S. pneumoniae A6640 %Death Blood CFU [130]xvii
Yersinia enterocolitica HSP60MouseSerum IgG, IgA Y. enterocolitica strain WA-314 2.3 – 3.0 logSpleen CFU[135] 
   Splenocyte proliferation Y. pseudotuberculosis None   
   IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 Y. enterocolitica strain WA-3142.1 – 3.6 logSpleen CFU[134] xviii
Yersinia pestis V antigenMouseSerum IgANone  [133]xix

i The influence of promoter type on the magnitude of the immune response examined.

ii Effect of the co-administration of plasmids expressing cytokines examined.

iii The influence of gold bead size and DNA quantity on the efficacy of gene-gun delivery examined.

iv DNA plasmid delivered by recombinant Salmonella orally.

v First report of a DNA vaccine able to protect against a bacterial toxin.

vi Antigen expressed as a fusion with CTLA-4, in order to direct it to antigen-presenting cells.

vii Heterologous prime-boost strategy used: DNA (prime)/recombinant Salmonella (boost).

viii Protection induced by administration of bacterial chromosomal DNA alone.

ix In Chinese. x Attenuated Salmonella used to deliver DNA plasmids via the oral route.

xi Protection only seen when codon usage optimized.

xii Protection improved by secretion and/or mutation of the antigen.

xiii Nonspecific protection induced by administration of CpG-ODN alone.

xiv Immune response and/or protection influenced by co-administration of CpG-ODN or DNA expressing GM-CSF.

xv First report of Expression Library Immunization (ELI).

xvi First report of a therapeutic effect of DNA immunization on a bacterial infection.

xvii Proposed as a model for determining the optimum expression of bacterial genes for DNA immunisation.

xviii Cytokine genes cloned into and expressed from the plasmid encoding the antigen.

xix Genegun mediated delivery found to be superior to manual delivery.

From: DNA Vaccines against Bacterial Pathogens

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