Figure 1. Insulin stimulation of GLUT4 translocation requires two independent signaling pathways; one is dependent on the IRS-PI 3-kinase pathway (signal 1) and the other is dependent on the CAP/Cbl/TC10 pathway (signal 2).

Figure 1

Insulin stimulation of GLUT4 translocation requires two independent signaling pathways; one is dependent on the IRS-PI 3-kinase pathway (signal 1) and the other is dependent on the CAP/Cbl/TC10 pathway (signal 2). Signal 1 involves insulin-induced IRS phosphorylation and PI 3-kinase recruitment, resulting in the PIP3 formation, which subsequently activates PDK1. Signal 2 involves insulin-induced Cbl phosphorylation and the recruitment of CrkII-C3G complex to the caveolae/lipid raft microdomain where TC10 is localized. The lipid-raft-recruited C3G serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for TC10, resulting in the activation of this small GTPase. These two insulin receptor signals act together to induce the translocation of GLUT4.

From: Subcellular Compartmentalization of Insulin Signaling Processes and GLUT4 Trafficking Events

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