Intranasal glucagon compared with intramuscular glucagon

Pontiroli and Calderara, 198949230 adult patients with type 1 diabetes, admitted as inpatients owing to metabolic decomposition
Adults were randomised to 1 of 2 treatments.
  1. intranasal glucagon (1 mg IN) and 15 mg sodium glycocolate (a surfactant as a spray solution)
  2. intramuscular glucagon (1 mg IM)
Blood glucose levelsThe mean rise of blood glucose levels was greater with IM than IN glucagon There was 1 non-responder (increase of blood glucose levels < 10 mg/dl) with IN and 1 with IM glucagon. It was not necessary to adopt additional measures for at least 3 hours after IN or IM glucagon, indicating their effect was not transientNo description of how randomisation took place
No details of blinding of the study

From: Evidence tables

Cover of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes: Diagnosis and Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Young People.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 15.2.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2004 Sep.
Copyright © 2004, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

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