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Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats; Knobler SL, Burroughs T, Mahmoud A, et al., editors. Ensuring an Infectious Disease Workforce: Education and Training Needs for the 21st Century: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006.

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Ensuring an Infectious Disease Workforce: Education and Training Needs for the 21st Century: Workshop Summary.

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Appendix CForum Member Biographies

STANLEY M. LEMON, M.D. (Chair), is the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair and Director of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston. He received his undergraduate A.B. degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude, and his M.D. with honor from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board certified in both. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, followed by a 14-year period on the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. He moved to UTMB in 1997, serving first as Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, then as dean of the School of Medicine from 1999 to 2004. Dr. Lemon’s research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of positive-strand RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis. He has had a longstanding interest in antiviral and vaccine development, and has served previously as Chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee, of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He is the past Chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of the World Health Organization Programme on Vaccine Development. He presently serves as a member of the U.S. Delegation of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and chairs the Board of Scientific Councilors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is currently [2005] Co-chair of the Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats for the National Academy of Sciences and recently chaired an Institute of Medicine study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats.

P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is J. Herbert Bate Professor Emeritus of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill, and is Director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously, he served as chair of the Department of Medicine and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was president of the Infectious Disease Society of America in 1996–1997. He was also a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991–1992). Dr. Sparling’s laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His current studies focus on the biochemistry and genetics of iron-scavenging mechanisms used by gonococci and meningococci and the structure and function of the gonococcal porin proteins. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea.

MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is Vice President for Biological Programs at Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), a charitable organization working to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Dr. Hamburg is in charge of the biological program area. Before taking on her current position, Dr. Hamburg was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as a principal policy advisor to the Secretary of Health and Human Services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and/or legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for almost six years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York. As chief health officer in the nation’s largest city, Dr. Hamburg’s many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases; the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels; and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American College of Physicians.

DAVID ACHESON, M.D., is Chief Medical Officer at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). He received his medical degree at the University of London. After completing internships in general surgery and medicine, he continued his postdoctoral training in Manchester, England, as a Wellcome Trust Research Fellow. He subsequently was a Wellcome Trust Training Fellow in Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center and at the Wellcome Research Unit in Vellore, India. Dr. Acheson was Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center until 2001. He then joined the faculties of the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine and Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Maryland Medical School. Currently at the FDA, his research concentration is on foodborne pathogens and encompasses a mixture of molecular pathogenesis, cell biology, and epidemiology. Specifically, his research focuses on Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and understanding toxin interaction with intestinal epithelial cells using tissue culture models. His laboratory has also undertaken a study to examine Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in food animals in relation to virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns. More recently, Dr. Acheson initiated a project to understand the molecular pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni. Other studies have undertaken surveillance of diarrheal disease in the community to determine causes, outcomes, and risk factors of unexplained diarrhea. Dr. Acheson has authored/co-authored over 72 journal articles, and 42 book chapters and reviews, and is coauthor of the book Safe Eating (Dell Health, 1998). He is reviewer of more than 10 journals and is on the editorial board of Infection and Immunity and Clinical Infectious Diseases. Dr. Acheson is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and holds several patents.

RUTH L. BERKELMAN, M.D., is the Rollins Professor and Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University in Atlanta. She received her A.B. from Princeton University and her M.D. from Harvard Medical School. Board-certified in pediatrics and internal medicine, she began her career at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1980, and later became Deputy Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases. She also served as a Senior Advisor to the Director, CDC and Assistant Surgeon General in the U.S. Public Health Service. In 2001, she came to her current position at Emory University, directing a center focused on emerging infectious disease and other urgent threats to health, including terrorism. She has also consulted with the biologic program of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and is most recognized for her work in infectious diseases and disease surveillance. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2004. Currently a member of the IOM’s Forum on Emerging Infections and the Board of Life Sciences of the National Academy of Science, she also chairs the Board of Public and Scientific Affairs at the American Society of Microbiology.

ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Ph.D., is President of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Dr. Bond received her undergraduate degree from Wellesley College, her M.A. from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemical genetics from Georgetown University. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Public Health Association. Dr. Bond serves on the Council of the Institute of Medicine as its vice-chair; she chairs the Board of Scientific Counselors for the National Center for Infectious Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and she chairs the Institute of Medicine’s Clinical Research Roundtable. She serves on the Board and Executive Committee of the Research Triangle Park Foundation, and on the Board of the Medicines for Malaria Venture. Prior to being named President of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in 1994, Dr. Bond served on the staff of the Institute of Medicine since 1979, becoming the Institute’s Executive Officer in 1989.

STEVEN J. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is Research Advisor, Antibacterials Chemistry, at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was a National Institutes of Health NIH Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor/ co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents, and has published numerous scientific papers, primarily within the area of the oxazolidinones. Prior to joining Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the last 35 years.

JOSEPH BRYAN, M.D., graduated from Oklahoma Christian College in 1974 and from the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine in 1979. After completing a residency in Internal Medicine at the Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation in New Orleans in 1982, he participated in clinical trials in Salvador, Brazil. He completed a research fellowship in central nervous system infections at the University of Virginia in July 1984. Dr. Bryan became an officer in the medical corps of the U.S. Navy in October 1984 and completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, MD, in November 1986. Dr. Bryan served at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, conducting clinical trials and epidemiologic studies in Pakistan, Zambia, and Belize. In 1997, he became the Course Director for Military Tropical Medicine and participated in other tropical and preventive medicine courses through the Naval School of Health Sciences in Bethesda. In July 2000, Dr. Bryan joined the Office of Medical Services of the Department of State as a consultant in infectious diseases and tropical and travel medicine. He has been elected a Fellow in the American College of Physicians and Infectious Disease Society of America. He has published 39 peer-reviewed papers, nine invited articles, and one book chapter. He serves as an adjunct Professor at the Uniformed Services University.

NANCY CARTER-FOSTER, M.S.T.M., is Senior Advisor for Health Affairs for the U.S. Department of State, Assistant Secretary for Science and Health and the Secretary’s Representative on HIV/AIDS. She is responsible for identifying emerging health issues and making policy recommendations for United States Government (USG) foreign policy concerns regarding international health, and coordinates the Department’s interactions with the non-governmental community. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Infectious Diseases, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and the American Association of the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She has helped bring focus to global health issues in U.S. foreign policy and brought a national security focus to global health. In prior positions as Director for Congressional and Legislative Affairs for the Economic and Business Affairs Bureau of the U.S. Department of State, Foreign Policy Advisory to the Majority WHIP U.S. House of Representatives, Trade Specialist Advisor to the House of Representatives Ways and Means Trade Subcommittee, and consultant to the World Bank, Asia Technical Environment Division, Ms. Carter-Foster has worked on a wide variety of health, trade and, environmental issues, amassing in-depth knowledge and experience in policy development and program implementation.

GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President, Scientific Affairs, Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is the past President of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and is serving her third three-year term as Chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM. She is a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served eight years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its Chair for three years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored over 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases.

MARK FEINBERG, M.D., Ph.D., is Vice President for Policy, Public Health and Medical Affairs in the Merck Vaccine Division of Merck & Co., Inc. He received a bachelor’s degree magna cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania in 1978, and his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University School of Medicine in 1987. From 1985–1986, Dr. Feinberg served as a Project Officer for the Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences. Following receipt of his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees, Dr. Feinberg pursued postgraduate residency training in Internal Medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital of Harvard Medical School and postdoctoral fellowship research in the laboratory of Dr. David Baltimore at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. From 1991–1995, Dr. Feinberg was an Assistant Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he also served as an Attending Physician in the AIDS/Oncology Division and as Director of the Virology Research Laboratory at San Francisco General Hospital. From 1995–1997, Dr. Feinberg was a Medical Officer in the Office of AIDS Research in the Office of the Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Chair of the NIH Coordinating Committee on AIDS Etiology and Pathogenesis Research. During this period, he also served as Executive Secretary of the NIH Panel to Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection. Prior to joining Merck in 2004, Dr. Feinberg served as Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology at the Emory University School of Medicine, and as an Investigator at the Emory Vaccine Center. Dr. Feinberg also founded and served as the Medical Director of the Hope Clinic—a clinical research facility devoted to the clinical evaluation of novel vaccines and to translational research studies of human immune system biology. At UCSF and Emory, Dr. Feinberg and colleagues were engaged in the preclinical development and evaluation of novel vaccines for HIV and other infectious diseases, and in basic research studies focused on revealing fundamental aspects of host-virus relationships that underlie the pathogenesis of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. In addition to his other professional roles, Dr. Feinberg has also served as a consultant to, and member of, several committees of the Institutes of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences.

J. PATRICK FITCH, Ph.D., is Program Leader for Chemical and Biological National Security (CBNP) at the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). CBNP is a $54M program (FY02) at LLNL with over 140 staff. CBNP activities include basic pathogen biology and materials sciences through to deployed operational systems for counter terrorism support. Previous to CBNP, Dr. Fitch led several different LLNL divisions including genomics, bioengineering, and engineering research. His research interests include bioinstrumentation, computer modeling of pathogen biology and host response, and medical devices. In addition to journal, conference and patent publications, Dr. Fitch has authored several books and book chapters including An Engineering Introduction to Biotechnology (SPIE Press, 2002). Dr. Fitch received a Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Purdue University in 1984 and B.S. degrees in Physics and in Engineering Science from Loyola College in 1981. Dr. Fitch is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), Fellow of the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery, Member of the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE), Editorial Board Member of Biomolecular Engineering, Advisory Board Member for the College of Engineering at Colorado State University, and former Board Member of the California State Breast Cancer Research Program. He received an IEEE Best Paper Award for nonlinear digital signal processing in 1988, national Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer (FLC) awards for medical devices in both 1998 and 1999, and the 2002 LLNL Science and Technology Award. Dr. Fitch also successfully developed and marketed a medical device business strategy to venture investors.

S. ELIZABETH GEORGE, Ph.D., is Deputy Director, Biological Countermeasures Portfolio Science & Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. Dr. George serves as the Deputy Director of Biological Countermeasures in the Department of Homeland Security. Until merging into the new Department on March 1, 2003, Dr. George was the Program Manager of the Chemical & Biological National Security Program in the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nonproliferation Research & Engineering. Significant accomplishments include the design and deployment of BioWatch, the nation’s first civilian biological threat agent monitoring system and PROTECT, the first civilian operational chemical detection and response capability deployed in the Washington subway system. Previously she spent 16 years at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development, National Health and Ecological Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, where she was Branch Chief of the Molecular and Cellular Toxicology Branch. She received her B.S. in Biology (1977) from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and M.S. and Ph.D. in Microbiology (1979 and 1984) from North Carolina State University. She was a National Research Council Research Fellow (1984–1986) in the laboratory of Dr. Larry Claxton at the U.S. EPA. Dr. George is the 2005 Chair of the Chemical and Biological Terrorism Defense Gordon Research Conference. She has served as Councilor for the Environmental Mutagen Society and President and Secretary of the Genotoxicity and Environmental Mutagen Society. She holds memberships in the American Society for Microbiology and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is an adjunct faculty member in the School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M University. Dr. George is the recipient of the U.S. EPA Bronze Medal and Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Under Secretary’s Award for Science and Technology. She is author on numerous journal articles and has presented her research at national and international meetings.

JESSE L. GOODMAN, M.D., M.P.H., was Professor of Medicine and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota, and is now serving as Deputy Director for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of scientific, public health, and policy issues. After joining the FDA commissioner’s office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA’s response to the antimicrobial resistance problem. He was Co-chair of a recently formed federal interagency task force which developed the national Public Health Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine followed by internal medicine, hematology, oncology, and infectious diseases training at the University of Pennsylvania and University of California, Los Angeles, where he was also chief medical resident. He received his master’s of public health from the University of Minnesota. He has been active in community public health activities, including creating an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. In recent years, his laboratory’s research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tickborne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tickborne infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multi-center clinical studies. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and, among several honors, has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation.

EDUARDO GOTUZZO, M.D., is Principal Professor and Director at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Alexander von Humbolt,” Universidad Peruana Cayetan Heredia (UPCH), in Lima, Peru, as well as Chief of the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital and Adjunct Professor of Medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine. Dr. Gotuzzo has proven to be an active member in numerous international societies such as President of the Latin America Society of Tropical Disease (2000–2003), Member of the Scientific Program of Infectious Diseases Society of America (2000–2003), Member of the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994–Present), President Elect of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (1996–1998), and President of the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (1991–1992). He has published over 230 articles and chapters, as well as six manuals and one book. Recent honors and awards include being named an Honorary Member of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (since 2002), Associated Member of the National Academy of Medicine (since 2002), Honorary Member of the Society of Internal Medicine (since 2000), Distinguished Visitor, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina (since 1999), and the Golden Medal for “Outstanding Contribution in the Field of Infectious Diseases,” awarded by the Trnava University, Slovakia (1998), among many others.

CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Ph.D., is Director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her bachelor’s degree in biology from Boston University in 1972, and earned her master’s degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979, respectively. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986, she came to NIAID as the Influenza and Viral Respiratory Diseases Program Officer in DMID and, in 1988, she was appointed Chief of the Respiratory Diseases Branch where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as Deputy Director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for Approaches in HIV Vaccine Research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career, Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and WHO in this area. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Society of Virology.

DAVID L. HEYMANN, M.D., is currently the Executive Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Communicable Diseases Cluster. From October 1995 to July 1998 he was Director of the WHO Programme on Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control. Prior to becoming director of this program, he was the Chief of Research Activities in the Global Programme on AIDS. From 1976 to 1989, prior to joining WHO, Dr. Heymann spent 13 years working as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, the former Zaire, and Malawi) on assignment from the CDC in CDC-supported activities aimed at strengthening capacity in surveillance of infectious diseases and their control, with special emphasis on the childhood immunizable diseases, African hemorrhagic fevers, pox viruses, and malaria. While based in Africa, Dr. Heymann participated in the investigation of the first outbreak of Ebola in Yambuku (former Zaire) in 1976, then again investigated the second outbreak of Ebola in 1977 in Tandala, and in 1995 directed the international response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit. Prior to 1976, Dr. Heymann spent two years in India as a medical officer in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Programme. Dr. Heymann holds a B.A. from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.D. from Wake Forest University, and a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and completed practical epidemiology training in the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) training program of the CDC. He has published 131 scientific articles on infectious diseases in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals.

PHIL HOSBACH, Ph.D., is Vice President of New Products and Immunization Policy at Sanofi Pasteur. The departments under his supervision are new product marketing, state and federal government policy, business intelligence, bids and contracts, medical communications, public health sales, and public health marketing. His current responsibilities include oversight of immunization policy development. Mr. Hosbach acts as Sanofi Pasteur’s principle liaison with CDC. Mr. Hosbach graduated from Lafayette College in 1984 with a degree in Biology. He has 20 years of pharmaceutical industry experience, including the last 17 years focused solely on vaccines. He began his career at American Home Products in Clinical Research in 1984. He joined Aventis Pasteur (then Connaught Labs) in 1987 as Clinical Research Coordinator and has held research and development positions of increasing responsibility, including Clinical Research Manager and Director of Clinical Operations. Mr. Hosbach also served as Project Manager for the development and licensure of Tripedia, the first diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine approved by FDA for use in U.S. infants. During his clinical research career at Aventis Pasteur, he contributed to the development and licensure of seven vaccines and has authored or co-authored several clinical research articles. From 2000 through 2002, Mr. Hosbach served on the Board of Directors for Pocono Medical Center, in East Stroudsburg, PA. Since 2003 he has actively served on the Board of Directors of Pocono Health Systems, which includes Pocono Medical Center.

JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., received his B.A. in 1966 and M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He is board-certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He first joined CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973. During his CDC career, he has worked primarily in the areas of foodborne disease and infection control in health care settings. He became Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases in 1992. The center is currently working to address domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an Assistant Surgeon General in the Public Health Service.

STEPHEN JOHNSTON, Ph.D., is a Professor and Director at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. A major focus of Dr. Johnston’s lab has been technology development. His interest of late has been especially in the area of vaccine development. He was co-inventor with Dr. John Sanford of the hand-held, helium gene gun, and he and Dr. Sanford used the gene gun to first demonstrate gene (DNA) immunization. Genetic vaccines have revolutionized approaches to delivering and developing vaccines. In this regard, Johnston’s group first published on a method, Expression Library Immunization, that offers a systematic approach to searching genomic information for new vaccines. His group has also developed techniques for discovering peptides that target specific cells and is employing this to create more effective, targeted vaccines. Through the Center for Biomedical Inventions, his group with collaborators in immunology, instrumentation, genomics, and chemistry is attempting to forge a fully integrated approach to developing the best methods for delivery and discovering vaccines.

GERALD T. KEUSCH, M.D., is Provost and Dean for Global Health at Boston University (BU) and BU School of Public Health. He is a graduate of Columbia College (1958) and Harvard Medical School (1963). After completing a residency in internal medicine, fellowship training in infectious diseases, and two years as an NIH Research Associate at the SEATO Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand, Dr. Keusch joined the faculty of Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in 1970, where he established a laboratory to study the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery and the biology and biochemistry of Shiga toxin. In 1979, he moved to Tufts Medical School and New England Medical Center in Boston, to found the Division of Geographic Medicine, which focused on the molecular and cellular biology of tropical infectious diseases. In 1986, he integrated the clinical infectious diseases program into the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, continuing as Division Chief until 1998. He has worked in the laboratory and in the field in Latin America, Africa, and Asia on basic and clinical infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS research. From 1998 to 2003 he was Associate Director for International Research and Director of the Fogarty International Center at the NIH. Dr. Keusch is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the American Society for Microbiology and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). He is the recipient of the Squibb (1981), Finland (1997), and Bristol (2002) Awards of the IDSA. In 2002 he was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

LONNIE KING, D.V.M., is Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University. Dr. King’s previous positions include both Associate Administrator and Administrator of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and Deputy Administrator for USDA/ APHIS/Veterinary Services. Before his government career, Dr. King was in private practice. He also has experience as a field veterinary medical officer, station epidemiologist, and staff assignments involving Emergency Programs and Animal Health Information. Dr. King has also directed the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Office of Governmental Relations, and is certified in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. He has served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medicine Colleges, and currently serves as Co-Chair of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues, Lead Dean at Michigan State University for food safety with responsibility for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, and the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases. He is also co-developer and course leader for Science, Politics, and Animal Health Policy. Dr. King received his B.S. and D.V.M. degrees from The Ohio State University, and his M.S. degree in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota. He has also completed the Senior Executive Program at Harvard University, and received a M.P.A. from American University. Dr. King previously served on the Committee for Opportunities in Agriculture, the Steering Committee for a Workshop on the Control and Prevention of Animal Diseases, and the Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption.

GEORGE KORCH, Ph.D., attended Boston University and earned a B.S. in biology in 1974, followed by post-graduate study in mammalian ecology at the University of Kansas from 1975–1978. He earned his Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Immunology and Infectious Diseases in 1985, followed by post-doctoral experience at Johns Hopkins from 1985–1986. His area of training and specialty is the study of the epidemiology of zoonotic viral pathogens and in medical entomology. For the past 15 years, he has also engaged in research and program management for medical defense against biological pathogens used in terrorism or warfare.

JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Molecular Genetics and Informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was co-chair of a previous Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and currently is co-chair of the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine.

JOSEPH MALONE, M.D., the director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infection System (DoD-GEIS), completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in June, 2003. He graduated from Boston University School of Medicine in 1980, and trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Naval Hospitals in San Diego, and Bethesda, MD, leading to board certification. He was a staff physician at the Naval Hospitals in San Diego, CA, and Bethesda, MD. He deployed to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in support of Operation Safe Harbor and was attached to Surgical Team 1 during Operation Desert Shield. He later directed the Infectious Disease Division and HIV unit at the Naval Medical Center at Portsmouth, VA, from 1996–1996. In 1999 he worked for the Disease Surveillance Program (in affiliation with DoD-GEIS) at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 in Cairo, Egypt. While at CDC’s EIS program he was deployed to New York City to assist in the emergency public health response after the September 11, 2001, attacks, assisted in the public health response to documented anthrax contamination in Kansas City, and was the acting state epidemiologist for the State of Missouri from February–June 2003. CAPT Malone has several military awards, including the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)/ U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Crisis Response Service Award. He is an Associate Professor at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences and holds the Certificate of Knowledge in Travelers’ Health and Tropical Medicine from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. He has over 20 publications.

LYNN MARKS, M.D., is board-certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He was on faculty at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases department focusing on patient care, teaching, and research. His academic research interest was on the molecular genetics of bacterial pathogenicity. He subsequently joined SmithKline Beecham’s (now GlaxoSmithKline) anti-infectives clinical group and later progressed to Global Head of the Consumer Healthcare division of the Medical and Regulatory group. He then returned to pharmaceutical research and development as Global Head of the Infectious Diseases Therapeutic Area Strategy Team for GlaxoSmithKline.

STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from four years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor (Virology) at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by American Scientist for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute’s journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the IOM’s Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992); was a member of the IOM’s Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the Steering Committee of the IOM’s Forum on Emerging Infections; and has served as an adviser to WHO, the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past Chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding Chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota where he is also Professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and Chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the CDC. He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the IOM’s Forum on Emerging Infections. He has also served on the IOM Committee on Food Safety, Production to Consumption and the IOM Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program, and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism.

GEORGE POSTE, Ph.D., D.V.M., is Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute and Dell E. Webb Distinguished Professor of Biology at Arizona State University. From 1992 to 1999 he was Chief Science and Technology Officer and President, Research and Development of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB he was associated with the successful registration of 29 drug, vaccine, and diagnostic products. He is Chairman of diaDexus and Structural GenomiX in California and Orchid Biosciences in Princeton. He serves on the Board of Directors of AdvancePCS and Monsanto. He is an advisor on biotechnology to several venture capital funds and investment banks. In May 2003 he was appointed as Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. This is a major new initiative combining research groups in biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, advanced computing and neuromorphic engineering. He is a Fellow of Pembroke College Cambridge and Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution and Stanford University. He is a member of the Defense Science Board of the U.S. Department of Defense and in this capacity he Chairs the Task Force on Bioterrorism. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on Defense Against Bioweapons. Dr. Poste is a Board-Certified Pathologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the rank of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 for services to medicine and for the advancement of biotechnology. He has published over 350 scientific papers, co-edited 15 books on cancer, biotechnology, and infectious diseases, and serves on the Editorial Board of multiple technical journals. He is invited routinely to be the keynote speaker at a wide variety of academic, corporate, investment, and government meetings to discuss the impact of biotechnology and genetics on healthcare and the challenges posed by bioterrorism. Dr. Poste is married with three children. His personal interests are in military history, photography, automobile racing, and exploring the wilderness zones of the American West.

DAVID A. RELMAN, M.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine (infectious diseases and geographic medicine) and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, and chief of the Infectious Diseases Section at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California. Dr. Relman received his B.S. in biology from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. He completed his residency in internal medicine and a clinical fellowship in infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, after which he moved to Stanford as a research fellow and postdoctoral scholar. He joined the Stanford faculty in 1994. His major focus is laboratory research directed toward characterizing the human endogenous microbial flora, host-microbe interactions, and identifying previously-unrecognized microbial pathogens, using molecular and genomic approaches. He has described a number of new human microbial pathogens. Dr. Relman’s lab ( is currently exploring human oral and intestinal microbial ecology, sources of variation in host genome-wide expression responses to infection and during states of health, and how Bordetella species (including the agent of whooping cough) cause disease. He has published over 150 peer-reviewed articles, reviews, editorials, and book chapters on pathogen discovery and bacterial pathogenesis. Dr. Relman has served on scientific program committees for the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and advisory panels for National Institutes of Health (NIH), CDC, the Departments of Energy and Defense, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He is currently (2005) co-chair of the Committee on Advances in Technology and the Prevention of their Application to Next Generation Biowarfare Threats for the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the IDSA and the Board of Scientific Counselors at National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)/NIH. He received the Squibb Award from IDSA in 2001, the Senior Scholar Award in Global Infectious Diseases from the Ellison Medical Foundation in 2002, and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.

GARY A. ROSELLE, M.D., received his M.D. from Ohio State University School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at Northwestern University School of Medicine and his Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Dr. Roselle is the Program Director for Infectious Diseases for the Veterans Affairts (VA) Central Office in Washington, D.C., as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a Professor of Medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Roselle has received commendations from the Cincinnati Medical Center Director, the Under Secretary for Health for the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for his work in the infectious diseases program for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings and has published over 80 papers and several book chapters.

ANNE SCHUCHAT, M.D., joined the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1988 as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in the Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch within the Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases (DBMD), National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID). She also served as the initial medical director of the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs)/Emerging Infections Program Network. She became Chief of the DBMD Respiratory Diseases Branch in 1988, where she remained until becoming Acting Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases in 2005. She joined colleagues from across the agency during emergency response activities for the 2001 anthrax bioterrorism response and the 2003 SARS outbreak, where she headed the Beijing City epidemiology team for the World Health Organization (WHO) China Office. Dr. Schuchat has made critically important contributions to prevention of group B streptococcal disease, evaluation of foodborne listeriosis, evaluation of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines. She has mentored dozens of EIS officers and others at CDC, and has worked closely with WHO, FDA, NIH, USAID, and IDSA on a number of infectious disease and prevention issues. Dr. Schuchat graduated with Highest Honors from Swarthmore College and with Honors from Dartmouth Medical School. She served as Resident and Chief Resident in Internal Medicine at New York University’s Manhattan VA Hospital before beginning her public health career at the CDC.

JANET SHOEMAKER, is Director of the American Society for Microbiology’s Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in American Society for Microbiology projects, including the production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as Assistant Director of Public Affairs for ASM, as ASM coordinator of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State, and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts, and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She has served as Commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, and as the ASM representative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, and is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has co-authored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology.

TERENCE TAYLOR, is President and Executive Director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies-US (IISS-US). He is also Assistant Director of the IISS in London. He studies international security policy, risk analysis, scientific and technological developments and their impact on political and economic stability worldwide. He is one of the Institute’s leading experts on issues associated with nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and their means of delivery. He has a particular responsibility for IISS on all issues affecting public safety and security in relation to biological risks and advances in the life sciences. He was one of the Commissioners to the UN Special Commission on Iraq for which he also conducted missions as a Chief Inspector. He was a Research Fellow on the Science Program at the Center for International Security and Co-operation at Stanford University where he carried out, among other subjects, studies of the implications for government and industry of the weapons of mass destruction treaties and agreements. He has also carried out consultancy work for the International Committee of the Red Cross on the implementation and development of the laws of armed conflict and consultancy for private companies on political risk analysis (both regional and country-specific). He is chairman of the Permanent Monitoring Panel on Risk Analysis for the World Federation of Scientists. He served as a career officer in the British Army on operations in many parts of the world, including counter-terrorist operations and UN peacekeeping. His publications include monographs, book chapters and articles for, among others, Stanford University, the World Economic Forum, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Crimes of War Project, International Herald Tribune, Wall Street Journal, the International Defence Review, the Independent (London), Tiempo (Madrid), the International and Comparative Law Quarterly, The Washington Quarterly, and other scholarly journals including unsigned contributions to IISS publications.

Copyright © 2006, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK56570
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