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National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Management of PTSD in Adults and Children in Primary and Secondary Care. Leicester (UK): Gaskell; 2005. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 26.)

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Management of PTSD in Adults and Children in Primary and Secondary Care.

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Appendix 11Search strategies for the identification of health economics studies

General search filters

Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL–OVID interface

A general search was conducted to extract randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials, from which relevant papers were identified for each of the main chapters within this guideline (psychological interventions, pharmacological interventions, children and early interventions).

  1. Stress Disorders, Traumatic/or Combat Disorders/or Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic, Acute/or Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/or Stress, Psychological/
  2. Stress, Psychological/or Critical Incident Stress/or Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/
  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/or Emotional Trauma/or Traumatic Neurosis/
  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/or Psychotrauma/
  5. (post?traumatic$ or post-traumatic$ or stress disorder$ or acute stress or PTSD or ASD or DESNOS).tw.
  6. (combat neuros$ or combat syndrome or concentration camp syndrome or extreme stress or flash?back$ or flash-back$ or hypervigilan$ or hypervigilen$ or psych$ stress or psych$ trauma$ or psycho?trauma$ or psycho-trauma$).tw.
  7. (railway spine or (rape adj2 trauma$) or re?experienc$ or re-experienc$ or torture syndrome or traumatic neuros$ or traumatic stress).tw.
  8. (trauma$ and (avoidance or grief or horror or death$ or night?mare$ or night-mare$ or emotion$)).tw.
  9. or/1–8
  10. exp clinical trials/or cross-over studies/or random allocation/or double-blind method/or single-blind method/
  11. random$.pt.
  12. exp clinical trial/or crossover procedure/or double blind procedure/or single blind procedure/or randomization/
  13. exp clinical trials/or crossover design/or random assignment/
  14. exp clinical trials/or double blind method/or random allocation/
  15. random$.mp.
  16. (cross-over or cross?over or (clinical adj2 trial$) or single-blind$ or single?blind$ or double-blind or double?blind$ or triple-blind or triple?blind).tw.
  17. or/10–16
  18. animals/not (animals/and human$.mp.)
  19. animal$/not (animal$/and human$/)
  20. meta-analysis/
  22. systematic review/
  23. or/18–22
  24. 17 not 23
  25. 9 and 24
  26. or/1–5
  27. or/6–8
  28. 26 and 24
  29. 27 and 24
  30. remove duplicates from 29
  31. remove duplicates from 28
  32. 30 or 31
  33. remove duplicates from 32

In addition, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and the Database of Reviews of Effectiveness of the Cochrane Library were searched.

Narrative review search filters

Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO–Dialog DataStar interface

Separate searches were conducted to cover narrative reviews for screening and risk factors.

The following search was used to update the systematic review undertaken by Brewin et al (2000) for longitudinal prospective studies.


#3 and #4


cohort* or longitudinal or prospective or case control*


#1 and #2 and (PY=2000–2004)


risk or predictor or prediction or predisposition


post traumatic or posttraumatic or ptsd

Additional searches were conducted for specific risk factors such as injury, compensation and litigation and prospective screening tools. These search filters are available on request.

Health economics search filters

PTSD – General +

  1. (burden adj2 illness).mp.
  2. (burden adj2 disease).mp.
  3. (cost$ adj2 evaluat$).mp.
  4. (cost$ adj2 benefit$).mp.
  5. (cost$ adj2 utilit$).mp.
  6. (cost$ adj2 minimi$).mp.
  7. (cost$ adj2 illness).mp.
  8. (cost$ adj2 disease).mp.
  9. (cost$ adj2 analys$).mp.
  10. (cost$ adj2 assess$).mp.
  11. (cost$ adj2 study).mp.
  12. (cost$ adj2 studies).mp.
  13. (cost$ adj2 allocation).mp.
  14. (cost$ adj2 outcome$).mp.
  15. (cost$ adj2 consequence$).mp.
  16. (cost$ adj2 effect$).mp.
  17. (cost$ adj2 treatment$).mp.
  18. (economic adj2 evaluat$).mp.
  19. (economic adj2 analysis$).mp.
  20. (economic adj2 study).mp.
  21. (economic adj2 studies).mp.
  22. (economic adj2 assess$).mp.
  23. (economic adj2 consequence$).mp.
  24. (economic adj2 outcome$).mp.
  25. (resource$ adj2 allocation$).mp.
  26. (resource$ adj2 utili$).mp.
  27. expenditure$.mp.
  28. exp economics/
  29. exp “costs and cost analysis”/
  30. exp “health economics”/
  31. or/1–30
Copyright © 2005, The Royal College of Psychiatrists & The British Psychological Society.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Enquiries in this regard should be directed to the Royal College of Psychiatrists.

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