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Allen MC, Donohue P, Gilmore M, et al. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Preterm Infants. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2010 Oct. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 195.)

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Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Preterm Infants.

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Appendix EEvidence Tables

Evidence Table 1. Risk of bias in randomized controlled trials

Evidence Table 2. Risk of bias in observational studies

Evidence Table 3. Study characteristics

Evidence Table 4. Participant Characteristics

Evidence Table 5. Death and survival outcomes for KQ1

Evidence Table 6. BPD for KQ1

Evidence Table 7. Death of BPD outcomes for KQ1

Evidence Table 8. Brain injury outcomes for KQ2

Evidence Table 9. Other short term outcomes addressing KQ2 including PDA, sepsis, NEC, ROP, Pulmonary outcomes, and methemoglobinemia

Evidence Table 10. Death and survival beyond the NICU for KQ3

Evidence Table 11. Cerebral palsy outcomes in KQ3

Evidence Table 12. Cognitive outcomes for KQ3

Evidence Table 13. Sensory impairment for KQ3

Evidence Table 14. NDI and death or NDI outcomes for KQ3

Evidence Table 15. Other long term outcomes included in KQ3 including seizures, growth, oral feeding, pulmonary outcomes

Evidence Table 16. All outcomes addressing the KQ4 populations subgroups including death, BPD at 36 weeks PMA, death or BPD, Survival without BPD, Survival with BPD, NDI, death or NDI, Dath, ICH, and PVL, death or disability, cerebral palsy

Evidence Table 17. All outcomes addressed in the KQ5 subgroups including death, BPD, and NDI

Appendix E References

    Reference List for Evidence Table 1

    1.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    2.
    Hibbs AM, Walsh MC, Martin RJ, et al. One Year Respiratory Outcomes of the Preterm Infants Enrolled in the NO CLD Trial of Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) 2007. N/A.
    3.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]
    4.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    5.
    Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Early compared with delayed inhaled nitric oxide in moderately hypoxaemic neonates with respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. The Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1066–71. [PubMed: 10509497]
    6.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    7.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    8.
    Hascoet JM, Fresson J, Claris O, et al. The safety and efficacy of nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. J. Pediatr. 2005;146(3):318–23. [PubMed: 15756211]
    9.
    Hamon I, Fresson J, Nicolas MB, Buchweiller MC, Franck P, Hascoet JM. Early inhaled nitric oxide improves oxidative balance in very preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2005;57(5 Pt 1):637–43. [PubMed: 15746261]
    10.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    11.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    12.
    Watson RS, Clermont G, Kinsella JP, et al. Clinical and economic effects of iNO in premature newborns with respiratory failure at 1 year. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1333–43. [PubMed: 19841128]
    13.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    14.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]
    15.
    Srisuparp P, Heitschmidt M, Schreiber MD. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85(Suppl 2):S469–78. [PubMed: 12403222]
    16.
    Su PH, Chen JY. Inhaled nitric oxide in the management of preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2008;28(2):112–6. [PubMed: 17989696]
    17.
    Subhedar NV, Ryan SW, Shaw NJ. Open randomised controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide and early dexamethasone in high risk preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;77(3):F185–90. [PMC free article: PMC1720712] [PubMed: 9462187]
    18.
    Bennett AJ, Shaw NJ, Gregg JE, Subhedar NV. Neurodevelopmental outcome in high-risk preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(5):573–6. [PubMed: 11430720]
    19.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]
    20.
    Chock VY, Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for preterm premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, and pulmonary hypoplasia. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26(4):317–22. [PMC free article: PMC2676224] [PubMed: 19067285]
    21.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]
    22.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 2

    1.
    Banks BA, Seri I, Ischiropoulos H, Merrill J, Rychik J, Ballard RA. Changes in oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide in severe bronchopul monary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):610–8. [PubMed: 10049965]
    2.
    Cheung P-Y, Peliowski A, Robertson CMT. The outcome of very low birth weight neonates ((less-than or equal to) 1500 g) rescued by inhaled nitric oxide: Neurodevelopment in early childhood. J. Pediatr. 1998;133(6):735–9. [PubMed: 9842035]
    3.
    Clark PL, Ekekezie II, Kaftan HA, Castor CA, Truog WE. Safety and efficacy of nitric oxide in chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002;86(1):F41–5. [PMC free article: PMC1721346] [PubMed: 11815547]
    4.
    Dewhurst C, Ibrahim H, Gothberg S, Jonsson B, Subhedar N. Use of inhaled nitric oxide in the new born period: Results from the European inhaled nitric oxide registry. Acta Paediatr. Int. J. Paediatr. 2010;99(6):854–60. [PubMed: 20219040]
    5.
    Kumar VH, Hutchison AA, Lakshminrusimha S, Morin FC 3rd, Wynn RJ, Ryan RM. Characteristics of pulmonary hypertension in preterm neonates. J Perinatol. 2007;27(4):214–9. [PubMed: 17330053]
    6.
    Uga N, Ishii T, Kawase Y, Arai H, Tada H. Nitric oxide inhalation therapy in very low-birthweight infants with hypoplastic lung due to oligohydramnios. Pediatr. Int. 2004;46(1):10–4. [PubMed: 15043657]
    7.
    Tanaka Y, Hayashi T, Kitajima H, Sumi K, Fujimura M. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy decreases the risk of cerebral palsy in preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatrics. 2007;119(6):1159–64. [PubMed: 17545384]
    8.
    Yadav M, Emmerson AJ. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates. Lancet. 1999;354(9196):2162–3. [PubMed: 10609839]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 3

    1.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    2.
    Hibbs AM, Walsh MC, Martin RJ, et al. One Year Respiratory Outcomes of the Preterm Infants Enrolled in the NO CLD Trial of Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) 2007. N/A.
    3.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]
    4.
    Banks BA, Seri I, Ischiropoulos H, Merrill J, Rychik J, Ballard RA. Changes in oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):610–8. [PubMed: 10049965]
    5.
    Cheung P-Y, Peliowski A, Robertson CMT. The outcome of very low birth weight neonates ((less-than or equal to)1500 g) rescued by inhaled nitric oxide: Neurodevelopment in early childhood. J. Pediatr. 1998;133(6):735–9. [PubMed: 9842035]
    6.
    Clark PL, Ekekezie II, Kaftan HA, Castor CA, Truog WE. Safety and efficacy of nitric oxide in chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002;86(1):F41–5. [PMC free article: PMC1721346] [PubMed: 11815547]
    7.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    8.
    Dewhurst C, Ibrahim H, Gothberg S, Jonsson B, Subhedar N. Use of inhaled nitric oxide in the new born period: Results from the European inhaled nitric oxide registry. Acta Paediatr. Int. J. Paediatr. 2010;99(6):854–60. [PubMed: 20219040]
    9.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    10.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    11.
    Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Early compared with delayed inhaled nitric oxide in moderately hypoxaemic neonates with respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. The Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1066–71. [PubMed: 10509497]
    12.
    Hascoet JM, Fresson J, Claris O, et al. The safety and efficacy of nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. J. Pediatr. 2005;146(3):318–23. [PubMed: 15756211]
    13.
    Hamon I, Fresson J, Nicolas MB, Buchweiller MC, Franck P, Hascoet JM. Early inhaled nitric oxide improves oxidative balance in very preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2005;57(5 Pt 1):637–43. [PubMed: 15746261]
    14.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    15.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    16.
    Watson RS, Clermont G, Kinsella JP, et al. Clinical and economic effects of iNO in premature newborns with respiratory failure at 1 year. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1333–43. [PubMed: 19841128]
    17.
    Mercier JC, Hummler H, Durrmeyer X, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies (EUNO): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 [PubMed: 20655106]
    18.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    19.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]
    20.
    Srisuparp P, Heitschmidt M, Schreiber MD. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85(Suppl 2):S469–78. [PubMed: 12403222]
    21.
    Su PH, Chen JY. Inhaled nitric oxide in the management of preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2008;28(2):112–6. [PubMed: 17989696]
    22.
    Subhedar NV, Ryan SW, Shaw NJ. Open randomised controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide and early dexamethasone in high risk preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;77(3):F185–90. [PMC free article: PMC1720712] [PubMed: 9462187]
    23.
    Bennett AJ, Shaw NJ, Gregg JE, Subhedar NV. Neurodevelopmental outcome in high-risk preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(5):573–6. [PubMed: 11430720]
    24.
    Tanaka Y, Hayashi T, Kitajima H, Sumi K, Fujimura M. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy decreases the risk of cerebral palsy in preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatrics. 2007;119(6):1159–64. [PubMed: 17545384]
    25.
    Uga N, Ishii T, Kawase Y, Arai H, Tada H. Nitric oxide inhalation therapy in very low-birthweight infants with hypoplastic lung due to oligohydramnios. Pediatr. Int. 2004;46(1):10–4. [PubMed: 15043657]
    26.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]
    27.
    Chock VY, Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for preterm premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, and pulmonary hypoplasia. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26(4):317–22. [PMC free article: PMC2676224] [PubMed: 19067285]
    28.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]
    29.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    30.
    Yadav M, Emmerson AJ. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates. Lancet. 1999;354(9196):2162–3. [PubMed: 10609839]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 4

    1.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    2.
    Hibbs AM, Walsh MC, Martin RJ, et al. One Year Respiratory Outcomes of the Preterm Infants Enrolled in the NO CLD Trial of Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) 2007. N/A.
    3.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]
    4.
    Banks BA, Seri I, Ischiropoulos H, Merrill J, Rychik J, Ballard RA. Changes in oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):610–8. [PubMed: 10049965]
    5.
    Cheung P-Y, Peliowski A, Robertson CMT. The outcome of very low birth weight neonates ((less-than or equal to) 1500 g) rescued by inhaled nitric oxide: Neurodevelopment in early childhood. J. Pediatr. 1998;133(6):735–9. [PubMed: 9842035]
    6.
    Clark PL, Ekekezie II, Kaftan HA, Castor CA, Truog WE. Safety and efficacy of nitric oxide in chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002;86(1):F41–5. [PMC free article: PMC1721346] [PubMed: 11815547]
    7.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    8.
    Dewhurst C, Ibrahim H, Gothberg S, Jonsson B, Subhedar N. Use of inhaled nitric oxide in the new born period: Results from the European inhaled nitric oxide registry. Acta Paediatr. Int. J. Paediatr. 2010;99(6):854–60. [PubMed: 20219040]
    9.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    10.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    11.
    Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Early compared with delayed inhaled nitric oxide in moderately hypoxaemic neonates with respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. The Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1066–71. [PubMed: 10509497]
    12.
    Hascoet JM, Fresson J, Claris O, et al. The safety and efficacy of nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. J. Pediatr. 2005;146(3):318–23. [PubMed: 15756211]
    13.
    Hamon I, Fresson J, Nicolas MB, Buchweiller MC, Franck P, Hascoet JM. Early inhaled nitric oxide improves oxidative balance in very preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2005;57(5 Pt 1):637–43. [PubMed: 15746261]
    14.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    15.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    16.
    Watson RS, Clermont G, Kinsella JP, et al. Clinical and economic effects of iNO in premature newborns with respiratory failure at 1 year. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1333–43. [PubMed: 19841128]
    17.
    Mercier JC, Hummler H, Durrmeyer X, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies (EUNO): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 [PubMed: 20655106]
    18.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    19.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]
    20.
    Srisuparp P, Heitschmidt M, Schreiber MD. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85(Suppl 2):S469–78. [PubMed: 12403222]
    21.
    Su PH, Chen JY. Inhaled nitric oxide in the management of preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2008;28(2):112–6. [PubMed: 17989696]
    22.
    Subhedar NV, Ryan SW, Shaw NJ. Open randomised controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide and early dexamethasone in high risk preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;77(3):F185–90. [PMC free article: PMC1720712] [PubMed: 9462187]
    23.
    Bennett AJ, Shaw NJ, Gregg JE, Subhedar NV. Neurodevelopmental outcome in high-risk preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(5):573–6. [PubMed: 11430720]
    24.
    Tanaka Y, Hayashi T, Kitajima H, Sumi K, Fujimura M. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy decreases the risk of cerebral palsy in preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatrics. 2007;119(6):1159–64. [PubMed: 17545384]
    25.
    Uga N, Ishii T, Kawase Y, Arai H, Tada H. Nitric oxide inhalation therapy in very low-birthweight infants with hypoplastic lung due to oligohydramnios. Pediatr. Int. 2004;46(1):10–4. [PubMed: 15043657]
    26.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]
    27.
    Chock VY, Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for preterm premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, and pulmonary hypoplasia. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26(4):317–22. [PMC free article: PMC2676224] [PubMed: 19067285]
    28.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]
    29.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    30.
    Yadav M, Emmerson AJ. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates. Lancet. 1999;354(9196):2162–3. [PubMed: 10609839]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 5

    1.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    2.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    3.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    4.
    Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Early compared with delayed inhaled nitric oxide in moderately hypoxaemic neonates with respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. The Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1066–71. [PubMed: 10509497]
    5.
    Hascoet JM, Fresson J, Claris O, et al. The safety and efficacy of nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. J. Pediatr. 2005;146(3):318–23. [PubMed: 15756211]
    6.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    7.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    8.
    Mercier JC, Hummler H, Durrmeyer X, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies (EUNO): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 [PubMed: 20655106]
    9.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    10.
    Srisuparp P, Heitschmidt M, Schreiber MD. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85(Suppl 2):S469–78. [PubMed: 12403222]
    11.
    Su PH, Chen JY. Inhaled nitric oxide in the management of preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2008;28(2):112–6. [PubMed: 17989696]
    12.
    Subhedar NV, Ryan SW, Shaw NJ. Open randomised controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide and early dexamethasone in high risk preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;77(3):F185–90. [PMC free article: PMC1720712] [PubMed: 9462187]
    13.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]
    14.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 6

    1.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    2.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    3.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    4.
    Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Early compared with delayed inhaled nitric oxide in moderately hypoxaemic neonates with respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. The Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1066–71. [PubMed: 10509497]
    5.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    6.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    7.
    Mercier JC, Hummler H, Durrmeyer X, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies (EUNO): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 [PubMed: 20655106]
    8.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    9.
    Su PH, Chen JY. Inhaled nitric oxide in the management of preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2008;28(2):112–6. [PubMed: 17989696]
    10.
    Subhedar NV, Ryan SW, Shaw NJ. Open randomised controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide and early dexamethasone in high risk preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;77(3):F185–90. [PMC free article: PMC1720712] [PubMed: 9462187]
    11.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    12.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]
    13.
    Hascoet JM, Fresson J, Claris O, et al. The safety and efficacy of nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. J. Pediatr. 2005;146(3):318–23. [PubMed: 15756211]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 7

    1.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    2.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    3.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    4.
    Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Early compared with delayed inhaled nitric oxide in moderately hypoxaemic neonates with respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. The Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1066–71. [PubMed: 10509497]
    5.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    6.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    7.
    Mercier JC, Hummler H, Durrmeyer X, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies (EUNO): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 [PubMed: 20655106]
    8.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    9.
    Su PH, Chen JY. Inhaled nitric oxide in the management of preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2008;28(2):112–6. [PubMed: 17989696]
    10.
    Subhedar NV, Ryan SW, Shaw NJ. Open randomised controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide and early dexamethasone in high risk preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;77(3):F185–90. [PMC free article: PMC1720712] [PubMed: 9462187]
    11.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    12.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 8

    1.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    2.
    Hascoet JM, Fresson J, Claris O, et al. The safety and efficacy of nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. J. Pediatr. 2005;146(3):318–23. [PubMed: 15756211]
    3.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    4.
    Su PH, Chen JY. Inhaled nitric oxide in the management of preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2008;28(2):112–6. [PubMed: 17989696]
    5.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    6.
    Mercier JC, Hummler H, Durrmeyer X, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies (EUNO): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 [PubMed: 20655106]
    7.
    Srisuparp P, Heitschmidt M, Schreiber MD. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85(Suppl 2):S469–78. [PubMed: 12403222]
    8.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    9.
    Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Early compared with delayed inhaled nitric oxide in moderately hypoxaemic neonates with respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. The Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1066–71. [PubMed: 10509497]
    10.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    11.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    12.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 9

    1.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    2.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    3.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    4.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    5.
    Srisuparp P, Heitschmidt M, Schreiber MD. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai. 2002;85(Suppl 2):S469–78. [PubMed: 12403222]
    6.
    Su PH, Chen JY. Inhaled nitric oxide in the management of preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2008;28(2):112–6. [PubMed: 17989696]
    7.
    Subhedar NV, Ryan SW, Shaw NJ. Open randomised controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide and early dexamethasone in high risk preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;77(3):F185–90. [PMC free article: PMC1720712] [PubMed: 9462187]
    8.
    Mercier JC, Hummler H, Durrmeyer X, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies (EUNO): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 [PubMed: 20655106]
    9.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    10.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    11.
    Hascoet JM, Fresson J, Claris O, et al. The safety and efficacy of nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. J. Pediatr. 2005;146(3):318–23. [PubMed: 15756211]
    12.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    13.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 10

    1.
    Bennett AJ, Shaw NJ, Gregg JE, Subhedar NV. Neurodevelopmental outcome in high-risk preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(5):573–6. [PubMed: 11430720]
    2.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]
    3.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    4.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]
    5.
    Watson RS, Clermont G, Kinsella JP, et al. Clinical and economic effects of iNO in premature newborns with respiratory failure at 1 year. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1333–43. [PubMed: 19841128]
    6.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 11

    1.
    Bennett AJ, Shaw NJ, Gregg JE, Subhedar NV. Neurodevelopmental outcome in high-risk preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(5):573–6. [PubMed: 11430720]
    2.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]
    3.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    4.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]
    5.
    Tanaka Y, Hayashi T, Kitajima H, Sumi K, Fujimura M. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy decreases the risk of cerebral palsy in preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatrics. 2007;119(6):1159–64. [PubMed: 17545384]
    6.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    7.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 12

    1.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]
    2.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    3.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]
    4.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    5.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 13

    1.
    Bennett AJ, Shaw NJ, Gregg JE, Subhedar NV. Neurodevelopmental outcome in high-risk preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(5):573–6. [PubMed: 11430720]
    2.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    3.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    4.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]
    5.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    6.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]
    7.
    Watson RS, Clermont G, Kinsella JP, et al. Clinical and economic effects of iNO in premature newborns with respiratory failure at 1 year. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1333–43. [PubMed: 19841128]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 14

    1.
    Bennett AJ, Shaw NJ, Gregg JE, Subhedar NV. Neurodevelopmental outcome in high-risk preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(5):573–6. [PubMed: 11430720]
    2.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]
    3.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    4.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]
    5.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    6.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]
    7.
    Watson RS, Clermont G, Kinsella JP, et al. Clinical and economic effects of iNO in premature newborns with respiratory failure at 1 year. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1333–43. [PubMed: 19841128]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 15

    1.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    2.
    Huddy CL, Bennett CC, Hardy P, et al. The INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial: neonatal ventilation with inhaled nitric oxide versus ventilatory support without nitric oxide for severe respiratory failure in preterm infants: follow up at 4-5 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93(6):F430–5. [PubMed: 18375612]
    3.
    Hibbs AM, Walsh MC, Martin RJ, et al. One Year Respiratory Outcomes of the Preterm Infants Enrolled in the NO CLD Trial of Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) 2007. N/A.
    4.
    Cheung P-Y, Peliowski A, Robertson CMT. The outcome of very low birth weight neonates ((less-than or equal to)1500 g) rescued by inhaled nitric oxide: Neurodevelopment in early childhood. J. Pediatr. 1998;133(6):735–9. [PubMed: 9842035]
    5.
    Clark PL, Ekekezie II, Kaftan HA, Castor CA, Truog WE. Safety and efficacy of nitric oxide in chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002;86(1):F41–5. [PMC free article: PMC1721346] [PubMed: 11815547]
    6.
    Watson RS, Clermont G, Kinsella JP, et al. Clinical and economic effects of iNO in premature newborns with respiratory failure at 1 year. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1333–43. [PubMed: 19841128]
    7.
    Mestan KK, Marks JD, Hecox K, Huo D, Schreiber MD. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):23–32. [PubMed: 16000353]
    8.
    Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, et al. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):556–61.e1. [PMC free article: PMC2843768] [PubMed: 20138299]
    9.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 16

    1.
    Chock VY, Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for preterm premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, and pulmonary hypoplasia. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26(4):317–22. [PMC free article: PMC2676224] [PubMed: 19067285]
    2.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    3.
    Kinsella JP, Cutter GR, Walsh WF, et al. Early inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature newborns with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(4):354–64. [PubMed: 16870914]
    4.
    Schreiber MD, Gin-Mestan K, Marks JD, Huo D, Lee G, Srisuparp P. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 2003;349(22):2099–107. [PubMed: 14645637]
    5.
    Van Meurs KP, Wright LL, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for premature infants with severe respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(1):13–22. [PubMed: 16000352]
    6.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    7.
    Banks BA, Seri I, Ischiropoulos H, Merrill J, Rychik J, Ballard RA. Changes in oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):610–8. [PubMed: 10049965]
    8.
    Hintz SR, Van Meurs KP, Perritt R, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants with severe respiratory failure enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2007;151(1):16–22. 22.e1–3. [PMC free article: PMC2770191] [PubMed: 17586184]
    9.
    Kumar VH, Hutchison AA, Lakshminrusimha S, Morin FC 3rd, Wynn RJ, Ryan RM. Characteristics of pulmonary hypertension in preterm neonates. J Perinatol. 2007;27(4):214–9. [PubMed: 17330053]
    10.
    Yadav M, Emmerson AJ. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates. Lancet. 1999;354(9196):2162–3. [PubMed: 10609839]
    11.
    Van Meurs KP, Hintz SR, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure. J Perinatol. 2007;27(6):347–52. [PubMed: 17443204]
    12.
    Watson RS, Clermont G, Kinsella JP, et al. Clinical and economic effects of iNO in premature newborns with respiratory failure at 1 year. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1333–43. [PubMed: 19841128]
    13.
    Uga N, Ishii T, Kawase Y, Arai H, Tada H. Nitric oxide inhalation therapy in very low-birthweight infants with hypoplastic lung due to oligohydramnios. Pediatr. Int. 2004;46(1):10–4. [PubMed: 15043657]

    Reference List for Evidence Table 17

    1.
    Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. New Engl. J. Med. 2006;355(4):343–53. [PubMed: 16870913]
    2.
    Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Filippi L, Cecchi A, Rubaltelli FF. Inhaled nitric oxide in very preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(9):1116–23. [PubMed: 16938760]
    3.
    Field D, Elbourne D, Truesdale A, et al. Neonatal Ventilation With Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Ventilatory Support Without Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure: the INNOVO multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 17821339) Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):926–36. [PubMed: 15805366]
    4.
    Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Early compared with delayed inhaled nitric oxide in moderately hypoxaemic neonates with respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. The Franco-Belgium Collaborative NO Trial Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1066–71. [PubMed: 10509497]
    5.
    Kinsella JP, Walsh WF, Bose CL, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature neonates with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9184):1061–5. [PubMed: 10509496]
    6.
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