Table 10Spinal Manipulation for Treatment of low back pain- Control Interventions

Type of control groupCause of PainN studiesDetail of Control intervention
1 – Inactive treatments
Placebo/shamNon Specific9Sham adjustment + placebo medication,57sham adjustment and muscle relaxation ,57sham adjustment,119,293light physical contact at lumbar spine,291sham mobilization ,20similar palpation and positioning as manipulation group + nontherapeutic massage to site unrelated to pain,104no physical contact281simulated short wave ,284placebo gel,277
Specific0NA
No-treatment/ waiting list/ bed restNon Specific4No treatment,288,288,291bed rest,277
Specific0NA
2- Active treatments
Exercise/physical activityNon Specific1low-stress aerobic and lumbar spine strengthening,123
Specific0NA
Usual careNon Specific3Base on UK National Acute Back Pain Guidelines,123analgesic medication prescription, local analgesic-anesthetic injections(also bed rest and or physiotherapy including ultrasound and diathermy and ergonomic advice),283physician consultation, medication ,296
Specific0NA
CorsetNon Specific1Lumbo-sacral corset,101
Specific
EducationNon Specific4Back school program,280,290education booklet,278educational material, and presentation by therapist,119
Specific
PhysiotherapyNonspecific2McKenzie approach,278massage, electrotherapy, infrared,277
Specific0NA
Physical modalitiesNonspecific3TENS,101ultrasound,286Infrared lamp over the most painful area of the low back,230
Specific0NA
Other Manual therapyNonspecific7Myofascial therapy,290massage ,101,292,295post isometric relaxation,20spinal mobilization55,296
Specific0NA
MedicationNonspecific5Paracetamol/Acetaminophen,51Tenoxican and Ranitidine,140medication and bed rest,104Naprosyn,287Diclophenac,277
Specific0NA
Other methods of manipulationNonspecific3Not described,282full spine adjustment, or combination of full spin and cervical adjustment,294application of activator adjusting instrument,285
Specific0NA
Other active treatment (also in manipulation group)Nonspecific4Exercise,31,123,274,276
Specific1Lumbar traction and physical modalities,275
Spinal manipulation in combination with another treatment (vs. acupuncture alone)Nonspecific2Physical modalities (heat/ ice, ultrasound, electrotherapy, massage and/or trigger point therapy) in 3, 6, 9, or 12 treatment sessions,289myofascial therapy,290
Specific0NA

GP=general practitioner care; NA= not applicable; TENS=transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; UK=United Kingdom

From: 3, Results

Cover of Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Back Pain II
Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Back Pain II.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 194.
Furlan AD, Yazdi F, Tsertsvadze A, et al.

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