NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Shekelle PG, Takata G, Newberry SJ, et al. Management of Acute Otitis Media: Update. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2010 Nov. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 198.)

Cover of Management of Acute Otitis Media: Update

Management of Acute Otitis Media: Update.

Show details

Appendix DList of Excluded studies

ReferencesReason for Exclusion
Legros JM, Hitoto H, Garnier F, Dagorne C, Parot-Schinkel E, Fanello S. Clinical qualitative evaluation of the diagnosis of acute otitis media in general practice. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Jan 2008;72(1):23–30.Design: Single cohort study (Before-After, Time series)
Steinbach WJ, Sectish TC, Benjamin Jr DK, Chang KW, Messner AH. Pediatric residents’ clinical diagnostic accuracy of otitis media. Pediatrics. Jun 2002;109(6):993–998.Design: Cross-sectional study
Palmu A, Syrjanen R, Kilpi T, et al. Negative pressure tympanograms in children less than 2 years of age--different bacterial findings in otitis media by tympanometric results. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Oct 19 2001;61(1):61–69.Published before 2002
Johansen EC, Lildholdt T, Damsbo N, Eriksen EW. Tympanometry for diagnosis and treatment of otitis media in general practice. Fam Pract. Aug 2000;17(4):317–322.Published before 2002
Palmu A, Puhakka H, Rahko T, Takala AK. Diagnostic value of tympanometry in infants in clinical practice. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Aug 20 1999;49(3):207–213.Published before 2002
Jensen PM, Lous J. Criteria, performance and diagnostic problems in diagnosing acute otitis media. Fam Pract. Jun 1999;16(3):262–268.Published before 2002
Kontiokari T, Koivunen P, Niemela M, Pokka T, Uhari M. Symptoms of acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Aug 1998;17(8):676–679.Design: Cross-sectional study
Hemlin C, Hassler E, Hultcrantz M, Papatziamos G, Krakau I. Aspects of diagnosis of acute otitis media. Fam Pract. Apr 1998;15(2):133–137.Published before 2002
McCormick DP, Lim-Melia E, Saeed K, Baldwin CD, Chonmaitree T. Otitis media: can clinical findings predict bacterial or viral etiology? Pediatr Infect Dis J. Mar 2000;19(3):256–258.Published before 2002
Rodriguez WJ, Schwartz RH. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media with higher fever and more redness of tympanic membranes than Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Oct 1999;18(10):942–944.Published before 2002
Gonzalez-Vallejo C, Sorum PC, Stewart TR, Chessare JB, Mumpower JL. Physicians’ diagnostic judgments and treatment decisions for acute otitis media in children. Med Decis Making. Apr-Jun 1998;18(2):149–162.Published before 2002
Pichichero ME, Casey JR, Hoberman A, Schwartz R. Pathogens Causing Recurrent and Difficult-to-Treat Acute Otitis Media, 2003–2006. Clin Pediatr (Phila). Jun 16 2008.Reject no kq or not valid pre/post vaccine datar data
Benninger MS. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and otitis media: changes in pathogenicity following widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Mar 2008;138(3):274–278.Design
Pichichero ME, Casey JR. Emergence of a multiresistant serotype 19A pneumococcal strain not included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine as an otopathogen in children. JAMA. Oct 17 2007;298(15):1772–1778.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Pichichero ME, Casey JR. Evolving microbiology and molecular epidemiology of acute otitis media in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Oct 2007;26(10 Suppl):S12–16.Design
Oosterhuis-Kafeja F, Beutels P, Van Damme P. Immunogenicity, efficacy, safety and effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (1998–2006). Vaccine. Mar 8 2007;25(12):2194–2212.Design
Brunton S. Current face of acute otitis media: microbiology and prevalence resulting from widespread use of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Clin Ther. Jan 2006;28(1):118–123.Design
Arguedas A, Dagan R, Guevara S, et al. Middle ear fluid Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rican children with otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jul 2005;24(7):631–634.Design
Zissis NP, Syriopoulou V, Kafetzis D, et al. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive infections and acute otitis media in children. Eur J Pediatr. Jul 2004;163(7):364–368.Design
Straetemans M, Sanders EA, Veenhoven RH, Schilder AG, Damoiseaux RA, Zielhuis GA. Pneumococcal vaccines for preventing otitis media. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD001480.Design
Kamiya H, Kato T. [Epidemiological survey of pneumococcus serotypes in pediatric patients with acute suppurative otitis media]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2007;81(1):59–66.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Straetemans M, Sanders EA, Veenhoven RH, Schilder AG, Damoiseaux RA, Zielhuis GA. Review of randomized controlled trials on pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jun 2003;22(6):515–524.Design
McEllistrem MC, Adams J, Mason EO, Wald ER. Epidemiology of acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae before and after licensure of the 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis. Dec 1 2003;188(11):1679–1684.Reject at Duplicate data
Hausdorff WP, Yothers G, Dagan R, et al. Multinational study of pneumococcal serotypes causing acute otitis media in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Nov 2002;21(11):1008–1016.Design
Kilpi T, Herva E, Kaijalainen T, Syrjanen R, Takala AK. Bacteriology of acute otitis media in a cohort of Finnish children followed for the first two years of life. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jul 2001;20(7):654–662.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Joloba ML, Windau A, Bajaksouzian S, Appelbaum PC, Hausdorff WP, Jacobs MR. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and the antimicrobial susceptibility of such isolates in children with otitis media. Clin Infect Dis. Nov 1 2001;33(9):1489–1494.Design
Dagan R, Givon-Lavi N, Shkolnik L, Yagupsky P, Fraser D. Acute otitis media caused by antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in southern Israel: implication for immunizing with conjugate vaccines. J Infect Dis. Apr 2000;181(4):1322–1329.Design
Satran R, Leibovitz E, Raiz S, et al. Clinical/otologic score before and during treatment of acute otitis media. Acta Paediatr. Dec 2007;96(12):1814–1818.Design
Bulut Y, Guven M, Otlu B, et al. Acute otitis media and respiratory viruses. Eur J Pediatr. Mar 2007;166(3):223–228.Design
Williams JV, Tollefson SJ, Nair S, Chonmaitree T. Association of human metapneumovirus with acute otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Jul 2006;70(7):1189–1193.Design
Sakran W, Makary H, Colodner R, et al. Acute otitis media in infants less than three months of age: clinical presentation, etiology and concomitant diseases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Apr 2006;70(4):613–617.Design
Yano H, Suetake M, Endo H, et al. Isolation of measles virus from middle ear fluid of infants with acute otitis media. J Infect. Nov 2005;51(4):e237–240.Design
Sagai S, Suetake M, Yano H, et al. Relationship between respiratory syncytial virus infection and acute otitis media in children. Auris Nasus Larynx. Dec 2004;31(4):341–345.Design
Huebner RE, Wasas AD, Hockman M, Klugman KP. Bacterial aetiology of non-resolving otitis media in South African children. J Laryngol Otol. Mar 2003;117(3):169–172.Design
Dagan R, Leibovitz E, Cheletz G, Leiberman A, Porat N. Antibiotic treatment in acute Otitis Media promotes superinfection with resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae carried before initiation of treatment. J Infect Dis. Mar 15 2001;183(6):880–886.Design
Yano H, Okitsu N, Hori T, et al. Detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions and middle ear fluid from children with acute otitis media. Acta Otolaryngol. Jun 13 2008:1–6.Design
Yano H, Okitsu N, Watanabe O, et al. Acute otitis media associated with cytomegalovirus infection in infants and children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Sep 2007;71(9):1443–1447.Design
Ruohola A, Meurman O, Nikkari S, et al. Microbiology of acute otitis media in children with tympanostomy tubes: prevalences of bacteria and viruses. Clin Infect Dis. Dec 1 2006;43(11):1417–1422.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Harimaya A, Takada R, Somekawa Y, Fujii N, Himi T. High frequency of Alloiococcus otitidis in the nasopharynx and in the middle ear cavity of otitis-prone children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Jun 2006;70(6):1009–1014.Design
Zielnik-Jurkiewicz B, Kolczynska M. [Bacterial flora in children with recurrent acute otitis media]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. Feb 2005;18(104):146–150.Design
Segal N, Givon-Lavi N, Leibovitz E, Yagupsky P, Leiberman A, Dagan R. Acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in children. Clin Infect Dis. Jul 1 2005;41(1):35–41.Design
Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Greenberg DP, Wald ER, Kearney DH, Colborn DK. Penicillin susceptibility of pneumococcal isolates causing acute otitis media in children: seasonal variation. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Feb 2005;24(2):115–120.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Hoberman A, Dagan RL, E., Rosenblut A, et al. Large dosage amoxicillin/clavulanate, compared with azithromycin, for the treatment of bacterial acute otitis media in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jun 2005;24(6):525–532.Design
Shinogami M, Ishibashi T. Presence of human herpesviruses in young children with acute otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Feb 2004;68(2):205–210.Design
Sakakura K, Chikamatsu K, Furukawa M, et al. Acute otitis media caused by drug- resistant bacteria: correlation with antibiotic treatment. Acta Otolaryngol. Nov 2004;124(9):1008–1014.Design
Leskinen K, Hendolin P, Virolainen-Julkunen A, Ylikoski J, Jero J. Alloiococcus otitidis in acute otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Jan 2004;68(1):51–56.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Gene A, Garcia-Garcia JJ, Domingo A, Wienberg P, Palacin E. [Etiology of acute otitis media in a children’s hospital and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacteria involved]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. Aug-Sep 2004;22(7):377–380.Design
Monobe H, Ishibashi T, Nomura Y, Shinogami M, Yano J. Role of respiratory viruses in children with acute otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Jul 2003;67(7):801–806.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Leibovitz E, Greenberg D, Piglansky L, et al. Recurrent acute otitis media occurring within one month from completion of antibiotic therapy: relationship to the original pathogen. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Mar 2003;22(3):209–216.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Arguedas A, Dagan R, Soley C, et al. Microbiology of otitis media in Costa Rican children, 1999 through 2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Dec 2003;22(12):1063–1068.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Ako-Nai AK, Oluga FA, Onipede AO, Adejuyigbe EA, Amusa YB. The characterization of bacterial isolates from acute otitis media in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria. J Trop Pediatr. Feb 2002;48(1):15–23.Design
Wald ER, Mason Jr. EO, Bradley JS, Barson WJ, Kaplan SL. Acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children’s hospitals between 1994 and 1997. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jan 2001;20(1):34–39.Design
Sih TM. Acute otitis media in Brazilian children: analysis of microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. Jul 2001;110(7 Pt 1):662–666.Design
Rosenblut A, Santolaya ME, Gonzalez P, et al. Bacterial and viral etiology of acute otitis media in Chilean children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. May 2001;20(5):501–507.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Li WC, Chiu NC, Hsu CH, Lee KS, Hwang HK, Huang FY. Pathogens in the middle ear effusion of children with persistent otitis media: implications of drug resistance and complications. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. Sep 2001;34(3):190–194.Design
Husson MO, Pierreti A, Quelquejay J, Vaneecloo FM, Courcol RJ, Vincent C. [Bacterial epidemiological study of acute otitis media in children observed at home in the Nord Pas- de-Calais region]. Pathol Biol (Paris). Dec 2001;49(10):789–793.Design
Gehanno P, Panajotopoulos A, Barry B, et al. Microbiology of otitis media in the Paris, France, area from 1987 to 1997. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jun 2001;20(6):570–573.Design
Block SL, Hedrick JA, Tyler RD, Smith RA, Harrison CJ. Microbiology of acute otitis media recently treated with aminopenicillins. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Nov 2001;20(11):1017–1021.Design
Commisso R, Romero-Orellano F, Montanaro PB, Romero-Moroni F, Romero-Diaz R. Acute otitis media: bacteriology and bacterial resistance in 205 pediatric patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Nov 30 2000;56(1):23–31.Design
Brook I, Gober AE. Reliability of the microbiology of spontaneously draining acute otitis media in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jun 2000;19(6):571–573.Design
Heikkinen T, Thint M, Chonmaitree T. Prevalence of various respiratory viruses in the middle ear during acute otitis media. N Engl J Med. Jan 28 1999;340(4):260–264.Design
Haddad Jr. J, Saiman L, Chin NX, Della-Latta P. Penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcus in acute otitis media in New York City. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Jul 1999;121(1):27–30.Design
Jacobs MR, Dagan R, Appelbaum PC, Burch DJ. Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in middle ear fluid: multinational study of 917 children with acute otitis media. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Mar 1998;42(3):589–595.Design
Gehanno P, N’Guyen L, Derriennic M, Pichon F, Goehrs JM, Berche P. Pathogens isolated during treatment failures in otitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Oct 1998;17(10):885–890.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Brook I, Gober AE. Microbiologic characteristics of persistent otitis media. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Dec 1998;124(12):1350–1352.Design
Arguedas A, Loaiza C, Perez A, et al. Microbiology of acute otitis media in Costa Rican children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Aug 1998;17(8):680–689.Design
Zielnik-Jurkiewicz B, Bielicka A. [Evaluation of antibiotic resistance in material isolated from the middle ear in children with acute otitis media not responding to standard antibiotic treatment]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2007;61(5):892–897.Design
Zielnik-Jurkiewicz B, Kolczynska M. [Nasopharyngeal and middle ear flora in children with acute otitis media]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2005;59(4):537–542.Design
Prymula R, Motlova J, Kriz P. Comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing acute otitis media & invasive disease in young children in the Czech Republic. Indian J Med Res. May 2004;119 Suppl:168–170.Design
Porat N, Barkai G, Jacobs MR, Trefler R, Dagan R. Four antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clones unrelated to the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes, including 2 new serotypes, causing acute otitis media in southern Israel. J Infect Dis. Feb 1 2004;189(3):385–392.Design
Nokso-Koivisto J, Raty R, Blomqvist S, et al. Presence of specific viruses in the middle ear fluids and respiratory secretions of young children with acute otitis media. J Med Virol. Feb 2004;72(2):241–248.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
del Castillo F, Baquero-Artigao F, Garcia-Perea A. Influence of recent antibiotic therapy on antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with acute otitis media in Spain. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Feb 1998;17(2):94–97.Not valid pre/post vaccine study
Shibata M. [Infant case of acute otitis media due to PISP not eradicated with double-dose of CDTR]. Jpn J Antibiot. May 2001;54 Suppl B:99.Design
Hotomi M, Billal DS, Kamide Y, et al. Serotype distribution and penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from middle ear fluids of pediatric patients with acute otitis media in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. Nov 2008;46(11):3808–3810.Design
Mahjoub-Messai F, Doit C, Mariani-Kurkdjian P, Francois M, Bingen E. [Epidemiology of acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: emergence of serotype 19A]. Arch Pediatr. Nov 2008;15(11):1713–1716.Reject no kq or not valid pre/post vaccine datar data
Lopez-Enriquez C, Blanco-Montero A, Espinosa-Monteros LE, Rodriguez R, De la Torre C, Gomez-Barreto D. Middle-ear fluid Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptibility and serotype and distribution in mexican children with acute otitis media. Pediatrics. Jan 2008;121:S129-S129.Design
Papavasileiou K, Papavasileiou H, Makri A, Varzakakos I, Nika E, Voyatzi A. Laboratory investigation of acute otitis media in children. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Mar 2007;29:S431-S431.Design
Casey JR, Adlowitz DG, Pichichero ME. New patterns in the otopathogens causing acute otitis media six to eight years after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Apr 2010;29(4):304–309.Reject at long for for no KQ
Erramouspe J, Heyneman CA. treatment and prevention of otitis media. Ann Pharmacother. Dec 2000;34(12):1452–1468.Not RCT
Foxlee R, Johansson A, Wejfalk J, Dawkins J, Dooley L, Del Mar C. Topical analgesia for acute otitis media. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3:CD005657.Not RCT
Degenhardt BF, Kuchera ML. Osteopathic evaluation and manipulative treatment in reducing the morbidity of otitis media: a pilot study. J Am Osteopath Assoc. Jun 2006;106(6):327–334.Not RCT
Valtonen H, Tuomilehto H, Qvarnberg Y, Nuutinen J. A 14-year prospective follow-up study of children treated early in life with tympanostomy tubes: Part 2: Hearing outcomes. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Apr 2005;131(4):299–303.Not RCT
Nomura Y, Ishibashi T, Yano J, et al. Effect of myringotomy on prognosis in pediatric acute otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Jan 2005;69(1):61–64.Not RCT
Marchetti F, Ronfani L, Nibali SC, Tamburlini G. Delayed prescription may reduce the use of antibiotics for acute otitis media: a prospective observational study in primary care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Jul 2005;159(7):679–684.Not RCT
Esposito S, Novelli A, Noviello S. [Treatment of acute otitis media in paediatrics: a meta- analysis]. Infez Med. Jun 2005;13(2):63–71.Not RCT
Al-Shawwa BA, Wegner D. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus topical antibiotics as therapy for acute otitis media with otorrhea caused by community-acquired methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Sep 2005;131(9):782–784.Not RCT
Aggarwal M, Sinha R, Murali MV, Trihan P, Singhal PK. Comparative efficacy and safety evaluation of cefaclor vs amoxycillin + clavulanate in children with Acute Otitis Media (AOM). Indian J Pediatr. Mar 2005;72(3):233–238.Not RCT
Wustrow TP. Alternative versus conventional treatment strategy in uncomplicated acute otitis media in children: a prospective, open, controlled parallel-group comparison. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. Feb 2004;42(2):110–119.Not RCT
Gupta N, Bagga V, Parmar BJ, et al. Efficacy and tolerability assessment of cefprozil in children with acute otitis media. Indian J Pediatr. Apr 2004;71(4):319–324.Not RCT
Siegel RM, Kiely M, Bien JP, et al. Treatment of otitis media with observation and a safety-net antibiotic prescription. Pediatrics. Sep 2003;112(3 Pt 1):527–531.Not RCT
Piglansky L, Leibovitz E, Raiz S, et al. Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of high dose amoxicillin for therapy of acute otitis media in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. May 2003;22(5):405–413.Not RCT
Gryczynska D, Grzegorowski M, Hassman-Poznanska E, Niedzielska G. [Multicenter, open clinical investigation on using cefprozil in therapy of otitis media in children]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2003;57(1):99–101.Not RCT
Arguedas A, Sher L, Lopez E, et al. Open label, multicenter study of gatifloxacin treatment of recurrent otitis media and acute otitis media treatment failure. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Nov 2003;22(11):949–956.Not RCT
Richards M, Giannoni C. Quality-of-life outcomes after surgical intervention for otitis media. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Jul 2002;128(7):776–782.Not RCT
Mgbor NC, Umeh RE. A blind parallel comparative study of the efficacy and safety of rovamycin versus augmentin in the treatment of acute otitis media. West Afr J Med. Apr- Jun 2002;21(2):117–120.Not RCT
Leiberman A, Leibovitz E, Piglansky L, et al. Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for treatment of acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Mar 2001;20(3):260–264.Not RCT
Frei H, Thurneysen A. Homeopathy in acute otitis media in children: treatment effect or spontaneous resolution? Br Homeopath J. Oct 2001;90(4):180–182.Not RCT
Dagan R, Hoberman A, Johnson C, et al. Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of high dose amoxicillin/clavulanate in children with acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Sep 2001;20(9):829–837.Not RCT
Block SL, Hedrick JA, Kratzer J, Nemeth MA, Tack KJ. Five-day twice daily cefdinir therapy for acute otitis media: microbiologic and clinical efficacy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Dec 2000;19(12 Suppl):S153–158.Not RCT
Sox CM, Finkelstein JA, Yin R, Kleinman K, Lieu TA. Trends in otitis media treatment failure and relapse. Pediatrics. Apr 2008;121(4):674–679.Not RCT
Heslop A, Ovesen T. Severe acute middle ear infections: microbiology and treatment. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Oct 2006;70(10):1811–1816.Not RCT
Arguedas A, Dagan R, Pichichero M, et al. An open-label, double tympanocentesis study of levofloxacin therapy in children with, or at high risk for, recurrent or persistent acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Dec 2006;25(12):1102–1109.Not RCT
Starostecka B. [Assessment of therapeutic effectiveness of Cefprozil in a short 5-day course of empirical antibiotic therapy in ambulatory patients with bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract and otitis media]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2005;59(1):147–148.Not RCT
Takenaka M, Morikawa Y, Nakagawa T, Takashima T, Haruta T, Tsuji T. [Causative organisms of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in children and their susceptibility of oral beta-lactam antibiotics]. Jpn J Antibiot. Feb 1999;52(2):162–171.Not RCT
Roger G, Carles P, Pangon B, et al. Management of acute otitis media caused by resistant pneumococci in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Jul 1998;17(7):631–638.Not RCT
Quach C, Collet JP, LeLorier J. Effectiveness of amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefprozil and clarithromycin in the treatment of acute otitis media in children: a population-based study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. Mar 2005;14(3):163–170.Not RCT
Maruyama Y, Hoshida S, Furukawa M, Ito M. Effects of Japanese herbal medicine, Juzen-taiho-to, in otitis-prone children - a preliminary study. Acta Otolaryngol. Jun 12 2008:1–5.Not RCT
Coleman C, Moore M. Decongestants and antihistamines for acute otitis media in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(3):CD001727.Not RCT
Sugita R, Yamanaka N, Kudo F, et al. [Efficacy and safety of potassium clavulanate/amoxicillin (CLAVAMOX) dry syrup in children with otitis media]. Jpn J Antibiot. Aug 2007;60(4):221–241.Not RCT
Soley C, Arguedas A, Guevara S, et al. An open-label, double tympanocentesis, single- center study of trimethoprim sulfametoxasole in children with acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Mar 2007;26(3):273–274.Not RCT
Chow Y, Wabnitz DA, Ling J. Quality of life outcomes after ventilating tube insertion for otitis media in an Australian population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Oct 2007;71(10):1543–1547.Not RCT
Prim Espada MP, Perez Mora R, de Diego Sastre JI. [Comparative analysis of the therapeutic costs to control the recurrent acute otitis media]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am. 2006;33(5):505–512.Not RCT
Wustrow TP. [Naturopathic therapy for acute otitis media. An alternative to the primary use of antibiotics]. Hno. Aug 2005;53(8):728–734.Not RCT
Valtonen H, Tuomilehto H, Qvarnberg Y, Nuutinen J. A 14-year prospective follow-up study of children treated early in life with tympanostomy tubes: Part 1: Clinical outcomes. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Apr 2005;131(4):293–298.Not RCT
Pichichero ME, Arguedas A, Dagan R, et al. Safety and efficacy of gatifloxacin therapy for children with recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) and/or AOM treatment failure. Clin Infect Dis. Aug 15 2005;41(4):470–478.Not RCT
Mui S, Rasgon BM, Hilsinger Jr. RL, Lewis B, Lactao G. Tympanostomy tubes for otitis media: quality-of-life improvement for children and parents. Ear Nose Throat J. Jul 2005;84(7):418, 420–412, 424.Not RCT
Garashchenko TI, Denisova OA, Kotov RV. [Initial antibiotic therapy in acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in children]. Vestn Otorinolaringol. 2005(3):62–63.Not RCT
Cotter CS, Kosko JR. Effectiveness of laser-assisted myringotomy for otitis media in children. Laryngoscope. Mar 2004;114(3):486–489.Not RCT
Dunne MW, Khurana C, Mohs AA, et al. Efficacy of single-dose azithromycin in treatment of acute otitis media in children after a baseline tympanocentesis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Aug 2003;47(8):2663–2665.Not RCT
Dasgupta KS, Deshpande AS, Vedi JN, Patel S. Evaluation of efficacy of nizer versus nimesulide tablets in otitis media. J Indian Med Assoc. Oct 2002;100(10):619.Not RCT
Pichichero ME, Marsocci SM, Murphy ML, Hoeger W, Francis AB, Green JL. A prospective observational study of 5-, 7-, and 10-day antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Apr 2001;124(4):381–387.Not RCT
Uno Y. [Retrospective studies of penicillin-resistant pneumococcal acute otitis media in infants and children--the treatment of tympanostomy tube insertion]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. Sep 2000;74(9):703–708.Not RCT
Reilly JS, Deutsch ES, Cook S. Laser-assisted myringotomy for otitis media: a feasibility study with short-term followup. Ear Nose Throat J. Aug 2000;79(8):650–652, 654–657.Not RCT
Glasziou PP, Hayem M, Del Mar CB. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000(2):CD000219.Not RCT
Valtonen H, Qvarnberg Y, Nuutinen J. Tympanostomy in young children with recurrent otitis media. A long-term follow-up study. J Laryngol Otol. Mar 1999;113(3):207–211.Not RCT
Thompson D, Oster G, McGarry LJ, Klein JO. Management of otitis media among children in a large health insurance plan. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Mar 1999;18(3):239–244.Not RCT
Sugita R, Harada S, Deguchi K, et al. [A clinicobacteriologic study on clavulanic acid/amoxicillin in pediatric acute otitis media]. Jpn J Antibiot. Oct 1999;52(10):595–612.Not RCT
Hueston WJ, Ornstein S, Jenkins RG, Pan Q, Wulfman JS. Treatment of recurrent otitis media after a previous treatment failure. Which antibiotics work best? J Fam Pract. Jan 1999;48(1):43–46.Not RCT
Gehanno P, Nguyen L, Barry B, et al. Eradication by ceftriaxone of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with increased resistance to penicillin in cases of acute otitis media. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Jan 1999;43(1):16–20.Not RCT
Leibovitz E, Piglansky L, Raiz S, et al. Bacteriologic efficacy of a three-day intramuscular ceftriaxone regimen in nonresponsive acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Dec 1998;17(12):1126–1131.Not RCT
Franklin JH, Marck PA. Outcome analysis of children receiving tympanostomy tubes. J Otolaryngol. Oct 1998;27(5):293–297.Not RCT
Kim CW, Jin JW, Rho YS. Tuberculous otitis media developing as a complication of tympanostomy tube insertion. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. Mar 2007;264(3):227–230.Not RCT
Steppberger K, Adams I, Deutscher J, Muller H, Kiess W. Meningitis in a girl with recurrent otitis media caused by Streptococcus pyogenes--otitis media has to be treated appropriately. Infection. Oct 2001;29(5):286–288.Not RCT
Garcia-Lopez M, Martinez-Blanco M, Martinez-Mir I, Palop V. Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid-related tooth discoloration in children. Pediatrics. Sep 2001;108(3):819.Not RCT
Spandow O, Gothefors L, Fagerlund M, Kristensen B, Holm S. Lateral sinus thrombosis after untreated otitis media. A clinical problem--again? Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;257(1):1–5.Not RCT
Little JP, Tunkel DE, Marsh BR. Foreign body aspiration: an unusual complication of antibiotic therapy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Mar 2000;154(3):313–314.Not RCT
Vega C, Quinby PM, Aspy CB. Hepato-biliary abnormalities secondary to ceftriaxone use: a case report. J Okla State Med Assoc. Aug 1999;92(8):432–434.Not RCT
Grouhi M, Hummel D, Roifman CM. Anaphylactic reaction to oral cefaclor in a child. Pediatrics. Apr 1999;103(4):e50.Not RCT
Benjamin S, Mueller BA. Erythema multiforme secondary to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid exposure. Ann Pharmacother. Jan 1999;33(1):109–110.Not RCT
Beghetti M, Wilson GJ, Bohn D, Benson L. Hypersensitivity myocarditis caused by an allergic reaction to cefaclor. J Pediatr. Jan 1998;132(1):172–173.Not RCT
Kawalec P, Cel M, Glogowski C. Cost-effectiveness of augmentin esovs azithromycin forthetreatment of paediatric acute otitis media (AOM) in Poland. Value in Health. Nov- Dec 2007;10(6):A440-A440.Not RCT
Leach AJ, Morris PS. Antibiotics for the prevention of acute and chronic suppurative otitis media in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006(4):CD004401.Not RCT
McDonald S, Langton Hewer CD, Nunez DA. Grommets (ventilation tubes) for recurrent acute otitis media in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(4):CD004741.Not RCT
Williams RL, Chalmers TC, Stange KC, Chalmers FT, Bowlin SJ. Use of antibiotics in preventing recurrent acute otitis media and in treating otitis media with effusion. A meta- analytic attempt to resolve the brouhaha. JAMA. Sep 15 1993;270(11):1344–1351.Not RCT
Thanaviratananich S, Laopaiboon M, Vatanasapt P. Once or twice daily versus three times daily amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(4):CD004975.Not RCT
Wall GM, Stroman DW, Roland PS, Dohar J. Ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% sterile otic suspension for the topical treatment of ear infections: a review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Feb 2009;28(2):141–144.Not RCT
Bonati M, Marchetti F, Pistotti V, et al. Metaanalysis of antimicrobial prophylaxis for recurrent acute otitis-media. Clinical Trials and Meta-Analysis. 1992;28(1):39–50.Not RCT
Rovers MM, Glasziou P, Appelman CL, et al. Antibiotics for acute otitis media: a meta- analysis with individual patient data. Lancet. Oct 21 2006;368(9545):1429–1435.Not RCT
Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R. Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(3):CD004417.Not RCT
Kozyrskyj AL, Hildes-Ripstein GE, Longstaffe SE, et al. Short course antibiotics for acute otitis media. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000(2):CD001095.Not RCT
Takata GS, Chan LS, Shekelle PG, Morton SC, Mason W, Marcy SM. Evidence assessment of management of acute otitis media: I. The role of antibiotics in treatment of uncomplicated acute otitis media. Pediatrics. Aug 2001;108(2):239–247.}Not RCT
Bezakova N, Damoiseaux RA, Hoes AW, Schilder AG, Rovers MM. Recurrence up to 3.5 years after antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in very young Dutch children: survey of trial participants. BMJ. 2009;338:b2525.Rejected, does not answer KQ
Abba K, Garner P. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media [Protocol]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3).Not RCT
Azarpazhooh A, Lawrence HP. Xylitol for preventing acute otitis media in children up to 12 years of age [Protocol]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3).Not RCT
Kay ES, Ng K. “Influenza vaccine for preventing acute otitis media in infants and children [Protocol].” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3).Not RCT
Koopman L, Hoes AW, Glasziou PP, et al. Antibiotic therapy to prevent the development of asymptomatic middle ear effusion in children with acute otitis media: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Feb 2008;134(2):128–132.Not RCT
Rahlfs VW. Brodimoprim in upper respiratory tract infections: two meta-analyses of randomised, controlled clinical trials in acute sinusitis and otitis media (Structured abstract). Clin Drug Invest. 1996;11(2):65-.Not RCT
Sanders S, Glasziou P. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children [Systematic Review].” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3).Not RCT
Vouloumanou EK, Karageorgopoulos DE, Kazantzi MS, Kapaskelis AM, Falagas ME. Antibiotics versus placebo or watchful waiting for acute otitis media: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Antimicrob Chemother. Jul 2009;64(1):16–24.Not RCT
Gunasekera H, Morris PS, Daniels J, Couzos S, Craig JC. Management of children with otitis media: a survey of Australian Aboriginal Medical Service practitioners. J Paediatr Child Health. Jul-Aug 2009;45(7–8):457–463.Not RCT
Abba K, Gulani A, Sachdev HS. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;2:CD006639.Not RCT
Courter JD, Baker WL, Nowak KS, et al. Increased clinical failures when treating acute otitis media with macrolides: a meta-analysis. Ann Pharmacother. Mar 2010;44(3):471–478.Not RCT
Gulani A, Sachdev HP, Qazi SA. Efficacy of short course (<4 days) of antibiotics for treatment of acute otitis media in children: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Indian Pediatr. Jan 7 2010;47(1):74–87.Not RCT
PubReader format: click here to try

Views

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...