TABLE 4-1Alphabetical Listing of Potential Indicators of Health Outcomes for Nutrient Adequacy

IndicatorAHRQ
(Ottawa and Tufts)
Cancer/neoplasms
 • All cancers[check]
 • Breast cancer[check]
 • Colorectal cancer/colon polyps[check]
 • Prostate cancer[check]
Cardiovascular diseases and hypertension[check]
Diabetes (type 2) and metabolic syndrome (obesity)[check]
Falls[check]
Immune response[check]
 Asthmaa
 • Autoimmune disease[check]
  * Diabetes (type 1)[check]
  * Inflammatory bowel and Crohn's disease[check]
  * Multiple sclerosis[check]
  * Rheumatoid arthritis[check]
  * Systemic lupus erythematosusa
 • Infectious diseases[check]
  * Tuberculosisa
  * Influenza/upper respiratory infectionsa
Neuropsychological functioningb
 Autismb
 • Cognitive functionb
 Depressionb
Physical performancec[check]
Preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and other non-skeletal reproductive outcomes[check]
Skeletal health (commonly bone health)
 • Serum 25OHD, as intermediate[check]
 Parathyroid hormone, as intermediate[check]
 Calcium absorption[check]
 Calcium balance[check]
 Bone mineral content/bone mineral density[check]
 • Fracture risk[check]
 Rickets/osteomalacia[check]
a

Specific condition not reviewed as a health outcome in AHRQ.

b

Outcome category not considered in AHRQ.

c

In the discussions within this chapter, physical performance is considered together with falls to avoid redundancy.

Specific condition not reviewed as a health outcome in AHRQ.

Outcome category not considered in AHRQ.

In the discussions within this chapter, physical performance is considered together with falls to avoid redundancy.

From: 4, Review of Potential Indicators of Adequacy and Selection of Indicators: Calcium and Vitamin D

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al., editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.
Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.

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