Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage
Group
Vitamin A
(μg/d)a
Vitamin C
(mg/d)
Vitamin D
(μg/d)
Vitamin E
(mg/d)b,c
Vitamin KThiaminRiboflavinNiacin
(mg/d)c
Vitamin B6
(mg/d)
Folate
(μg/d)c
Vitamin B12Pantothenic AcidBiotinCholine
(g/d)
Carotenoidsd
Infants
 0–6 mo600NDe25NDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND
 6–12 mo600ND38NDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND
Children
 1–3 y60040063200NDNDND1030300NDNDND1.0ND
 4–8 y90065075300NDNDND1540400NDNDND1.0ND
Males
 9–13 y1,7001,200100600NDNDND2060600NDNDND2.0ND
 14–18 y2,8001,800100800NDNDND3080800NDNDND3.0ND
 19–30 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
 31–50 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
 51–70 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
 > 70 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
Females
 9–13 y1,7001,200100600NDNDND2060600NDNDND2.0ND
 14–18 y2,8001,800100800NDNDND3080800NDNDND3.0ND
 19–30 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
 31–50 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
 51–70 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
 > 70 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
Pregnancy
 14–18 y2,8001,800100800NDNDND3080800NDNDND3.0ND
 19–30 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
 31–50 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
Lactation
 14–18 y2,8001,800100800NDNDND3080800NDNDND3.0ND
 19–30 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
 31–50 y3,0002,0001001,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND

NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

a

As preformed vitamin A only.

b

As α-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol.

c

The ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.

d

β-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency.

e

ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamine E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www​.nap.edu.

As preformed vitamin A only.

As α-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol.

The ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.

β-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency.

ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.

From: Summary Tables

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al., editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.
Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.

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