TABLE 6-1Case Reports of Calcium-Alkali Syndrome

ReferencePatient Gender/Age (years)Calcium Carbonate Intake (mg/day)DurationSerum Calcium Level (mmol/L) mg/dLCreatinine Level (μmol/L) mg/dL
Javed et al., 2007Male/70> 1,0001 year(3.43) 13.7(344.8) 3.9
Nabhan et al., 2004Female/611,500 + 600 IU vitamin DSeveral years(6.43) 25.7(106.1) 1.2
Caruso et al., 2007Male/60> 2,000 + 800 IU vitamin DNR(3.08) 12.3(530.4) 6.0
Gordon et al., 2005Female/353,0001 month(2.64) 10.6(190.0) 2.1
Shah et al., 2007Female/473,000 + 200 IU vitamin DNR(4.13) 16.5(362.4) 4.1
Kaklamanos and Perros, 2007Female/765,5002 years(3.45) 13.8(124.0) 1.4
Grubb et al., 2009Female/517,200NR(5.70) 22.8(185.6) 2.1
Ulett et al., 2010Male/46> 7,500NR(3.98) 15.9(406.6) 4.6
Irtiza-Ali et al., 2008Case 1: Female/48
Case 2: Male/74
Case 3: Male/51
Case 1: ~ 8,000
Case 2: ~ 18,000
Case 3: ~ 44,000
Case 1: 19 years
Case 2: several weeks
Case 3: NR
Case 1: (3.25) 13.0
Case 2: (3.31) 13.2
Case 3: (2.97) 11.9
Case 1: (737) 8.3
Case 2: (245) 2.8
Case 3: (1,013) 11.5
Jousten and Guffens, 2008Male/66~ 10,000Several months(4.15) 16.6(459.7) 5.2
Bailey et al., 2008Female/40~ 11,000NR(4.71) 18.8(164.0) 1.9
Waked et al., 2009Male/81~ 12,500NR(3.65) 13.8(733.7) 8.3

NOTE: To convert mmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by 0.25; IU = International Units; NR = not reported.

From: 6, Tolerable Upper Intake Levels: Calcium and Vitamin D

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium; Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, et al., editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.
Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.

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