Figure one depicts a line drawing noting the three stages of carcinogenesis. Stage one is the initiation of the carcinogen into the cell. The final result is an initiated cell. Stage two is promotion of the cell to a benign tumor cell. Stage three is progression into a cancer cell.

Figure 1Three stages of carcinogenesis

From: 1, Introduction

Cover of Alcohol Consumption and Cancer Risk
Alcohol Consumption and Cancer Risk: Understanding Possible Causal Mechanisms for Breast and Colorectal Cancers.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 197.
Oyesanmi O, Snyder D, Sullivan N, et al.

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