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Bennett WL, Wilson LM, Bolen S, et al. Oral Diabetes Medications for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: An Update [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2011 Mar. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 27.)

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Oral Diabetes Medications for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: An Update [Internet].

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Appendix FExcluded Articles

  1. Aaboe K, Knop FK, Vilsboll T, et al. Twelve weeks treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin improves glycaemic control, but does not improve GLP-1 secretion, in patients with type 2 diabetes - A randomised trial. Diabetologia: Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S294. Other reason.
  2. Abbasi AA, Kasmikha R, Sotingeanu DG. Metformin-induced lacticacidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2000;6(6):442–6. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 11155215]
  3. Abbatecola AM, Paolisso G. Rosiglitazone and cognitive stability in older persons with type 2 diabetes and mild cognitive impairment. Diabetologia: Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S67. Does not meet the study design criteria.
  4. Abbatecola AM, Rizzo MR, Barbieri M, et al. Postprandial plasma glucose excursions and cognitive functioning in aged type 2 diabetics. Neurology. 2006;67(2):235–40. Does not apply. [PubMed: 16864814]
  5. Abe M, Okada K, Kikuchi F, Matsumoto K. Clinical investigation of the effects of pioglitazone on the improvement of insulin resistance and blood pressure in type 2-diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol. 2008;70(3):220–8. Does not apply. [PubMed: 18793563]
  6. Abraira C, Duckworth WC, Moritz T. Glycaemic separation and risk factor control in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial: an interim report. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009;11(2):150–6. No original data. [PubMed: 18671796]
  7. Agarwal R. Anti-inflammatory effects of short-term pioglitazone therapy in men with advanced diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290(3):F600–5. Does not apply. [PubMed: 16159895]
  8. Agrawal A, Sautter MC, Jones NP. Effects of rosiglitazone maleate when added to a sulfonylurea regimen in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mild to moderate renal impairment: a post hoc analysis. Clin Ther. 2003;25(11):2754–64. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 14693302]
  9. Aguilar C, Reza A, Garcia JE, Rull JA. Biguanide related lactic acidosis: incidence and risk factors. Arch Med Res. 1992;23(1):19–24. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 1308787]
  10. Ahren B, Lundquist I, Schersten B. Effects of glipizide on various consecutive insulin secretory stimulations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res. 1986;3(6):293–300. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes. [PubMed: 3530592]
  11. Ahren B, Simonsson E, Larsson H, et al. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV improves metabolic control over a 4-week study period in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(5):869–75. Study duration less than 3 months. [PubMed: 11978683]
  12. Akanuma Y, Kosaka K, Kanazawa Y, Kasuga M, Fukuda M, Aoki S. Long-term comparison of oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic retinopathy. Gliclazide vs. other sulfonylureas. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1988;5(2):81–90. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 3416710]
  13. Alba M, Ahren B, Inzucchi SE, et al. Initial combination therapy with sitagliptin and pioglitazone: Complementary effects on postprandial glucose and islet cell function. Can J Diabetes. 2009;33(3):319–20. Does not meet the study design criteria.
  14. Albertini JP, McMorn SO, Chen H, Mather RA, Valensi P. Effect of rosiglitazone on factors related to endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis. 2007;195(1):e159–66. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 17280678]
  15. Alfonso A, Koops MK, Mong DP, Vigersky RA. Glycemic control with regular versus lispro insulin sliding scales in hospitalized Type 2 diabetics. J Diabetes Complications. 2006;20(3):153–7. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 16632234]
  16. Aljabri K, Kozak SE, Thompson DM. Addition of pioglitazone or bedtime insulin to maximal doses of sulfonylurea and metformin in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glucose control: a prospective, randomized trial. Am J Med. 2004;116(4):230–5. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 14969650]
  17. Allen KV, McAulay V, Sommerfield AJ, Frier BM. Hypoglycaemia is uncommon with a combination of antidiabetic drugs and bedtime NPH insulin for type 2 diabetes. Pract Diabetes Int. 2004;21(5):179–82. Does not meet the study design criteria.
  18. Alvarez Guisasola F, Mavros P, Nocea G, Alemao E, Alexander CM, Yin D. Glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in seven European countries: findings from the Real-Life Effectiveness and Care Patterns of Diabetes Management (RECAP-DM) study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008;10(Suppl 1):8–15. Does not apply. [PubMed: 18435669]
  19. Ambrosius WT, Danis RP, Goff DC Jr, et al. Lack of association between thiazolidinediones and macular edema in type 2 diabetes: the ACCORD eye substudy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128(3):312–8. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PMC free article: PMC3010554] [PubMed: 20212201]
  20. “PROactive” study shows Takeda’s ACTOS® (pioglitazone HCl) reduces heart attacks, strokes and deaths in patients with type 2 diabetes. Publ. Takeda Res. Lab. 2005. Other reason.
  21. A randomised, multi-centre, phase IV, double-blind, parallel group study comparing the effects of 52Ć weeks administration of AVANDAMET and metformin plus sulphonylurea on change in HbA1c from baseline in overweight type 2 diabetics poorly controlled on metformin. Other reason.
  22. A randomized double-blind trial of acarbose in type 2 diabetes shows improved glycemic control over 3 years (Diabetes Care 1999;22:960–964) Diabetes Care. 1999;22(11):1922. No original data. [PubMed: 10372249]
  23. Clinical news updates from the 2005 AHA Scientific Sessions. Formulary. 2006;41(1):18–26. No original data.
  24. Comparison of the Blood Sugar Lowering Effect Between Repaglinide Plus Metformin and Repaglinide Alone in Type 2 Diabetics Not Previously Treated With Oral Sugar-lowering Drugs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00819741. Other reason.
  25. Diabetes drugs may cause heart-failure hazard. Health News. 2004;10(1):15. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 15002389]
  26. DPP-IV inhibitor better tolerated than metformin. Pharm. J. 2005;275(7370):436. No original data.
  27. Drugs for type 2 diabetes. Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2008;6(71):47–54. No original data. [PubMed: 18583949]
  28. Dual PPAR agonist improves glycemic control, lipids in type 2 diabetes. Geriatrics. 2005;60(8):12. No original data. [PubMed: 16104078]
  29. Effect of AC2993 (synthetic exendin-4) compared with insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes also using combination therapy with sulfonylurea and metformin. Eli Lilly Clinical Trial Registry Summary. 2007. Does not have a drug comparison of interest.
  30. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet. 1998;352(9131):854–65. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 9742977]
  31. Effect of Repaglinide and Metformin Combination Tablet or Rosiglitazone and Metformin in Fixed Dose Combination on Blood Glucose Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. ClincalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00399711. Other reason.
  32. Effects of metformin or repaglinide therapy for diabetes on serum markers for CVD. Nat Clin. Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008;4(8):427. No original data.
  33. Efficacy and safety of pioglitazone. Aust J Pharm. 2008;89(1064):62–3. No original data.
  34. Efficacy and Safety of Repaglinide and Metformin Combination Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Failing on OAD. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00491725. Other reason.
  35. Efficacy and Safety of Repaglinide and Metformin Combined in Type 2 Diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00491725. Other reason.
  36. Efficacy of exenatide [AC2993, synthetic exendin-4, LY2148568] compared with twice-daily biphasic insulin aspart in patients with type 2 diabetes using sulfonylurea and metformin. Eli Lilly Clinical Trial Registry Summary 2007. 2007. Other reason.
  37. Erratum: Saxagliptin added to a submaximal dose of sulphonylurea improves glycaemic control compared with uptitration of sulphonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial (International Journal of Clinical Practice 2009;63;1395–1406) Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64(2):277. Other reason. [PMC free article: PMC2779994] [PubMed: 19614786]
  38. Exenatide (Byetta) for type 2 diabetes. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2005;47(1210):45–6. No original data. [PubMed: 15933616]
  39. First reports of serious adverse drug reactions in recent weeks. Drugs Ther Perspect. 2006;22(3):20–1. No original data.
  40. Improved risk profile with pioglitazone. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis. 2003;3(6):446. No original data.
  41. Inhaled insulin superior to rosiglitazone in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. Formulary. 2003;38(7):408. No original data.
  42. Insulin sensitizer affects lipids. Health News. 2005;11(1):2. No original data. [PubMed: 15726701]
  43. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet. 1998;352(9131):837–53. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 9742976]
  44. Janumet. JAAPA. 2007;20(6):14. No original data. [PubMed: 17605185]
  45. Landmark PROactive trial investigates effect of ACTOS (pioglitazone HCl) on cardiovascular disease progression: More than 5,000 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Publ. Takeda Res. Lab. 2004. 2004(-). Other reason.
  46. New data shows Takeda’s ACTOS(registered trademark) (pioglitazone HCl) reduced heart attacks by 28 percent in people with type 2 diabetes. Publ. Takeda Res. Lab. 2005. 2005(-). Other reason.
  47. Oral agents for type 2 diabetes reduce HbA1c, are weight neutral. Geriatrics: Geriatrics. 2006;61(9):2–13. No original data. [PubMed: 16998999]
  48. PERISCOPE: pioglitazone offers the right cluster of effects to confer benefit in type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2008;19(3):159–62. No original data. [PubMed: 18568180]
  49. Pre-meal inhaled insulin lowers HbA1c levels more effectively than rosiglitazone. Formulary. 2005;40(11):396. No original data.
  50. Primary prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events with an oral antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cerebral infarction, UMIN CTR. 2009. [ Https://Center​.Umin.Ac.Jp] Not written in English.
  51. PROactive study shows reduced heart attacks and strokes in type 2 diabetics on pioglitazone HCI (Actos) therapy. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2005;16(5):286–7. discussion 287. No original data. [PubMed: 16307165]
  52. Rosiglitazone decreases coronary restenosis. Cardiol Rev. 2003;20(8):11. No original data.
  53. Rosiglitazone increased heart failure but did not differ from metformin plus sulphonylurea for other CV outcomes at interim analysis. Evid.-Based Med. 2007;12(6):170. No original data. [PubMed: 18063730]
  54. Rosiglitazone plus metformin combination improves glycaemic control in diabetes. Pharm J. 2004;273(7317):375. No comparison group.
  55. Sitagliptin combined with sulphonylureas: new indication. Other treatments are preferable. Prescrire Int. 2009;18(99):14–5. No original data. [PubMed: 19391232]
  56. Summaries for patients. A comparison of three insulin regimens (morning glargine, bedtime glargine, or bedtime neutral protamine Hagedorn) in addition to a pill for treating type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(12):I33. No original data. [PubMed: 12809480]
  57. Summaries for patients. Comparison of two types of insulin added to diabetes pills in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(8):I-46. No original data. [PubMed: 18936498]
  58. The effect of adding exenatide to a thiazolidinedione in suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial (Annals of Internal Medicine 2007; 146:477–485) Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(12):896. No original data. [PubMed: 17404349]
  59. The efficacy and safety of glimepiride in the management of type 2 diabetes in Muslim patients during Ramadan. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(2):421–2. No comparison group. [PubMed: 15677804]
  60. Thiazolidinediones could exacerbate BMD loss in elderly women. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2(12):654–5. No original data.
  61. RAS - Rosiglitazone and Atherosclerosis Study: a 1 year randomised, double-blind. parallel group, placebo controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of rosiglitazone on the progression of intima-media thickness in the carotid artery in subjects with insulin resistance syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2004. Http://Ctr​.Gsk.Co.Uk​/Summary/Rosiglitazone/IV_049653_334.Pdf. No original data.
  62. Anwar A, Azmi KN, Hamidon BB, Khalid BA. An open label comparative study of glimepiride versus repaglinide in type 2 diabetes mellitus Muslim subjects during the month of Ramadan. Med J Malaysia. 2006;61(1):28–35. Other reason. [PubMed: 16708731]
  63. Arauz-Pacheco C, Ramirez LC, Rios JM, Raskin P. Hypoglycemia induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes receiving sulfonylurea therapy. Am J Med. 1990;89(6):811–3. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 2123605]
  64. Aronoff S, Rosenblatt S, Braithwaite S, Egan JW, Mathisen AL, Schneider RL. Pioglitazone hydrochloride monotherapy improves glycemic control in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled dose-response study. The Pioglitazone 001 Study Group. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(11):1605–11. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 11092281]
  65. Asche CV, McAdam-Marx C, Shane-McWhorter L, Sheng X, Plauschinat CA. Association between oral antidiabetic use, adverse events and outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008;10(8):638–45. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 17645555]
  66. Ascic-Buturovic B. The effects of combined insulin and metformin therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in the early stage of the disease. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2006;6(2):54–8. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 16879115]
  67. Avery MA, Chittiboyina A, Patny A. Novel Tricyclic (alpha)-Alkoxyphenyl Propanoic Acid Derivatives: Dual PPAR(alpha)/(gamma) Agonists with Hypolipidemic and Antidiabetic Activity. Chemtracts. 2003;16(11):653–9. No original data.
  68. Baba S, Nakagawa S, Takebe K, et al. Comparison of gliclazide and glibenclamide treatment in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1983;141(Suppl):693–706. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 6440313]
  69. Babich MM, Pike I, Shiffman ML. Metformin-induced acute hepatitis. Am J Med. 1998;104(5):490–2. No comparison group. [PubMed: 9626034]
  70. Bachmann W, Sieger C, Haslbeck M, Lotz N. Combination of insulin and glibenclamide (gl) in the treatment of adult-onset diabetes (type 2) Diabetologia. 1981;21(3):21. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes.
  71. Bahadori B, Trinker M, Wallner SJ, Yazdani-Biuki B, Wascher TC. Diabetes mellitus and weight control: Differences of respiratory quotient in type 2 diabetic obese subjects receiving sulfonylureas and non-diabetic obese controls. Nutrition. 2003;19(2):159–60. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 12591550]
  72. Bain SC, Stella P, Cao A. Significantly reduced body mass index with liraglutide 1.2 mg treatment versus glimepiride may have an impact on cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine: Diabet Med. 2010;27(Suppl 1):79. No original data.
  73. Baksi A, James RE, Zhou B, Nolan JJ. Comparison of uptitration of gliclazide with the addition of rosiglitazone to gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on half-maximal doses of a sulphonylurea. Acta Diabetol. 2004;41(2):63–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15224207]
  74. Balkrishnan R, Rajagopalan R, Shenolikar RA, Camacho FT, Anderson RT. Outcomes associated with introduction of thiazolidinedione therapy in Medicaid enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes: an updated and expanded retrospective analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22(3):551–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 16574038]
  75. Ballani P, Tran MT, Navar MD, Davidson MB. Clinical experience with U-500 regular insulin in obese, markedly insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2504–5. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes. [PubMed: 17065692]
  76. Ballary C, Desai A. Efficacy and safety of a combination of metformin and rosiglitaone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus--a postmarketing study. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003;101(2):113–4. 123. No comparison group. [PubMed: 12841496]
  77. Barnes DJ, et al. Microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients: a cross sectional study. Ann Clin Biochem. 1994;31:588–9. No original data. [PubMed: 7880085]
  78. Barnett AH, et al. Multicentre study to assess quality of life and glycaemic control of Type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin compared with oval hypoglycaemic agents. Practical Diabetes International. 1996;13(6):179–83. Does not have a drug comparison of interest.
  79. Barnett AH, Burger J, Johns D, et al. Tolerability and efficacy of exenatide and titrated insulin glargine in adult patients with type 2 diabetes previously uncontrolled with metformin or a sulfonylurea: a multinational, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover noninferiority trial. Clin Ther. 2007;29(11):2333–48. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 18158075]
  80. Barnett AH, Burger J, Johns D, et al. Tolerability and efficacy of exenatide and titrated insulin glargine in adult patients with type 2 diabetes previously uncontrolled with metformin or a sulfonylurea: a multinational, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover noninferiority trial. Clin Ther. 2007;29(11):2333–48. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 18158075]
  81. Barnett AH, Dreyer M, Lange P, Serdarevic-Pehar M. An open, randomized, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy and safety profile of inhaled human insulin (Exubera) with glibenclamide as adjunctive therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled on metformin. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(8):1818–25. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 16873786]
  82. Barnett AH, Grant PJ, Hitman GA, et al. Rosiglitazone in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: an evaluation in British Indo-Asian patients. Diabet Med. 2003;20(5):387–93. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 12752488]
  83. Barranco C. Pioglitazone improves cardiovascular risk markers for patients with diabetes. Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 2005;2(9):438. No original data.
  84. Barzilay JI, et al. Coronary artery disease and coronary artery bypass grafting in diabetic patients aged > or = 65 years (report from the Coronary Artery Surgery Study [CASS] Registry) Am J Cardiol. 1994;74(4):334–9. Does not apply. [PubMed: 8059694]
  85. Baynes C, Feher MD, Elkeles RS. The effect of treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Q J MED. 1989;72(267):579–87. No original data. [PubMed: 2692063]
  86. Bech P, Moses R, Gomis R. The effect of prandial glucose regulation with repaglinide on treatment satisfaction, wellbeing and health status in patients with pharmacotherapy naive Type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Qual Life Res. 2003;12(4):413–25. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 12797714]
  87. Beck-Nielsen H, Lindskov HO, Richelsen B. Mechanism of action of glibenclamide in type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes during long-term treatment. Diabetologia. 1982;23(2)(16) Does not apply.
  88. Belcher G, Matthews DR. Safety and tolerability of pioglitazone. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2000;108:267–73. Does not meet the study design criteria.
  89. Belden H. First in DPP-4 inhibitor class cleared for diabetes. Drug Topics. 2006;150(22) No original data.
  90. Belden H. New diabetes treatment combines two drugs into one. Drug Topics. 2006;150(17) No original data.
  91. Bell DS, Mayo MS. Improved glycemic control with use of oral hypoglycemic therapy with or without insulin. Endocr Pract. 1998;4(2):82–5. Does not apply. [PubMed: 15251750]
  92. Bell DS, Mayo MS. Outcome of metformin-facilitated reinitiation of oral diabetic therapy in insulin-treated patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 1997;3(2):73–6. Does not apply. [PubMed: 15251479]
  93. Bell DS, Mayo MS. Weight loss in patients with diabetes treated with a metformin-sulfonylurea combination in comparison with twice-daily mixed insulin. Endocr Pract. 1998;4(6):360–4. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 15251708]
  94. Bell DS, Yumuk V. Frequency of severe hypoglycemia in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus treated with sulfonylureas or insulin. Endocr Pract. 1997;3(5):281–3. Does not apply. [PubMed: 15251781]
  95. Bell DSH, Wyne KL. Use of fixed-dose oral combinations. Postgrad. Med. 2006;119(2) No original data. [PubMed: 16961047]
  96. Ben-Ami H, Nagachandran P, Mendelson A, Edoute Y. Drug-induced hypoglycemic coma in 102 diabetic patients. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(3):281–4. Does not apply. [PubMed: 9989540]
  97. Bengel FM, Abletshauser C, Neverve J, et al. Effects of nateglinide on myocardial microvascular reactivity in Type 2 diabetes mellitus--a randomized study using positron emission tomography. Diabet Med. 2005;22(2):158–63. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15660732]
  98. Bergenstal R, Wysham C, Yan P, MacConell L, Malloy J, Porter L. Duration-2: Exenatide once weekly demonstrated significant glycaemic control and weight reduction compared to sitagliptin or pioglitazone after 26 weeks of treatment. Diabetic Medicine. Diabet. Med. 2010;27(2):5. No original data.
  99. Berger W. Incidence of severe sideeffects during therapy with sulfonylureas and biguanides. Horm Metab Res Suppl. 1985;15:111–5. No original data. [PubMed: 3865878]
  100. Berghout LM, Gorter KJ, Rutten GEHM. Course of glycaemia in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients 2.5 years after optimizing oral treatment in general practice. Eur J Gen Pract. 2006;12(2):80–2. Does not apply. [PubMed: 16945883]
  101. Bergman AJ, Cote J, Yi B, et al. Effect of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(7):1862–4. No subjects with type 2 diabetes. [PubMed: 17468348]
  102. Bermudez-Pirela VJ, Cano C, Medina MT, et al. Metformin plus low-dose glimeperide significantly improves Homeostasis Model Assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and beta-cell function (HOMA(beta-cell)) without hyperinsulinemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Ther. 2007;14(2):194–202. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 17414590]
  103. Berria R, Rosenstock J, Silberman C, Davis KL, Horton ES. Weight loss and associated changes in glycaemic control and cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving incretin therapies in a large cohort database. Diabetologia: Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S297. No original data.
  104. Best JD, Drury P, Davis T, Taskinen M-R, Kesaniemi A, Keech A. Metformin, sulphonylurea and insulin therapies maintain glycaemic control over five years in 4900 people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia: Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S93. No original data.
  105. Best JH, Yan P, Malloy J. DURATION 2: Weight-related quality of life, psychological well-being, and satisfaction with exenatide once weekly compared to sitagliptin or piaglitazone after 26 weeks of treatment. Diabetologia: Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S292–293. Other reason.
  106. Bhansali A, Masoodi SR. Efficacy of once - or twice-daily extended release metformin compared with thrice-daily immediate release metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005;53:441–5. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 16124352]
  107. Bhushan R, Elkind-Hirsch KE, Bhushan M, Butler WJ, Duncan K, Marrioneaux O. Improved glycemic control and reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome treated with exenatide in a clinical practice setting. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11(6):353–9. No comparison group. [PubMed: 19459763]
  108. Biesenbach G, Bodlaj G, Pieringer H. Weight gain and metabolic control in newly insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes with different insulin regimens. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30(4):384–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest.
  109. Birkeland KI, Furuseth K, Melander A, Mowinckel P, Vaaler S. Long-term randomized placebo-controlled double-blind therapeutic comparison of glipizide and glyburide. Glycemic control and insulin secretion during 15 months. Diabetes Care. 1994;17(1):45–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 8112188]
  110. Blonde L, Klein EJ, Han J, et al. Interim analysis of the effects of exenatide treatment on A1C, weight and cardiovascular risk factors over 82 weeks in 314 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006;8(4):436–47. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 16776751]
  111. Blonde L, Rosenstock J, Sesti G, Schmidt WE, Montanya E, Brett J, et al. Liraglutide: superior glycemic control vs exenatide when added to metformin and/or SU in Type 2 diabetes. Can J Diabetes. 2008;32 Abstract 107. No original data.
  112. Bloomgarden ZT. Pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(2):526–33. No original data. [PubMed: 12547894]
  113. Bloomgren G, Dore D, Patterson R, Noel R, Braun D, Seeger J. Incidence of acute pancreatitis in exenatide initiators compared to other antidiabetic drug initiators: A retrospective, cohort study. Diabetologia: Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S9. No original data.
  114. Bodmer M, Meier C, Krahenbuhl S, Jick SS, Meier CR. Metformin, sulfonylureas, or other antidiabetes drugs and the risk of lactic acidosis or hypoglycemia: a nested case-control analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(11):2086–91. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PMC free article: PMC2571051] [PubMed: 18782901]
  115. Bokhari SU, Gopal UM, Duckworth WC. Beneficial effects of a glyburide/metformin combination preparation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med Sci. 2003;325(2):66–9. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 12589230]
  116. Boord JB, Graber AL, Christman JW, Powers AC. Practical management of diabetes in critically III patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:1763–7. No original data. [PubMed: 11734423]
  117. Boucher M, McAuley L, Brown A, Keely E, Skidmore B. Comparative clinical and budget evaluations of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone with other anti-diabetic agents. Ottawa: Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment; 2003. Technology overview no. 9. No original data.
  118. Bowker SL, Majumdar SR, Veugelers P, Johnson JA. Increased cancer-related mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes who use sulfonylureas or insulin. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):254–8. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 16443869]
  119. Boyd K, Rogers C, Boreham C, Andrews WJ, Hadden DR. Insulin, glibenclamide or metformin treatment for non insulin dependent diabetes: heterogenous responses of standard measures of insulin action and insulin secretion before and after differing hypoglycaemic therapy. Diabetes Res. 1992;19(2):69–76. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes. [PubMed: 1286541]
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  264. Garber A, Henry R, Ratner RE, Hae P, Chang CT, Bode B. Two years of treatment with liraglutide, a human GLP-1 analogue, offers sustained and greater reduction with HbA1c, FPG, PPG and weight compared with glimepiride, with lower glycaemic risk, in patients with type 2 diabetes: LEAD-3 extension study. Canadian Journal of Diabetes: Can. J Diabetes. 2009;33(3):289. Other reason.
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  334. Hayward RA, Manning WG, Kaplan SH, Wagner EH, Greenfield S. Starting insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: effectiveness, complications, and resource utilization. JAMA. 1997;278(20):1663–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 9388085]
  335. Hegele RA, et al. Differential response of plasma lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein B in NIDDM subjects treated with acarbose. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(2):272–3. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 7729310]
  336. Heine R, Van Gaal L, Johns D, et al. Exenatide achieved equivalent glycaemic control to insulin glargine in metformin and sulphonylurea-treated type 2 diabetics: blood pressure results. JEI. 2006;29(Suppl 4):28. Other reason.
  337. Heine RJ, Van Gaal LF, Johns D. Exenatide achieved equivalent glycaemic control to insulin glargine with weight reduction, independently from baseline BMI, in metformin and sulphonylurea-treated type 2 diabetes. JEI. 2007;30(Suppl 4):105. Other reason.
  338. Heliovaara MK, Herz M, Teppo AM, Leinonen E, Ebeling P. Pioglitazone has anti-inflammatory effects in patients with Type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest. 2007;30(4):292–7. Other reason. [PubMed: 17556865]
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  343. Hermann LS, Schersten B, Melander A. Antihyperglycaemic efficacy, response prediction and dose-response relations of treatment with metformin and sulphonylurea, alone and in primary combination. Diabet Med. 1994;11(10):953–60. Other reason. [PubMed: 7895460]
  344. Hermansen K, Davies M, Derezinski T, Ravn GM, Clauson P, Home P. A 26-week, randomized, parallel, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with NPH insulin as add-on therapy to oral glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-Naive people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(6):1269–74. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 16732007]
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  347. Higginbotham L, Martin FIR. Double-blind trial of metformin in the therapy of non-ketotic diabetics. Med J Aust. 1979;2:154–6. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes.
  348. Hinke SA, McIntosh CH, Hoffmann T, et al. On combination therapy of diabetes with metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(8):1490–1. author reply 1491. No original data. [PubMed: 12145269]
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  350. Hoffmann JK. Adjustment of metabolism and eating behaviour of type II diabetics. Results of a six-months treatment with glibenclamide, respectively with acarbose. Zeitschrift Fnr Allgemeinmedizin. 1992;68(29):970–7. Not written in English.
  351. Hohberg C, Pfutzner A, Forst T, et al. Successful switch from insulin therapy to treatment with pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients with residual beta-cell function: results from the PioSwitch study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009;11(5):464–71. No comparison group. [PubMed: 19422402]
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  353. Holleman F, et al. Trial of pioglitazone for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: insufficient evidence. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006;150(7):358–60. Not written in English. [PubMed: 16523797]
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  355. Holman RR, Farmer AJ, Davies MJ, et al. Three-year efficacy of complex insulin regimens in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(18):1736–47. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 19850703]
  356. Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(15):1577–89. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 18784090]
  357. Holman RR, Retnakaran R, Farmer A, Stevens R. PROactive study. Lancet. 2006;367(9504):25–26. author reply 26–27. No original data. [PubMed: 16399144]
  358. Holman RR, Thorne KI, Farmer AJ, et al. Addition of biphasic, prandial, or basal insulin to oral therapy in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(17):1716–30. Does not apply. [PubMed: 17890232]
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  360. Home P, Gubb J. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiac outcomes and regulation of glycemia in diabetes (RECORD): a long-term cardiovascular outcome study. Diabetes. 2002;51(Suppl 2):A487. Other reason.
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  362. Home PD, Pocock SJ, Beck-Nielsen H, et al. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(1):28–38. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 17551159]
  363. Honisett S, et al. Rosiglitazone improves vascular function in postmenopausal women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hormonal therapy attenuates this improvement. The 6th Australasian Menopause Society Congress 2002; Other reason.
  364. Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Jakobs C, Bouter LM, Heine RJ, Stehouwer CD. Does metformin increase the serum total homocysteine level in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med. 1997;242(5):389–94. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 9408068]
  365. Horowitz M, Vilsboll T, Zdravkovic M, Hammer M, Madsbad S. Patient-reported rating of gastrointestinal adverse effects during treatment of type 2 diabetes with the once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: Diabestes Obes Metab. 2008;10(7):593–6. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 18435773]
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  367. Hotta N, et al. Diabetic neuropathy: effects of intensified glycaemic control with multiple insulin injections. Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 1993;10(Suppl 2):91S–4S. Other reason. [PubMed: 8334854]
  368. Houlden R, Ross S, Harris S, Yale J-F, Sauriol L, Gerstein HC. Treatment satisfaction and quality of life using an early insulinization strategy with insulin glargine compared to an adjusted oral therapy in the management of Type 2 diabetes: The Canadian INSIGHT Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;78(2):254–8. Does not apply. [PubMed: 17490781]
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  371. Hsiao FY, Mullins CD. The association between thiazolidinediones and hospitalisation for fracture in type 2 diabetic patients: a Taiwanese population-based nested case-control study. Diabetologia. 2009. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 19943156]
  372. Huang Z, et al. Effects of rosiglitazone on the IMTc and serum MMP-9 levels in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patients. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban (Journal of Central South University Medical Sciences) 2006;31(3):367–72. Not written in English. [PubMed: 16859126]
  373. Hulisz DT, Bonfiglio MF, Murray RD. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1998;11(3):233–6. No comparison group. [PubMed: 9625516]
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  375. Inukai K, Watanabe M, Nakashima Y, et al. Efficacy of glimepiride in Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005;68(3):250–7. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15936468]
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  377. Inzucchi SE, Masoudi FA, Wang Y, et al. Insulin-sensitizing antihyperglycemic drugs and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: Insights from the national heart care project. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(7):1680–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15983320]
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  384. Jennings AM, Wilson RM, Ward JD. Symptomatic hypoglycemia in NIDDM patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents. Diabetes Care. 1989;12(3):203–8. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 2702912]
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  386. Jerums G, Murray RML, Seeman E. Lack of effect of gliclazide on early diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy: A two-year controlled study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1987;3(2):71–80. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 3552537]
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  391. Josse RG. Acarbose for the treatment of type II diabetes: the results of a Canadian multi-centre trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;28(Suppl):S167–72. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 8529510]
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  435. Komajda M, Curtis P, Hanefeld M, et al. Effect of the addition of rosiglitazone to metformin or sulfonylureas versus metformin/sulfonylurea combination therapy on ambulatory blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial (the RECORD study) Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2008;7:10. Does not apply. [PMC free article: PMC2390513] [PubMed: 18435852]
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  455. Lapina IuV, et al. [Efficacy and safety of the use of metformin in patients with chronic heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus. results of the study. Not written in English. [PubMed: 18429758]
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  474. Luis Bautista J, Bugos C, Dirnberger G, Atherton T. Efficacy and safety profile of glimepiride in Mexican American Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2003;25(1):194–209. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 12637120]
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  479. Mafauzy M. Repaglinide versus glibenclamide treatment of Type 2 diabetes during Ramadan fasting. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002;58(1):45–53. Study duration less than 3 months. [PubMed: 12161056]
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  481. Manalo GG Jr, Villareal DT, Anel-Quimpo J, Go RT, Litonjua AD. Body weight as a predictor of response to sulfonylurea therapy. Philipp J Intern Med. 1993;31(3):135–43. Other reason.
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  495. Masud F, Hasan M, Abaidullah S, Intekhab Assessment of metabolic profile and body mass index (BMI) in type II diabetics treated with metformin and insulin. Specialist. 1992;9(1):29–34. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes.
  496. Matsumoto K, Sera Y, Abe Y, Tominaga T, Yeki Y, Miyake S. Metformin attenuates progression of carotid arterial wall thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;64(3):225–8. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes. [PubMed: 15126012]
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  501. McCluskey D, Touger MS, Melis R, Schleusener DS, McCluskey D. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study administering glimepiride to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with rosiglitazone monotherapy. Clin Ther. 2004;26(11):1783–90. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15639690]
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  503. McNally PG, et al. Using continuous glucose monitoring to measure the frequency of low glucose values when using biphasic insulin aspart 30 compared with biphasic human insulin 30: a double-blind crossover study in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(5):1044–8. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 17277042]
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  651. Russell-Jones D, Vaag A, Schmitz O, et al. Significantly better glycaemic control and weight reduction with liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, compared with insulin glargine: all as add-on to metformin and a sulfonylurea in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008;57(Suppl 1):A159. No original data.
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  656. Saloranta C, Hershon K, Ball M, Dickinson S, Holmes D. Efficacy and safety of nateglinide in type 2 diabetic patients with modest fasting hyperglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(9):4171–6. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 12213867]
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  658. Salsali A, Pratley RE. Does addition of sitagliptin to metformin monotherapy improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007;3(6):450–1. No original data. [PubMed: 17457306]
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  660. Satoh N, Ogawa Y, Usui T, et al. Antiatherogenic effect of pioglitazone in type 2 diabetic patients irrespective of the responsiveness to its antidiabetic effect. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(9):2493–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 12941708]
  661. Savage S, et al. Increased complications in noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients treated with insulin versus oral hypoglycemic agents: a population study. Proc Assoc Am Physicians. 1997;109(2):181–9. Does not apply. [PubMed: 9069587]
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  663. Schade DS, Jovanovic L, Schneider J. A placebo-controlled, randomized study of glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for whom diet therapy is unsuccessful. J Clin Pharmacol. 1998;38(7):636–41. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 9702849]
  664. Schatz H, Schoppel K, Lehwalder D, Schandry R. Efficacy, tolerability and safety of nateglinide in combination with metformin. Results from a study under general practice conditions. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2003;111(5):262–6. No comparison group. [PubMed: 12951631]
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  666. Scheen AJ, Tan MH, Betteridge DJ, Birkeland K, Schmitz O, Charbonnel B. Long-term glycaemic effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo as add-on treatment to metformin or sulphonylurea monotherapy in PROactive (PROactive 18) Diabet Med. 2009;26(12):1242–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 20002476]
  667. Scherbaum WA, Goke B. Metabolic efficacy and safety of once-daily pioglitazone monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Horm Metab Res. 2002;34(10):589–95. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 12439788]
  668. Schernthaner G, Grimaldi A, Di Mario U, et al. GUIDE study: double-blind comparison of once-daily gliclazide MR and glimepiride in type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2004;34(8):535–42. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15305887]
  669. Schmidt WE, Christiansen JS, Hammer M, Zychma MJ, Buse J. Patient reported outcomes are superior in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide as compared to exenatide,when added to metformin,sulfonylurea or both. Value in Health: Value Health. 2009;12(3):A105. Other reason. [PMC free article: PMC3123703] [PubMed: 21388442]
  670. Schmitz O, et al. Pioglitazone reduces insulin requirements and improves glycaemic control in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes: results from PROactive. 42nd Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2006; 2006; Other reason.
  671. Schofl C, Lubben G. Postmarketing surveillance study of the efficacy and tolerability of pioglitazone in insulin-resistant patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in general practice. Clin Drug Investig. 2003;23(11):725–34. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 17536886]
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  675. Schwartz AV, Sellmeyer DE, Vittinghoff E, et al. Thiazolidinedione use and bone loss in older diabetic adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(9):3349–54. Does not apply. [PMC free article: PMC1563497] [PubMed: 16608888]
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  679. Selby JV, Ettinger B, Swain BE, Brown JB. First 20 months’ experience with use of metformin for type 2 diabetes in a large health maintenance organization. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(1):38–44. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 10333901]
  680. Seshiah V, Harinarayana CV, Venkataraman S, et al. Platelet aggregation study in diabetes mellitus; effect of antidiabetic therapy - A preliminary study. J Diabetic Assoc India. 1990;30(3):62–5. Does not apply.
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  689. Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART) Group. Reduction of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART) Diabetes Care. 2007;30(6):1581–3. Does not apply. [PubMed: 17363751]
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  691. Shoukry M, Jayyab AK. Plasma HDL in non-insulin-dependent diabetes and the effect of various types of treatment. Atherosclerosis. 1983;49(3):333–8. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 6661271]
  692. Signorini AM, Fondelli C, Renzoni E, Puccetti C, Gragnoli G, Giorgi G. Antioxidant effects of gliclazide, glibenclamide, and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2002;63(7):411–20. Does not apply.
  693. Simon S, Stephenson S, Whyte K, et al. Prevalence of chronic renal failure in the diabetic population at the University Hospital of the West Indies. West Indian Med J. 2004;53(2):85–8. Does not apply. [PubMed: 15199717]
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  695. Simonson D, Smith D, Ferrannini E. Effect of glyburide (GLY) on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in non-insulin dependent diabetics (NIDD) and controls. Clin Res. 1982;30(2):404A. Does not apply.
  696. Simonson DC, Kourides IA, Feinglos M, Shamoon H, Fischette CT. Efficacy, safety, and dose-response characteristics of glipizide gastrointestinal therapeutic system on glycemic control and insulin secretion in NIDDM. Results of two multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. The Glipizide Gastrointestinal Therapeutic System Study Group. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(4):597–606. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 9096986]
  697. Simonson DC. Glyburide improves glycemic control and reduces insulin requirement in insulin-treated NIDDM patients. Adv Ther. 1987;4(4):204. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes.
  698. Sinagra D, Scarpitta AM, Amato M. Effects of insulin-oral hypoglycemic agents combined therapy in outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 1998;2(5-6):175–9. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 10710815]
  699. Singhal P, Caumo A, Cobelli C, Taylor R. Effect of repaglinide and gliclazide on postprandial control of endogenous glucose production. Metabolism. 2005;54(1):79–84. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15562384]
  700. Sitprija S, Vajanamurhutue C, Bunnag S. Blood lactate and pyruvate levels in diabetic patients treated with sulphonylureas with and without biguanides. J Med Assoc Thailand. 1982;65(2):63–71. Does not apply. [PubMed: 7077214]
  701. Sivitz WI, Wayson SM, Bayless ML, et al. Leptin and body fat in type 2 diabetes and monodrug therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(4):1543–53. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes. [PubMed: 12679437]
  702. Smith NL, Heckbert SR, Bittner VA, et al. Antidiabetic treatment trends in a cohort of elderly people with diabetes: The Cardiovascular Health Study, 1989–1997. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(5):736–42. Does not apply. [PubMed: 10332674]
  703. Smith SR, De Jonge L, Volaufova J, Li Y, Xie H, Bray GA. Effect of pioglitazone on body composition and energy expenditure: a randomized controlled trial. Metabolism. 2005;54(1):24–32. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15562376]
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  707. Spanheimer R, Betteridge DJ, Tan MH, Ferrannini E, Charbonnel B. Long-term lipid effects of pioglitazone by baseline anti-hyperglycemia medication therapy and statin use from the PROactive experience (PROactive 14) Am J Cardiol. 2009;104(2):234–9. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 19576353]
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  709. Spanheimer R, Zhao Z, Perez A. Improvement of glycaemic control via reducing insulin resistance with pioglitazone and metformin fixed-dose combination therapy. Canadian Journal of Diabetes: Can. J Diabetes. 2009;33(3):273. Does not meet the study design criteria.
  710. Stades AM, Heikens JT, Holleman F, Hoekstra JB. Effect of metformin on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes in daily practice: a retrospective study. Neth J Med. 2000;56(3):86–90. Does not meet the study design criteria. [PubMed: 10759019]
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  712. Standl E, Maxeiner S, Raptis S, Karimi-Anderesi Z, Schweitzer MA. Good glycemic control with flexibility in timing of basal insulin supply: A 24-week comparison of insulin glargine given once daily in the morning or at bedtime in combination with morning glimepiride. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(2):419–20. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15677803]
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  725. Suzuki M, Takamisawa I, Yoshimasa Y, Harano Y. Association between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and the effects of pioglitazone. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;76(1):12–7. No comparison group. [PubMed: 17007957]
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  730. Takagi T, Yamamuro A, Tamita K, Katayama M, Morioka S. Thiazolidinedione treatment attenuates diffuse neointimal hyperplasia in restenotic lesions after coronary stent implantation in type 2 diabetic patients: an intravascular ultrasound study. J Cardiol. 2005;45(4):139–47. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15875535]
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  732. Tan MH, Baksi A, Krahulec B, et al. Comparison of pioglitazone and gliclazide in sustaining glycemic control over 2 years in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):544–50. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 15735185]
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  737. Taylor R, Isles TE, McLaren S, Newton RW. A comparison of the metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetics during glipizide and glibenclamide treatment. Diabetologia. 1981;21(3):518. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes.
  738. Taylor R, Isles TE, McLaren S. A comparison of the metabolic profiles in type 2 (insulin independent) diabetics during glipzide and glibenclamide treatment. Diabetologia. 1981;21(5) Does not have a drug comparison of interest.
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  751. Trischitta V, Italia S, Mazzarino S, Riddle MC. Addition of insulin or metformin after secondary failure to glyburide. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117(SUPPL 2):46. Less than 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes.
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  757. Turner R, Rachman J, Holman R. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Diabetes Stoffwechsel. 1996;5:77–80. Other reason.
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  760. Turner RC, Holman RR, Stratton IM, et al. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34) Lancet. 1998;352(9131):854–65. Does not have a drug comparison of interest. [PubMed: 9742977]
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