NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK). Violence: The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in In-Patient Psychiatric Settings and Emergency Departments. London: Royal College of Nursing (UK); 2005 Feb. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 25.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Violence

Violence: The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in In-Patient Psychiatric Settings and Emergency Departments.

Show details

Appendix 7Prediction – ineligible studies

The following papers were ordered on the basis of sifts, but were then excluded, as they did not fulfil the eligibility criteria to be put forward for the evidence review. Examples for exclusion were principally based upon: settings – community; long-term not short-term violence; subjects - not psychiatric in-patients or were elderly; and papers were reviews or not on the topic.

Arboleda-Florez J. Mental illness and violence: an epidemiological appraisal of the evidence. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1998;43:989–96. [PubMed: 9868562]
Arboleda-Florez J, Holley H, Crisanti A. Understanding causal paths between mental illness and violence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1998;33:S38–S46. [PubMed: 9857778]
Bagby RM, Kennedy SH, Dickens SE, Minifie CE, Schuller DR. Personality and symptom profiles of the angry hostile depressed patient. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1997;45:155–60. [PubMed: 9298428]
Barlow K, Grenyer B, Ilkiw-Lavalle O. A model for the assessment of violence. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 2000;7:299–304. [PubMed: 10689594]
Barratt ES, Slaughter L. Defining, measuring, and predicting impulsive aggression: a heuristic model. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. 1998;16:285–302. [PubMed: 9768462]
Belfrage H. Risk assessment of violent behaviour: interrater reliability of the HCR-20 scheme. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 1998;52(PT 41):81. Suppl.
Belfrage H. Implementing the HCR-20 scheme for risk assessment in a forensic psychiatric hospital: integrating research and clinical practice. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry. 1998;9:328–38.
Benjaminsen S, Gotzsche LK, Norrie B, Harder L, Luxhoi A. Patient violence in a psychiatric hospital in Denmark. Rate of violence and relation to diagnosis. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;50:233–42. Suppl.
Binder RL, McNiel DE. Staff gender and risk of assault on doctors and nurses. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. 1994;22:545–50. [PubMed: 7718927]
Binder RL. Are the mentally ill dangerous? Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. 1999;27:189–201. [PubMed: 10400428]
Binderman RM. Psychopathy and community violence among civil psychiatric patients: results from the MacArthur violence risk assessment study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2001;69:358–74. [PubMed: 11495166]
Binderman RM. Understanding VRAG: the violence risk assessment guide. The Forensic Examiner. 2001 Jan/ Feb.
Bjorkly S. Prediction of aggression in psychiatric patients: a review of prospective prediction studies. Clinical Psychology Review. 1995;15:475–502.
Bjorkly S, Havik OE, Loberg T. The inter-rater reliability of the scale for the prediction of aggression and dangerousness in psychotic patients (PAD) Criminal Justice and Behavior. 1996;23:440–54.
Bjorkly S. High-risk factors for violence. In: Hodgins S, editor. Violence among the mentally ill. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2003. pp. 237–50.
Bjorkly S. Report form for aggressive episodes: preliminary report. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1996;83:1139–52. [PubMed: 9017721]
Bjorkly S. Inter-rater reliability of the report form for aggressive episodes. Journal of Family Violence. 2000;15:269–79.
Bowers L. A critical appraisal of violent incident measures. Journal of Mental Health UK. 1999;8:339–49.
Brennan W. Snap judgement. Occupational Health. 2001:16–7.
Campbell M, Chaplin R. Improving the assessment of risk of violence: a clinical audit of case note documentation. Psychiatric Bulletin. 2001;25:250–2.
Coccaro EF, Harvey PD, Kupsaw-Lawrence E, Herbert JL, Bernstein DP. Development of neuropharmacologically based behavioral assessments of impulsive aggressive behavior. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 1991;3:S44–S51. [PubMed: 1821222]
Coontz PD, Lidz CW, Mulvey EP. Gender and the assessment of dangerousness in the psychiatric emergency room. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 1994;17(4):369–376. [PubMed: 7890471]
Daffern M, Howells K. Psychiatric in-patient aggression: a review of structural and functional assessment approaches. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2000;7:477–97.
Dernevik M, Grann M, Johansson S. Violent behaviour in forensic psychiatric patients: risk assessment and different risk-management levels using the HCR-20. Psychology Crime and Law. 2002;8:93–112.
Dernevik M. Preliminary findings on reliability and validity of the historical-clinical-risk assessment in a forensic psychiatric setting. Psychology, Crime and Law. 1998;4:127–37.
Dolan M, Doyle M. Violence risk prediction. Clinical and actuarial measures and the role of the psychopathy checklist. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;177:303–11. [PubMed: 11116770]
Doucette-Gates A, Firestone LA, Firestone RW. Assessing violent thoughts: the relationship between thought processes and violent behavior. Psychologica.Belgica. 1999;39:113–34.
Douglas KS, Webster CD. The HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme - concurrent validity in a sample of incarcerated offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 1999;26:3–19.
Douglas KS, Hart SD, Kropp PR. Validity of the personality assessment inventory for forensic assessments. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 2001;45:183–97.
Doyle M, Dolan M. Violence risk assessment: combining actuarial and clinical information to structure clinical judgements for the formulation and management of risk. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing. 2002;9:649–57. [PubMed: 12472817]
Elbogen EB. The process of violence risk assessment: a review of descriptive research. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2002;7:591–604.
Eronen M, Angermeyer MC, Schulze B. The psychiatric epidemiology of violent behaviour. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1998;33 1:S13–S23. [PubMed: 9857775]
Farrington DP. Predicting adult official and self-reported violence. In: Pinard GF, Pagini C, editors. Clinical assessment of dangerous empirical contributes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2001. pp. 66–88.
Fava M, Rosenbaum JF. Anger attacks in patients with depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1999;60 15:21–4. [PubMed: 10418810]
Fearnley D, Williams T. A prospective study using the Monroe dyscontrol scale as a measure of impulsivity in referrals to a forensic psychiatry service. Medicine Science and the Law. 2001;41:58–62. [PubMed: 11219126]
Ferris LE, Sandercock J, Hoffman B, Silverman M, Barkun H, Carlisle J, et al. Risk assessments for acute violence to third parties: a review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1997;42:1051–60. [PubMed: 9469237]
Flannery RBJ, Hanson MA, Penk WE. Risk factors for psychiatric in-patient assaults on staff. Journal of Mental Health Administration. 1994;21:24–31. [PubMed: 10131885]
Flannery RBJ, Hanson MA, Penk WE, Goldfinger S, Pastva GJ, Navon MA. Replicated declines in assault rates after implementation of the assaulted staff action program. Psychiatric Services. 1998;49:241–3. [PubMed: 9575015]
Fox G. Risk assessment: a systematic approach to violence. Nursing Standard. 1998;12:44–7. [PubMed: 9668826]
Fransson G. Effective treatment strategies for preventing violence on psychiatric wards. In: Hodgins S, editor. Violence among the mentally ill. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000. pp. 277–88.
Frederick RI, Crosby RD. Development and validation of the validity indicator profile. Law and Human Behavior. 2000;24:59–82. [PubMed: 10693319]
Gendreau P, Little T, Goggin C. A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: what works! Criminology. 1996;34:575–607.
Gothelf D, Apter A, van Praag HM. Measurement of aggression in psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Research. 1997;71:83–95. [PubMed: 9255853]
Hare RD. Psychopathy as a risk factor for violence. The Psychiatric Quarterly. 1999;70:181–97. [PubMed: 10457544]
Harris GT, Rice ME. Risk appraisal and management of violent behavior. Psychiatric Services (Washington DC) 1997;48:1168–76. [PubMed: 9285978]
Harris GT, Rice ME, Cormier CA. Prospective replication of the violence risk appraisal guide in predicting violent recidivism among forensic patients. Law and Human Behavior. 2002;26:377–94. [PubMed: 12182529]
Hiday VA, Swartz MS, Swanson JW, Borum R, Wagner HR. Male-female differences in the setting and construction of violence among people with severe mental illness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1998;33:S68–S74. [PubMed: 9857782]
Kirk A. The prediction of violent behavior during short-term civil commitment. Bulletin of the American Academic Psychiatry and the Law. 1989;17:345–53. [PubMed: 2605361]
Klassen D, O'Connor WA. A prospective study of predictors of violence in adult male mental health admissions. Law and Human Behavior. 1988;12:143–58.
Klassen D, O'Connor WA. Predicting violence in schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic patients: a prospective study. Journal of Community Psychology. 1988;16:217–27.
Kopecky HJ, Kopecky CR, Yudofsky SC. Reliability and validity of the overt agitation severity scale in adult psychiatric in-patients. The Psychiatric Quarterly. 1998;69:301–23. [PubMed: 9793109]
Krakowski M, Czobor P, Chou JC. Course of violence in patients with schizophrenia: relationship to clinical symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 1999;25:505–17. [PubMed: 10478785]
Kumar S, Ng B. Crowding and violence on psychiatric wards: explanatory models. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2001;46:433–7. [PubMed: 11441783]
Lansing AE, Lyons JS, Martens LC, O'Mahoney MT, Miller SI, Obolsky A. The treatment of dangerous patients in managed care. Psychiatric hospital utilization and outcome. General Hospital Psychiatry. 1997;19:112–8. [PubMed: 9097065]
Lidz CW, Mulvey EP, Gardner W. The accuracy of predictions of violence to others. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1993;269:1007–11. [PubMed: 8429581]
Lidz CW, Mulvey EP, Apperson LJ, Evanczuk K, Shea S. Sources of disagreement among clinicians' assessment of dangerousness in a psychiatric emergency room. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 1992;15:237–250. [PubMed: 1399183]
Linaker OM. Dangerous female psychiatric patients: prevalences and characteristics. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2000;101:67–72. [PubMed: 10674952]
Link BG, Stueve A, Phelan JC. Psychotic symptoms and violent behaviors: probing the components of “threat/control-override” symptoms. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1998;33:S55–S60. [PubMed: 9857780]
Link BG. New evidence on the violence risk posed by people with mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1998;55(5):403–4. [PubMed: 9596042]
Lodge GJ. Assessing risk of violent behaviour. Psychiatric Bulletin. 1997;21:703–6.
Loza W, Villeneave DB, Loza-Fanous A. Predictive validity of the violence risk appraisal guide. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 2002;25:85–92. [PubMed: 12089781]
Marchevsky D. Predicting violence. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1999;175:585. [PubMed: 10789359]
Menzies RJ, Webster CD, Sepejak DS. The dimensions of dangerousness - evaluating the accuracy of psychometric predictions of violence among forensic patients. Law and Human Behavior. 1985;9:49–70.
Menuck MN. Violent behaviour. Psychiatric Services. 1998;49(3):387. [PubMed: 9525804]
Miller MC. A model for the assessment of violence. Harvard Review Psychiatry. 2000;7:299–304. [PubMed: 10689594]
Milton J, Amin S, Singh SP, Harrison G, Jones P, Croudace T, et al. Aggressive incidents in first-episode psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2001;178:433–40. [PubMed: 11331559]
Moamai J, Moamai N. Comportement violents et intimidants des patients psychiatriques au moment de l'hospitalisation. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1994;39(4):233–235. [PubMed: 8044731]
Monahan, et al. Rethinking risk assessment: the MacArthur study of mental disorder and violence. Modern Law Review. 2002;65:645–6.
Monahan J. Violence and mental disorder: recent research. In: Crowner ML, editor. Understanding and treating violent psychiatric patients. Progress in psychiatry. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. p. 192.
Monahan J, Steadman HJ, Appelbaum PS, Robbins PC, Mulvey EP, Silver E, et al. Developing a clinically useful actuarial tool for assessing violence risk. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;176:312–9. [PubMed: 10827877]
Monahan J, Appelbaum PS. Reducing violence risk. In: Hodgins S, editor. Violence among the mentally ill. Netherlands: KLuwer Academic Publishers; 2000. pp. 19–34.
Monahan J. Major mental disorder and violence: epidemiology and risk assessment. In: Pinard GF, Pagani L, editors. Clinical assessment of dangerousness: empirical contributions. NY: Cambridge University Press; 2001. pp. 89–102.
Mullen PE. The prediction and management of violence. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health. 2001;11:S73–S76.
Mulvey EP, Lidz CW. Clinical prediction of violence as a conditional judgment. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1998;33 1:S107–S113. [PubMed: 9857788]
Neilson T, Peet M, Ledsham R, Poole J. Does the nursing care plan help in the management of psychiatric risk? Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1996;24:1201–6. [PubMed: 8953356]
Newhill CE. Validation of a scale to assess danger to others in psychiatric emergency room patients. Dissertation Abstracts International. 1990;50(PT10A):3362.
Nijman H, Palmstierna T. Measuring aggression with the staff observation aggression scale - revised. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Suppl. 2002:101–2. [PubMed: 12072137]
Noble P, Rodger S. Violence by psychiatric in-patients. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1989;155:384–90. [PubMed: 2611552]
Noble P. Violence in psychiatric in-patients: review and clinical implications. International Review of Psychiatry. 1997;9:207–16.
Nolan KA, Volavka J, Mohr P, Czobor P. Psychopathy and violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric Services. 1999;50:787–92. [PubMed: 10375148]
Norton SC. Predictor variables of violent behavior. American Journal of Forensic Psychology. 1988;6:53–66.
O'Neill H. Anger: the assessment and treatment of problematic anger, part 1. British Journal Occupational Therapy. 1995;58:427–31.
Palmstierna T, Wistedt B. Staff observation aggression scale, SOAS: presentation and evaluation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1987;76:657–63. [PubMed: 3442256]
Paris J, Zweig-Frank H, Bond M, Guzder J. Defence styles, hostility and psychological risk factors in male patients with personality disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1996;184(3):153–158. [PubMed: 8600218]
Parrott DJ, Zeichner A. Contributing factors in the aggressive crisis. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. 2000;2(3):189–200. [PubMed: 11232099]
Phelan JC, Link BG. The growing belief that people with mental illnesses are violent: the role of the dangerousness criterion for civil commitment. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1998;33 1:S7–12. [PubMed: 9857774]
Powell G, Caan W, Crowe M. What events precede violent incidents in psychiatric hospitals? British Journal of Psychiatry. 1994;165:107–12. [PubMed: 7953012]
Powell RA, Lloyd KR. Understanding VRAG: the violence risk assessment guide. Forensic Examiner. 2001;10:28–31.
Priest RG, Tanner M, Gandhi ND, Bhandari MD. Hostility and the psychiatric patient. American Journal of Forensic Psychiatry. 1995;16:21–31.
Quinsey VL, Maguire A. Maximum-security psychiatric patients -actuarial and clinical prediction of dangerousness. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 1986;1:143–71.
Quinsey VL. Institutional violence among the mentally ill. In: Hodgins S, editor. Violence among the mentally ill. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2003. pp. 213–35.
Rasmussen K, Levander S. Crime and violence among psychiatric patients in a maximum security psychiatric hospital. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 1996;23:455–71.
Rudolph MN, Hughes DH. Emergency assessments of domestic violence, sexual, dangerous, and elder and child abuse. Psychiatric Services. 2001;52:281–282. 306. [PubMed: 11239094]
Scott CL, Resnick RJ. Assessing risk of violence in psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Times. 2002;19:16.
Sensky T. Risk of violence in mental illness: assessment and management. Medicine. 2000;28(5):87–9.
Shaffer CE, Waters WF, Adama SG. Dangerousness: assessing the risk of violent behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1994;62(5):1064–1068. [PubMed: 7806716]
Shah A. Aggression: some methodological issues in using aggression rating scales in intervention studies among institutionalized elderly. International Psychogeriatrics. 1999;11(4):439–44. [PubMed: 10631589]
Shaw J. Assessing the risk of violence in patients: risks can be assessed, but the results still pose ethical and political dilemmas. British Medical Journal. 2000;320:1088–9. [PMC free article: PMC1127239] [PubMed: 10775203]
Skeem JL, Mulvey EP, Lidz CW. Building mental health professionals' decisional models into tests of predictive validity: the accuracy of contextualized predictions of violence. Law and Human Behavior. 2000;24:607–28. [PubMed: 11105475]
Skeem JL, Mulvey EP. Psychotherapy and community violence among civil psychiatric patients: results from the MacArthur violence risk assessment study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2001;69:358–74. [PubMed: 11495166]
Skeem JL, Mulvey EP, Lidz CW. Contributing factors in the aggressive crisis. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. 2000;2:189–200. [PubMed: 11232099]
Smith JE, Early JA, Green PT, Lauck DL, Oblaczynski C, Smochek MR, et al. Risk for suicide and risk for violence: a case for separating the current violence diagnoses. Nursing Diagnosis. 1997;8:67–77. [PubMed: 9305108]
Smochek M, Oblaczynski C, Lauck D. Interventions for risk for suicide and risk for violence. Nursing Diagnosis. 2000;11:60–8.
Stark C, Farrar H, Kidd B. Violence in psychiatric hospitals. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1994;165(4):554. [PubMed: 7804680]
Steadman HJ, Silver E, Monahan J, Appelbaum PS, Robbins PC, Mulvey EP, et al. A classification tree approach to the development of actuarial violence risk assessment tools. Law Human Behavior. 2000;24:83–100. [PubMed: 10693320]
Steadman HJ, Silver E. Immediate precursors of violence among persons with mental illness. In: Hodgins S, editor. Violence Among the mentally ill. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000. pp. 35–48.
Steinberg L, Jorgenson RS. Assessing the MMPI-based Cook-Medley hostility scale: the implications of dimensionality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1996;70:1281–7. [PubMed: 8667168]
Stueve A, Link BG. Gender differences in the relationship between mental illness and violence: evidence from a community-based epidemiological study in Israel. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1998;33:S61–S67. [PubMed: 9857781]
Suchy Y, Bolger J. The behavioral dyscontrol scale as a predictor of aggression against self or others in psychogeriatric in-patients. The Clinical Neuropsycholologist. 1999;13:487–94. [PubMed: 10806462]
Swanson J, Estroff S, Swartz M, Borum R, Lachicotte W, Zimmer C, et al. Violence and severe mental disorder in clinical and community populations: the effects of psychotic symptoms, comorbidity, and lack of treatment. Psychiatry. 1997;60:1–22. [PubMed: 9130311]
Synder CR, Crowson JJ, Houston BK, Kurylo M, Poirier J. Assessing hostile automatic thoughts: development and validation of the HAT scale. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1997;21:477–92.
Tardiff K. Violence by patients admitted to a private psychiatric hospital. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1997;154:88–93. [PubMed: 8988964]
Taylor PJ, Schanda H. Violence against others by psychiatric hospital in-patients with psychosis. In: Hodgins S, editor. Violence among the mentally ill. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000. pp. 251–75.
Taylor PJ. When symptoms of psychosis drive serious violence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 1998;33 1:S47–S54. [PubMed: 9857779]
Tengstrom A, Grann M, Langstrom N, Kullgren G. Psychopathy (PCL-R) as a predictor of violent recidivism among criminal offenders with schizophrenia. Law and Human Behavior. 2000;24:45–58. [PubMed: 10693318]
Thienhaus OJ, Piasecki M. Emergency psychiatry. Assessment of psychiatric patients' risk of violence toward others. Psychiatric Services. 1998;49:1129–30. [PubMed: 9735952]
Timmerman I, Vastenberg N, Emmelkamp P. The forensic in-patient observation scale (FIOS): development, reliability and validity. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. 2001;11:144–62. [PubMed: 12048527]
Valliant PM, Gristey C, Pottier D, Kosmyna R. Risk factors in violent and non-violent offenders. Psychological Reports. 1999;85:675–80. [PubMed: 10611797]
Volavka J, Laska E, Baker S, Meisner M, Czobor P, Krivelevich I. History of violent behaviour and schizophrenia in different cultures. Analyses based on the WHO study on determinants of outcome of severe mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1997;171:9–14. [PubMed: 9328487]
Walker R, Clark JJ. Heading off boundary problems: clinical supervision as risk management. Psychiatric Services. 1999;50:1435–9. [PubMed: 10543852]
Ward A, Dockerill J. The predictive accuracy of the violent offender treatment program risk assessment scale. Criminal Justice and Behaviour. 1999;26:125–40.
Ward A, Dockerill J. The predictive accuracy of the violent offender treatment program risk assessment scale. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 1999;26:125–40.
Ward A, Dockerill J. Clinical and risk management factors in risk prediction of mentally disordered offenders – more important than historical data? A retrospective study of 40 mentally disordered offenders assessed with the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme. Legal and Criminological Psychology. 1999;4:67–76.
Webster CD, Douglas KS, Belfrage H, Link BG. Capturing change -an approach to managing violence and improving mental health. In: Hodgins S, editor. Violence among the mentally ill. Netherlands: 2000. pp. 119–44.
Webster CD, Douglas KS, Eaves D, Hart SD. Assessing risk of violence to others. III Practice Assessment. 1997:251–77.
Werner PD, Rose TL, Yesavage JA. Aspects of consensus in clinical predictions of short-term violence. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1990;46:534–8. [PubMed: 2212059]
Whittington R, Shuttleworth S, Hill L. Violence to staff in a general hospital setting. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1996;24:326–33. [PubMed: 8858437]
Yassi A, Tate R, Cooper J, Jenkins J, Trottier J. Causes of staff abuse in health care facilities: implications for prevention. AAOHN Journal: Official Journal of the American Association of Occupational health Nurses. 1998;46:484–91. [PubMed: 9830870]
Young MH, Justice J, Erdberg P. Risk factors for violent behavior among incarcerated male psychiatric patients: a multi-method approach. Assessment. 1999;6:243–58. [PubMed: 10445962]
Yudofsky SC, Silver JM, Jackson W, Endicott J, Williams D. The overt aggression scale for the objective rating of verbal and physical aggression. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1986;143:35–9. [PubMed: 3942284]
Zabow T, Cohen A. South African psychiatrists' criteria for predicting dangerousness. Medicine and Law. 1993;12:417–30. [PubMed: 8231715]
Zeiss RA, Tanke ED, Fenn HH, Yesavage JA. Dangerousness commitments: indices of future violence potential? Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law. 1996;24:247–53. [PubMed: 8807164]
Copyright © 2006, Royal College of Nursing.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,without prior permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. This publication may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by ways of trade in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published,without the prior consent of the Publishers.

Bookshelf ID: NBK55538
PubReader format: click here to try


  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page
  • PDF version of this title (1.2M)
  • Disable Glossary Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...