Table 4Risk factors for depression in the postnatal period identified by existing reviews

FactorEffect size d; 95% CINo. studies (no. participants where given)Effect size R; 95% CINo. studies (no. participants where given)
Depressed mood during pregnancyd = 0.75; 0.67, 0.83 (1)13R = 0.44; 0.435, 0.519 (2)21
Depression during pregnancyd = 0.75 (3)5 (n > 3,000)
Prenatal anxietyd = 0.68 (3)5 (n > 1,100)R = 0.41; 0.331, 0.531 (2)4
Social supportd = −0.63; −0.75, −0.51 (1)5R = 0.36; 0.362, 0.442 (2)27
d = −0.64 (3)5 (n > 3,100)
Recent life eventsd = 0.6; 0.54, 0.67 (1)15R = 0.38; 0.352 (2)16
d = 0.61 (3)3 (n ≥ 2,500)
History of depressionR = 0.39 (2)11d = 0.58 (3)4 (n > 3,700)
Psychiatric historyd = 0.57; 0.49, 0.65 (1)1212
Self-esteemR = 0.47; 0.403, 0.571 (2)6
Childcare stressR = 0.46; 0.42, 0.566 (2)7
Marital relationshipd = 0.39 (3)3 (n > 1,700)
Neuroticismd = 0.39 (3)3 (n > 600)
Birth complicationsd = 0.26; 0.19, 0.34 (1)13R = 0.39; 0.358, 0.46 (2)14
Marital discordd = −0.24; −0.39, −0.1 (1)Unclear
Obstetric factorsd − 0.26 (3)7 (n > 9,500)
Socioeconomic statusd = −0.14 (3)6 (n > 1,700)
Family history of depressiond = 0.05; −0.06, 0.16 (1)6

Notes: (1) O’Hara & Swain, 1996; (2) Beck, 2001; (3) Robertson et al., 2004

R values use the value weighted by sample size; R = 0.1 small, 0.3 medium, 0.5 large

d = 0.2 small, 0.5 medium, 0.8 large

From: 5, THE PREDICTION AND DETECTION OF MENTAL ILLNESS DURING PREGNANCY AND THE POSTNATAL PERIOD

Cover of Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health
Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health: The NICE Guideline on Clinical Management and Service Guidance.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 45.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).
Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society; 2007.
Copyright © 2007, The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

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