TABLE 2Maternal regulators of vertebrate development

GeneMolecular natureProcess implicatedNature of gene interferenceReferences
Animal-vegetal polarity, mRNA localization
buckyballNovel proteinZebrafish: Balbiani body formation. Animal vegetal oocyte and egg polarity. Germ plasm assemblyENU Mutant(Bontems et al., 2009; Dosch et al., 2004; Marlow and Mullins, 2008)
Magellan, macf1Microtubule actin crosslinking proteinZebrafish: Balbiani body translocation and disassembly. Oocyte and egg polarityENU Mutant(Dosch et al., 2004; Gupta et al., 2010)
VegTT-box transcriptional regulatorXenopus: Vegetal transcript localization in oocytes. Germ layer patterningOocyte depletion(Heasman et al., 2001; Zhang et al., 1998)
XlsirtsNon-coding RNAXenopus: Vegetal transcript localization in oocytesAntisense interference(Kloc and Etkin, 1994)
Oocyte maturation, meiosis
a kinase anchor protein 1 (AKAP1)A kinase anchor protein Meiotic maturation(Newhall et al., 2006)
cell division control protein 42, Cdc42Small GTPase Mouse: Oocyte polarity during meiosis SpindlesiRNA(Cui et al., 2007; Na and Zernicka-Goetz, 2006)
cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cdk2Cyclin-dependent kinaseCompletion of prophase IMouse: knoc kout (Berthet et al., 2003; Ortega et al., 2003)
cell division cycle 25 homolog B, cdc25bDual specificity phosphataseRelease from prophase I arrestMouse: Mutant(Lincoln et al., 2002)
cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3A, pde3acAMP hydrolyzing enzymeRelease from prophase I arrestMouse: Mutant(Masciarelli et al., 2004)
c-mosSerine/threonine kinaseMeiotic arrest/CSF arrestMouse: Mutant(Colledge et al., 1994; Hashimoto et al., 1994)
cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (cpeb)cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding proteinMouse: germ cell differentiation, follicle growthmutant(Racki and Richter, 2006; Tay and Richter, 2001)
endogenous meiotic inhibitor 2, emi2; erp 1APC/C inhibitorProgression to Meiosis IIanti-sense morpholino(Madgwick et al., 2006; Tay and Richter, 2001)
formin-2Formin homology geneMouse: Spindle polarity and polar body extrusion during Meiosis I, cytokinesisMutant(Dumont et al., 2007; Leader et al., 2002)
Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1)Heat shock factor 1Mouse: nuclear maturation, egg activation fertilizationknockout(Bierkamp et al., 2010; Christians et al., 2000; Metchat et al., 2009)
Maturation, cleavages(Zearfoss et al., 2004)
hermes/rbpmsRNA binding proteinmorpholino
mitotic arrest deficient 2, mad2spindle checkpoint proteinmorpholino
Oocyte maturation, meiosis
mismatch repair gene MutL homolog 1, Mlh1Mismatch repairMouse: Meiosis Zebrafish: MeiosisMouse: mutant Zebrafish: ENU mutant(Edelmann et al., 1996; Feitsma et al., 2007)
monopolar spindle 1, mps1kinaseZebrafish: MeiosisENU mutant(Poss et al., 2004)
over easyUnknownZebrafish: Cytoplasmic maturationENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
racSmall GTPaseMouse: Oocyte polarity during meiosis SpindlesiRNA(Cui et al., 2007)
ruehreiUnknownZebrafish: Cytoplasmic maturationENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
sunny side upUnknownZebrafish: Cytoplasmic maturationENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
souffleUnknownZebrafish: Cytoplasmic maturationENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
t-complex distorter encoding a dynein light chain, tctex/Tex14t-complex distorter encoding a dynein light chainMouse: mutants produce fewer oocytes, ring canal developmentknockout(Caggese et al., 2001)
ziliPiwi-clade of Argonaute (Ago) proteinsZebrafish: meiosisENU mutant(Houwing et al., 2008)
brom bones/hnRNP1/PTBHeteronuclear RNA binding protein/poly pyrimidine tract binding proteinZebrafish: Egg Activation; dorsal axis specificationENU mutant(Wagner et al., 2004)(Mei et al., 2009)
Egg Activation
ClaustroUnknownEgg activation/cytoplasmic segregationENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004; Pelegri and Schulte Merker, 1999)
emulsionUnknownEgg activation/cytoplasmic segregationENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
FatVg/adipophilinLipid vesicle- associated proteinCortical rotation, dorsal axis formation, and germ plasm segregationOocyte depletion(Chan et al., 2007)
jumpstartUnknownEgg activationENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
tripartite motif 36, trim36Ubiquitin ligaseXenopus: Cortical rotationOocyte depletion(Cuykendall and Houston 2009)
under repairUnknownEgg activation/cytoplasmic segregationENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004; Pelegri and Schulte–Merker, 1999)
Fertilization
basonuclinZinc finger proteinMouse: oocyte morphology. RNA polI an II transcription during oogenesis. Chromatin decondensation and DNA replication at 1 cell stageTransgenic RNAi oocyte depletion(Ma et al., 2006)
zona pellucida 1, zp1Extracellular coat formationMouse: mutant(Hedgepeth et al., 1999)
zona pellucida 2, zp2Extracellular coat formation and sperm bindingMouse: mutant(Carvan et al., 2001)
GeneMolecular natureProcess implicatedNature of gene interferenceReferences
zona pellucida 3, zp3Extracellular coat formation and sperm recognitionMouse: mutant(Rankin et al., 1996) (Andreuccetti et al., 1999)
phosphatidylinositolglycan class A (pig-a)GPI-anchor biosynthesis proteinMouse: sperm/egg fusionMouse:knockout mutant(Alfieri et al., 2003)
folliculogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix, Fig-aTranscription factorMouse: zona pellucidaformationMutant(Soyal et al., 2000)
Ubiquitin Carboxy-terminal Esterase L 1, UCHL 1Deubiquitinating enzymeMouse: blocking polyspermyMutant(Sekiguchi et al., 2006)
Maternal regulators of imprinting
DNA methyltransferase (cytosine-5) 1o, Dnmt1oDNA methyltransferaseMaintenance of DNA methylation patternMouse: knockout(Howell et al., 2001)
DNA methyltransferase (cytosine-5) 1, Dnmt1DNA methyltransferaseMouse: maintenance of DNA methylation pattern Xenopus: repression of zygotic transcriptionMouse knockout Xenopus: de pletion(Dunican et al., 2008; Stancheva and Meehan, 2000)
DNA methyltransferase 3L, Dnmt3LDNA methyltransferaseMouse: establishment of DNA methylation patternMouse: knockout(Bourc’his et al., 2001)
DNA methyltransferase 3a, Dnmt3aDNA methyltransferaseMouse: establishment of DNA methylation patternMouse: knockout(Kaneda et al., 2004)
Zinc finger protein 57, Zfp57KRAB zinc finger proteinMouse: maternal/zygotic establishment and maintenance of specific ICRsMouse: knockout Human: mutations(Li et al., 2008; Mackay et al., 2008)
developmental pluripotency associated 3, Dppa3; Stella; PGC7DNA/RNA binding protein with a characterized nuclear localization sequenceMouse: maintenace of paternal specific methylationMutant(Bortvin et al., 2004; Nakamura et al., 2007; Payer et al., 2003)
Cleavage, mitosis
acytokinesisUnknownZebrafishENU mutant(Kishimoto et al., 2004)
atomosUnknownZebrafish: karyokinesis and cytokinesisENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
auraUnknownZebrafish: cytokinesis/ membraneENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
barretteUnknownZebrafish: karyokinesis and cytokinesis/membrane depositionENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
cellular atoll, Sas6Centriolar coiled coil proteinZebrafish: cytokinesis, centrosome assemblyENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004; Yabe et al., 2007)
cellular islandUnknownZebrafish: cytokinesisENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
cobblestoneUnknownZebrafish: reduced cleavages/fewer cellsENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
Eg5, kinesin-like protein 11Kinesin motor proteinMouse: cleavage, spindleGene trap insertion(Castillo and Justice, 2007)
futile cycleUnknownZebrafish: pronuclear congressionENU mutant(Dekens et al., 2003; Pelegri et al., 2004)
GeneMolecular natureProcess implicatedNature of gene interferenceReferences
gemininGemininMouse: cytokinesisMutant(Gonzalez et al., 2006; Hara et al., 2006)
indivisibleUnknownZebrafish: karyokinesis and cytokinesisENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
irreducibleUnknownZebrafish: karyokinesis and cytokinesisENU mutant(Dosch et al., 2004)
mos (map kinase)kinaseXenopus: M-phase delay first cleavage(Murakami et al., 1999)
nebelUnknownZebrafish: cytokinesis/ furrow formationENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004; Pelegri et al., 1999)
partner of inscrutable,pinsGo Loco G protein regulatory proteinMouse: spindleRNAi(Guo and Gao, 2009)
Post meiotic segregation increased 2, pms2; mulLHistidine kinase-like ATPase; DNA mismatch repair proteinMouse: DNA mismatch repairMutant(Gurtu et al., 2002)
RGS14 regulator of G protein signaling 14GTPase- activating proteinMouse: mitotic spindle formationTargeted deletion(Martin-McCaffrey et al., 2004)
T cell leukemia/ lymphoma 1 gene, TCL 1Cofactor of Akt1 in cell cultureCleavageMouse: knockout(Narducci et al., 2002)
weebleUnknownZebrafish: partial cytokinesisENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
zygotic arrest 1, Zar1ATP-dependent RNA helicaseMouse: pronuclear congression, activation of zygotic genesENU mutant/ knockout(Wu et al., 2003)
γ-Tubulin, TUBG1TubulinMouse: polar body extrusion, karyokinesis, spindle formationKnockout mouse(Barrett and Albertini, 2007; Yuba-Kubo et al., 2005)
bo peepUnknownZebrafish: DNA loss/ fragmentationENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
golden gateUnknownZebrafish: defective chromatin segregationENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
kwaiUnknownZebrafish: defective chromatin segregationENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
screeching haltUnknownZebrafish: chromatin bridges. Development stalls at MBT (MZT)ENU mutant(Wagner et al., 2004)
waldoUnknownZebrafish: DNA loss/fragmentationENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
Maternal to zygotic transition (MZT)/zygotic genome activation ZGA/ embryonic genome activation (EGA)
argonaute 2, ago2ArgonauteMouse: oogenesis, ZGA mRNA decay (subset) Zebrafish: MZ erythrocyte maturationKnockdown(Cifuentes et al., 2010; Kaneda et al., 2009; Lykke-Andersen et al., 2008)
autophagy related 5 atg5Protein bindingMouse: developmental progression; preimplantation developmentMouse: oocyte knockout(Tsukamoto et al., 2008a; Tsukamoto et al., 2008b)
brahma related gene, BRG1; SWI/SNF-related, Matrix- associated, Actin-dependent Regulator Chromatin 4, SMARCA4; Sucrose Non Fermentation 2b, SNF2Lb, SNF2b, BAF 190HelicaseMouse: maternal zygotictransition-activation of a subset zygotic targetsNull mutant(Bultman et al., 2000; Bultman et al., 2006)
Bromodomain and WD repeat containing protein, Brwd1; wdr9Dual bromodomain and WD repeat containing proteinMouse: meiosis, embryonic genome activationMutant(Huang et al., 2003; Lessard et al., 2004; Philipps et al., 2008)
cyclinA2CyclinMouse: embryonic genome activation at the one-cell stagesiRNA(Hara et al., 2005)
CCCTC-binding factor, ctcfZinc finger DNA binding proteinMouse: transcriptional activator, repressor, and epigenetic regulator of imprintingRNAi(Wan et al., 2008)
dicer, MiR-430dsRNA-specific ribonucleaseZebrafish: maternal zygotic- Deadenylation and decay of maternal transcriptsMouse: meiotic progression/mRNA clearance at maturationENU mutant mouse: ZPC Cre knockout(Giraldez et al., 2006; Murchison et al., 2007)
dgcr8Double-stranded RNA binding proteinMouse: RNA clearance in the embryoMutant(Suh et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2007)
hr6, rad6Rad-related ubiquitin conjugating DNA repair enzymeMouse: development beyond two-cellMutant(Roest et al., 2004)
nucleoplasmin 2 (npm2)Binds histonesMouse: exit from the firstmitotic divisionMouse: Mutant(Burns et al., 2003)
Sucrose Non Fermentation 2H, snf2H; SWI/SNF-related, Matrix-associated, Actin-dependent Regulator Chromatin 5, SMARCA5HelicaseMouse: EGA activation of a subset of TIF targetsRNAi(Torres-Padilla and Zernicka-Goetz, 2006)
stem loop binding protein, SLBPStem loop binding proteinMouse: development beyond two-cell stageKnockout(Arnold et al., 2008)
TIFα, Transcription Intermediary FactorTranscription factorMouse: EGARNAi(Torres-Padilla and Zernicka-Goetz, 2006)
Zinc finger protein 36 like 2 (TIS11D, ERF2, and BRF2)Zinc finger proteinMouse: degradation of maternal mRNAsTargeted disruption(Ramos et al., 2004)
Epiboly, tissue cohesiveness, EVL differentiation
α-CateninArmadillo/beta-catenin like repeat proteinXenopus: adhesion in blastulaOocyte depletion(Kofron et al., 1997)
bedazzledUnknownZebrafish: epibolyENU mutant(Wagner et al., 2004)
betty boop/Map kap kinase2KinaseZebrafish: epibolyENU mutant(Holloway et al., 2009; Wagner et al., 2004)
E-Cadherin EP-Cadherin E-Cadherin half-bakedGlycoproteinMouse: compaction of ICM Xenopus: adhesion during cleavage Zebrafish: epithelial formation and maintenance during epibolyMouse: adhesionMouse: mutant, antibody depletion Zebrafish: ENU mutant(Larue et al., 1994) (Heasman et al., 1994) (Kane et al., 2005)(De Vries et al., 2004)
EP-CAM, TacstdType I transmembrane glycoproteinZebrafish: EpibolyZebrafish: retroviral insertion mutant(Amsterdam and Hopkins, 1999; Slanchev et al., 2009)
Interferon Regulatory Factor 6, Irf6N-terminal helix-turn helix transcription factorZebrafish/Xenopus: epibolyMorpholino(Sabel, d’Alencon et al., 2009)
janusUnknownZebrafish: blastoderm cohesivenessMutant(Abdelilah and Driever, 1997; Abdelilah et al., 1994)
mission impossibleUnknownZebrafish: gastrulation/ epibolyENU mutant(Pelegri et al., 2004)
plakoglobinCateninXenopus: adhesion in blastulaOocyte depletion(Kofron et al., 1997)
poky, IKKIKK kinaseZebrafish: epiboly, EVLdifferentiationENU mutant(Fukazawa et al., 2010; Wagner et al., 2004)
slowUnknownZebrafish: epibolyENU mutant(Wagner et al., 2004)
yoboUnknownZebrafish: epibolyENU mutant(Odenthal et al., 1996)
Patterning and morphogenesis
AxinCytoplasmic regulation of G-protein signaling (RGS) domainXenopus: dorsal–ventral axis formationOocyte depletion(Kofron et al., 2001)
β-Catenin (Ichabod)Armadillo/beta-catenin repeat proteinXenopus: dorsal axis specification Zebrafish: dorsal axis specificationMouse: adhesionZebrafish: mutant Xenopus: oocyte depletion(Bellipanni et al., 2006; Kelly et al., 1998) (De Vries et al., 2004)
activin-like receptor 8, alk8;lost a fin, lafTGF-β/BMP receptorZebrafish: maternal zygotic ventral specificationENU mutant(Mintzer et al., 2001)
blisteredUnknownZebrafish: ventral tail veinENU mutant(Wagner et al., 2004)
brom bones/hnRNP1/PTBHeteronuclear RNAbinding protein/ poly pyrimidine tract binding proteinZebrafish: egg activation; dorsal axis specificationENU mutant(Wagner et al., 2004)(Mei et al., 2009)
cAMP response element-binding, CREBLeucine zipper transcription factorXenopus: morphogenesis, mesoderm specificationOocyte depletion(Sundaram et al., 2003)
dickkopf-related protein 1; dkk 1Secreted Wnt inhibitorXenopus: dorsa–ventral axis formationOocyte depletion(Cha, Tadjuidje et al., 2008)
eomesoderminT box transcription factorZebrafish: mesoderm patterningMorpholino(Bruce et al., 2003)
GeneMolecular natureProcess implicatedNature of gene interferenceReferences
Exostosin-1, Ext1glycosyl transferase ExostinXenopus: dorsal axis formationOocyte depletion(Tao, Yokota et al., 2005)
GBP glycogen synthase kinase binding proteinT Cell protooncogene homolog. GSK3 inhibitorXenopus: dorsal axis specification.Oocyte depletion(Yost et al., 1998)
forkhead box protein, foxH1; fastH1, schmalspur (sur)Forkhead transcription factorXenopus: dorsal axis formation. Transcriptional repression of nodal signaling (Xnr5 and Xnr6) on the ventral side, and activation of Xnr3. Zebrafish: maternal zygotic—mesendoderm formationZebrafish: ENU mutant(Kofron et al., 2004)(Pogoda et al., 2000; Sirotkin et al., 2000)
hecateUnknownZebrafish: dorsal axis specificationENU mutant(Lyman Gingerich et al., 2005; Pelegri et al., 2004)
Knypek, knyGlypicanZebrafish: gastrulation, neurulation, cilia polarityMZ mutant(Borovina, Superina et al., 2010)
lazarus, pbx4Homeodomain proteinZebrafish: maternal zygotic—hindbrain formationENU mutant(Waskiewicz et al., 2001)
Ligand of Numb protein-X (Lnx-1)E3 ubiquitin ligaseZebrafish: dorsal-ventral axis formationMorpholino(Ro and Dawid 2009)
LRP6, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteinXenopus: maintains β-catenin levels in ooctytes by degrading Axin protein.Gastrulation and dorsal axis specificationOocyte depletion(Kofron et al., 2007)
ogon, sizzledSecreted frizzled related inhibitor. BMP antagonistZebrafish: maternal zygotic dorsal–vental patterningENU mutant(Miller-Bertoglio et al., 1999; Wagner and Mullins, 2002; Yabe et al., 2003)
one-eyed pinhead (oep)/ EGFCFCNodal cofactorZebrafish: maternal zygotic. Patterning mesendoderm along the animal-vegetal axisENU mutant(Gritsman et al., 1999)
oval; intraflagellar transport protein 88, Ift88Tetratrico peptide repeat (TPR)Zebrafish: cilia formation Hedgehog signalingMZ mutant(Huang and Schier 2009)
pol delta 1, flathead, flaDNA polymerasesubunitZebrafish: replication, mitotic exitENU mutant(Plaster et al., 2006)
pollywogUnknownZebrafish: rostral andcaudal morphogenesisENU mutant(Wagner et al., 2004)
POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1 pou5f1/pou2; octamerbinding transcription factor 4oct4;speil ohne grenzen, spgHomeodomain transcription factorZebrafish: maternal zygotic regulation of epiboly endoderm formationMouse: development prior to blastocystZebrafish: ENUmutant Mouse: morpholino(Foygel et al., 2008; Lunde et al., 2004; Reim et al., 2004) (Reim and Brand 2006)
pugUnknownZebrafish: posterior bodymorphogenesisENU mutant(Wagner et al., 2004)
radar;gdf6TGF-β signalingmoleculeZebrafish: ventral axis specificationENU mutant(Goutel et al., 2000; Sidi et al., 2003)
runt-related transcription factor, runx2btTranscription factorZebrafish: ventral axisspecificationMorpholino(Flores et al., 2008)
scribble, landlockedLeucine-rich, PDZ domain proteinZebrafish: maternal zygotic gastrulation movementsENU mutant(Wada et al., 2005)
somitabun, piggy tail, Smad5Transducer, SMADZebrafish: (somitabun)dominant maternal effect ventral fates. (piggy tail) maternal zygotic ventral specificationENU mutant(Hild et al., 1999; Kramer et al., 2002; Mullins et al., 1996)
SRY-related HMG box transcription factor 3, sox3SRY-related HMG box transcription factorXenopus: patterning, restriction of Xnr5 expressionAntibody interferenceXenopus: (Zhang et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2003)
Zebrafish: limits expression of the Nodal related cyclops
squint Nodal-related 2Nodal ligandZebrafish: maternal zygotic. Patterning mesendoderm along the animal– vegetal axisENU mutant morpholino(Bennett et al., 2007; Dougan et al., 2003; Feldman et al., 2000; Gore et al., 2005; Pei et al., 2007)
Tokkaebi, tkk; SyntabulinKinesin I motor linker proteinZebrafish: dorsal axis specificationENU mutant(Nojima et al., 2010; Nojima et al., 2004)
Trilobite, tri; van goghTransmembrane PDZdomain-binding proteinZebrafish: gastrulation, neurulation, cilia polarityMZ mutant zygotic mutant plus morpholino(Borovina, Superina et al., 2010; Jessen et al., 2002)
Vg1; growth differentiation factor 1, Gdf1TGF-β family ligandXenopus: gastrulationand axial mesoderm specificationXenopus: oocyte depletion(Birsoy et al., 2006)
wnt 5; pipetail, pptWnt ligandXenopus: maintains β-catenin levels in ooctytes by degrading Axin protein.Xenopus: oocyte depletionXenopus: (Cha et al., 2008)
Gastrulation and dorsal Zebrafish: gastrulation and neural tube formationZebrafish: MZ mutantZebrafish: (Ciruna et al., 2006)
wnt11; silberblick, slbWnt ligandXenopus: maintains β-catenin levels in ooctytes by degrading Axin protein.Xenopus: oocyte depletionXenopus: (Kofron et al., 2007; Tao et al., 2005b)
Gastrulation and dorsal axis specification Zebrafish: gastrulation and neural tube formationZebrafish: MZ mutantZebrafish: (Ciruna et al., 2006)
Xfrizzled 7, Xfz7Wnt receptorXenopus: dorsal mesoderm, dorsoanterior patterningOocyte depletion(Nasevicius et al., 1998)
Xpace4;subtisilin-kexin like 4pro-protein convertaseXenopus:mesoderm inductionOocyte depletion(Birsoy, Berg et al. 2005)
T- cell factor1, Xtcf1HMG-box superfamily of DNA-binding proteinsXenopus: dorsal axis. Promotes Wnt targets dorsally and represses Wnt signaling in ventrolateral regions.Oocyte depletion(Standley et al., 2006)
Xtcf3, headless/tcf3, T- cell factor3HMG-box superfamily of DNA-binding proteinsXenopus: represses Wnt signaling in ventral and lateral regions.Xenopus: Oocyte depletion(Houston et al., 2002)
Zebrafish: maternal zygotic—head morphogenesisZebrafish: ENUmutant(Kim et al., 2000)
T- cell factor4, Xtcf4HMG-box superfamily of DNA-binding proteinsXenopus: dorsal axis specification. Activation of nodal Xnr3 and chordinOocyte depletion(Standley et al., 2006)
Zinc finger protein 2, zic2Odd-paired classtranscription factorXenopus: limiting nodalOocyte depletion(Houston and Wylie, 2005)
Subcortical maternal complex and lineage specification in the mouse
Cdx2homeobox transcription factorMouse: TE specificationOocyte depletion(Jedrusik, Parfitt et al. 2008)
filiaNovelMouse: spindleMutant(Tong et al., 2000a; Tong et al., 2000b; Zheng and Dean, 2009)
Maternal antigen that embryos require, Mater; Nalp14; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 5, Nlrp5Leucine-rich repeat leucine zipper protein, NACHTMouse: reduced expression of EGA genes, progression beyond 2 Cell stageNull mutant(Tong et al., 2000a)
Maternal oocyte expressed protein 19, moep19; Factor located in oocytes permitting embryonic development, flopped;ces5KH-domain family RNA binding proteinMouse: cytoplasmic lattice formationMutant(Li, Baibakov et al., 2008; Tashiro, Kanai-Azuma et al., 2010)
peptidylarginine deiminase (Padi6)Peptidyl arginine deiminaseMouse: cytoplasmic lattice formationMutant(Esposito, Vitale et al., 2007; Yurttas, Vitale et al., 2008 )
Adhesion/cohesion
lysophosphatidic acid 1 (LPA1)G-protein-coupled-cellsurface receptorXenopus: cortical actin assemblyOocyte depletion(Lloyd et al., 2005)
lysophosphatidic acid 2 (LPA2)G-protein- coupled-cell surface receptorXenopus: cortical actin assemblyOocyte depletion(Lloyd et al., 2005)
XflopG-protein- coupled-cell surface receptorXenopus: cortical actin assemblyOocyte depletion(Tao et al., 2005a; Tao et al., 2007)
Germline specification and maintenance
nanosRNA binding proteinZebrafish: PGC maintenanceENU mutant(Draper et al., 2007)
Persisting maternal function
aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, aldh2Retinaldehyde dehydrogenaseZebrafish: endoderm developmentMutant plus inhibitor(Alexa, Choe et al. 2009)
flat head/pol delta 1pol delta 1Zebrafish: viabilityMutant/ ENU, insertion(Plaster et al., 2006)
phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetase, gartPhosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetaseZebrafish: maternal zygtoic: pigmentation, axisMutant(Ng, Uribe et al., 2009)
mcm5, minichromosome maintenance 5AAA ATPaseZebrafish: replication, phase progression/ mitotic exitSENU mutant(Ryu et al., 2005)
misty somitesNovelZebrafish: somite boundary formationInsertion(Kotani and Kawakami, 2008)
phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase, phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase, paicsPhosphoribosylaminoimidazole Succinocarboxamide synthetaseZebrafish: maternalzygtoic: pigmentationMutant(Ng, Uribe et al., 2009)
topoisomerase 2AtopoisomeraseZebrafish: viabilityMutant insertion(Dovey et al., 2009)

From: Preparing Developmentally Competent Eggs

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Maternal Control of Development in Vertebrates: My Mother Made Me Do It!
Marlow FL.
San Rafael (CA): Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences; 2010.
Copyright © 2010 by Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences.

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