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Bar chart of the number of C D 4-positive T cells, C D 8-positive T cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear neutrophils cells in the lung (ten to the eighth power) comparing acontrol group (52 ± 8 pack-years) with a severe emphysema group (67 ± 13 pack-years).

Figure 7.12Persistent innate and adaptive immune inflammatory response in alveolar tissue

Source: Data from Table 3 in Retamales et al. 2001.

Note: Adaptive immune inflammatory response is present in the lungs of long-term smokers with normal lung function, is amplified in smokers who develop severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and persists many years after smoking cessation.

CD4+ = CD4-positive T cells; CD8+ = CD8-positive T cells; Mac = macrophages; PMN = polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

aPack-years = the number of years of smoking multiplied by the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day.

*p <0.05.

From: 7, Pulmonary Diseases

Cover of How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease
How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US).

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