FIGURE 2-4. Phylogenetic tree of West Nile virus.

FIGURE 2-4Phylogenetic tree of West Nile virus

Only lineage 1 viruses are frequently associated with human or animal disease. Note the genetic similarity of isolates identified from recent human outbreaks in Romania, Senegal, Morocco, Russia, Israel, and the United States. The U.S. isolates are nearly genetically identical to those found in Israel, suggesting importation from the Middle East.

SOURCE: From Lanciotti et al. (1999). Reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

From: 2, Vector-Borne Disease Detection and Control

Cover of Vector-Borne Diseases
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections, Workshop Summary.
Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2008.
Copyright © 2008, National Academy of Sciences.

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