NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Lin JS, O’Connor E, Whitlock EP, et al. Behavioral Counseling to Promote Physical Activity and a Healthful Diet to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease in Adults: Update of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2010 Dec. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 79.)

Cover of Behavioral Counseling to Promote Physical Activity and a Healthful Diet to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease in Adults

Behavioral Counseling to Promote Physical Activity and a Healthful Diet to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease in Adults: Update of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].

Show details

References

1.
Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep. 1985;100:126–131. [PMC free article: PMC1424733] [PubMed: 3920711]
2.
Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291:1238–1245. [PubMed: 15010446]
3.
McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993;270:2207–2212. [PubMed: 8411605]
4.
Institute of Medicine. DRI Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.
5.
Joint WHO-FAO Expert Consultation. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases WHO Technical Report Series No 916. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003. [PubMed: 12768890]
6.
Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.
7.
Warburton DE, Katzmarzyk PT, Rhodes RE, Shephard RJ. Evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for Canadian adults. Can J Public Health. 2007;98( Suppl 2):S16–S68. [PubMed: 18213940]
8.
Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1423–1434. [PubMed: 17762377]
9.
Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 1995;273:402–407. [PubMed: 7823386]
10.
Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1435–1445. [PubMed: 17762378]
11.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Midcourse Review: Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2006.
12.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. 6th edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.
13.
Wells HF. Dietary Assessment of Major Trends in U.S. Food Consumption, 1970–2005 Economic Information Bulletin No 33. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service; 2008.
14.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity by race/ethnicity—United States, 2005. MMWR. 2007;56:301–304. [PubMed: 17410082]
15.
Trost SG, Owen N, Bauman AE, Sallis JF, Brown W. Correlates of adults’ participation in physical activity: review and update. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34:1996–2001. [PubMed: 12471307]
16.
Stringhini S, Sabia S, Shipley M, et al. Association of socioeconomic position with health behaviors and mortality. JAMA. 2010;303:1159–1166. [PMC free article: PMC2918905] [PubMed: 20332401]
17.
Nelson M, Erens B, Bates B, Church S, Boshier T. Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey: Summary of Key Findings. Norwich, United Kingdom: The Stationery Office; 2007.
18.
Allender S, Cowburn G, Foster C. Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: a review of qualitative studies. Health Educ Res. 2006;21:826–835. [PubMed: 16857780]
19.
Handy SL, Boarnet MG, Ewing R, Killingsworth RE. How the built environment affects physical activity: views from urban planning. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23:64–73. [PubMed: 12133739]
20.
Hiddink GJ, Hautvast JG, van Woerkum CM, Fieren CJ, van ‘t Hof MA. Consumer’s expectations about nutrition guidance: the importance of primary care physicians. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(6 Suppl):S1974–S1979. [PubMed: 9174506]
21.
Glasgow RE, Eakin EG, Fisher EB, Bacak SJ, Brownson RC. Physician advice and support for physical activity: results from a national survey. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21:189–196. [PubMed: 11567839]
22.
Kreuter MW, Chheda SG, Bull FC. How does physician advice influence patient behavior? Evidence for a priming effect. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:426–433. [PubMed: 10810947]
23.
Sinclair J, Lawson B, Burge F. Which patients receive advice on diet and exercise? Do certain characteristics affect whether they receive such advice? Can Fam Physician. 2008;54:404–412. [PMC free article: PMC2278358] [PubMed: 18337535]
24.
Eden KB, Orleans CT, Mulrow CD, Pender NJ, Teutsch SM. Clinician Counseling to Promote Physical Activity Systematic Evidence Review No 9. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2002.
25.
Activity Counseling Trial Research Group. Effects of physical activity counseling in primary care: the Activity Counseling Trial, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;286:677–687. [PubMed: 11495617]
26.
Ammerman A, Pignone M, Fernandez L, et al. Counseling to Promote a Healthy Diet Systematic Evidence Review No 18. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2003.
27.
U.S Preventive Services Task Force. US Preventive Services Task Force Procedure Manual AHRQ Publication No. 08-05118-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008.
28.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The Guidelines Manual. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2006.
29.
Higgins JP, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2002;21:1539–1558. [PubMed: 12111919]
30.
Egger M, Davey SG, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315:629–634. [PMC free article: PMC2127453] [PubMed: 9310563]
31.
Terrin N, Schmid CH, Lau J. In an empirical evaluation of the funnel plot, researchers could not visually identify publication bias. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005;58:894–901. [PubMed: 16085192]
32.
Aittasalo M, Miilunpalo S, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Pasanen M. A randomized intervention of physical activity promotion and patient self-monitoring in primary health care. Prev Med. 2006;42:40–46. [PubMed: 16297442]
33.
De Vet E, Oenema A, Sheeran P, Brug J. Should implementation intentions interventions be implemented in obesity prevention: the impact of if-then plans on daily physical activity in Dutch adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009;6:11. [PMC free article: PMC2662780] [PubMed: 19267889]
34.
Delichatsios HK, Friedman RH, Glanz K, et al. Randomized trial of a “talking computer” to improve adults’ eating habits. Am J Health Promot. 2001;15:215–224. [PubMed: 11349340]
35.
Pinto BM, Friedman R, Marcus BH, Kelley H, Tennstedt S, Gillman MW. Effects of a computer-based, telephone-counseling system on physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23:113–120. [PubMed: 12121799]
36.
Elley CR, Kerse N, Arroll B, Robinson E. Effectiveness of counselling patients on physical activity in general practice: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2003;326:793. [PMC free article: PMC153098] [PubMed: 12689976]
37.
Kerse N, Elley CR, Robinson E, Arroll B. Is physical activity counseling effective for older people? A cluster randomized, controlled trial in primary care. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:1951–1956. [PubMed: 16274377]
38.
Goldstein MG, Pinto BM, Marcus BH, et al. Physician-based physical activity counseling for middle-aged and older adults: a randomized trial. Ann Behav Med. 1999;21:40–47. [PubMed: 18425653]
39.
Pinto BM, Goldstein MG, DePue JD, Milan FB. Acceptability and feasibility of physician-based activity counseling: the PAL project. Am J Prev Med. 1998;15:95–102. [PubMed: 9713664]
40.
Grandes G, Sanchez A, Sanchez-Pinilla RO, et al. Effectiveness of physical activity advice and prescription by physicians in routine primary care: a cluster randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:694–701. [PubMed: 19364999]
41.
Green BB, McAfee T, Hindmarsh M, Madsen L, Caplow M, Buist D. Effectiveness of telephone support in increasing physical activity levels in primary care patients. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22:177–183. [PubMed: 11897462]
42.
Greene GW, Fey-Yensan N, Padula C, Rossi SR, Rossi JS, Clark PG. Change in fruit and vegetable intake over 24 months in older adults: results of the SENIOR project intervention. Gerontologist. 2008;48:378–387. [PubMed: 18591363]
43.
Greaney ML, Riebe D, Ewing GC, et al. Long-term effects of a stage-based intervention for changing exercise intentions and behavior in older adults. Gerontologist. 2008;48:358–367. [PubMed: 18591361]
44.
Halbert JA, Silagy CA, Finucane PM, Withers RT, Hamdorf PA. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors: effect of advice from an exercise specialist in Australian general practice. Med J Aust. 2000;173:84–87. [PubMed: 10937036]
45.
Halbert JA, Silagy CA, Finucane P, Withers RT, Hamdorf PA. Recruitment of older adults for a randomized, controlled trial of exercise advice in a general practice setting. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999;47:477–481. [PubMed: 10203125]
46.
Harland J, White M, Drinkwater C, Chinn D, Farr L, Howel D. The Newcastle exercise project: a randomised controlled trial of methods to promote physical activity in primary care. BMJ. 1999;319:828–832. [PMC free article: PMC314213] [PubMed: 10496829]
47.
Hellenius ML, de Faire U, Berglund B, Hamsten A, Krakau I. Diet and exercise are equally effective in reducing risk for CVD: results of a randomized controlled study in men with slightly to moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis. 1993;103:81–91. [PubMed: 8280188]
48.
Hellenius ML, Dahlof C, Aberg H, Krakau I, de Faire U. Quality of life is not negatively affected by diet and exercise intervention in healthy men with cardiovascular risk factors. Qual Life Res. 1995;4:13–20. [PubMed: 7711685]
49.
Naslund GK, Fredrikson M, Hellenius ML, de Faire U. Effect of diet and physical exercise intervention programmes on coronary heart disease risk in smoking and non-smoking men in Sweden. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1996;50:131–136. [PMC free article: PMC1060239] [PubMed: 8762375]
50.
Kallings LV, Sierra Johnson J, Fisher RM, et al. Beneficial effects of individualized physical activity on prescription on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors: results from a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2009;16:80–84. [PubMed: 19237997]
51.
Kallings LV. Physical Activity on Prescription: Studies on Physical Activity Level, Adherence, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Stockholm, Sweden: Karolinska Institutet; 2008.
52.
Katz DL, Shuval K, Comerford BP, Faridi Z, Njike VY. Impact of an educational intervention on internal medicine residents’ physical activity counselling: the Pressure System Model. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008;14:294–299. [PubMed: 18324934]
53.
King AC, Baumann K, O’Sullivan P, Wilcox S, Castro C. Effects of moderate-intensity exercise on physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses to family caregiving: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol Series A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002;57:M26–M36. [PubMed: 11773209]
54.
Castro CM, Wilcox S, O’Sullivan P, Baumann K, King AC. An exercise program for women who are caring for relatives with dementia. Psychosom Med. 2002;64:458–468. [PubMed: 12021419]
55.
King AC, Friedman R, Marcus B, et al. Ongoing physical activity advice by humans versus computers: the Community Health Advice by Telephone (CHAT) trial. Health Psychol. 2007;26:718–727. [PubMed: 18020844]
56.
Kinmonth AL, Wareham NJ, Hardeman W, et al. Efficacy of a theory-based behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in an at-risk group in primary care (ProActive UK): a randomised trial. Lancet. 2008;371:41–48. [PubMed: 18177774]
57.
Williams K, Prevost AT, Griffin S, et al. The ProActive trial protocol: a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a family-based, domiciliary intervention programme to increase physical activity among individuals at high risk of diabetes. BMC Public Health. 2004;4:48. [PMC free article: PMC526256] [PubMed: 15491494]
58.
Kolt GS, Schofield GM, Kerse N, Garrett N, Oliver M. Effect of telephone counseling on physical activity for low-active older people in primary care: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55:986–992. [PubMed: 17608869]
59.
Lawton BA, Rose SB, Elley CR, Dowell AC, Fenton A, Moyes SA. Exercise on prescription for women aged 40–74 recruited through primary care: two year randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a2509. [PMC free article: PMC2769033] [PubMed: 19074218]
60.
Marcus BH, Napolitano MA, King AC, et al. Telephone versus print delivery of an individualized motivationally tailored physical activity intervention: Project STRIDE. Health Psychol. 2007;26:401–409. [PubMed: 17605559]
61.
Marshall AL, Bauman AE, Owen N, Booth ML, Crawford D, Marcus BH. Population-based randomized controlled trial of a stage-targeted physical activity intervention. Ann Behav Med. 2003;25:194–202. [PubMed: 12763714]
62.
Martinson BC, Crain AL, Sherwood NE, Hayes M, Pronk NP, O’Connor PJ. Maintaining physical activity among older adults: six-month outcomes of the Keep Active Minnesota randomized controlled trial. Prev Med. 2008;46:111–119. [PMC free article: PMC2350214] [PubMed: 17904629]
63.
Sherwood NE, Martinson BC, Crain AL, Hayes MG, Pronk NP, O’Connor PJ. A new approach to physical activity maintenance: rationale, design, and baseline data from the Keep Active Minnesota Trial. BMC Geriatrics. 2008;8:17. [PMC free article: PMC2533665] [PubMed: 18655709]
64.
Morey MC, Peterson MJ, Pieper CF, et al. The Veterans Learning to Improve Fitness and Function in Elders Study: a randomized trial of primary care-based physical activity counseling for older men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:1166–1174. [PMC free article: PMC2757328] [PubMed: 19467149]
65.
Morey MC, Peterson MJ, Pieper CF, et al. Project LIFE—Learning to Improve Fitness and Function in Elders: methods, design, and baseline characteristics of randomized trial. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008;45:31–42. [PubMed: 18566924]
66.
Napolitano MA, Whiteley JA, Papandonatos G, et al. Outcomes from the women’s wellness project: a community-focused physical activity trial for women. Prev Med. 2006;43:447–453. [PubMed: 16919322]
67.
Dutton GR, Napolitano MA, Whiteley JA, Marcus BH. Is physical activity a gateway behavior for diet? Findings from a physical activity trial. Prev Med. 2008;46:216–221. [PubMed: 18234327]
68.
Norris SL, Grothaus LC, Buchner DM, Pratt M. Effectiveness of physician-based assessment and counseling for exercise in a staff model HMO. Prev Med. 2000;30:513–523. [PubMed: 10901494]
69.
Pinto BM, Goldstein MG, Ashba J, Sciamanna CN, Jette A. Randomized controlled trial of physical activity counseling for older primary care patients. Am J Prev Med. 2005;29:247–255. [PubMed: 16242586]
70.
Stensel DJ, Brooke-Wavell K, Hardman AE, Jones PR, Norgan NG. The influence of a 1-year programme of brisk walking on endurance fitness and body composition in previously sedentary men aged 42–59 years. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994;68:531–537. [PubMed: 7957147]
71.
Stewart AL, Verboncoeur CJ, McLellan BY, et al. Physical activity outcomes of CHAMPS II: a physical activity promotion program for older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56:M465–M470. [PMC free article: PMC1780022] [PubMed: 11487597]
72.
Yates T, Davies M, Gorely T, et al. Twelve-month follow-up from the PREPARE (Prediabetes Risk Education and Physical Activity Recommendation and Encouragement) programme study: a randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med. 2009;26:17.
73.
Yates T, Davies M, Gorely T, Bull F, Khunti K. Rationale, design and baseline data from the Prediabetes Risk Education and Physical Activity Recommendation and Encouragement (PREPARE) programme study: a randomized controlled trial. Patient Educ Couns. 2008;73:264–271. [PubMed: 18653305]
74.
Connell CM, Janevic MR. Effects of a telephone-based exercise intervention for dementia caregiving wives: a randomized controlled trial. J Appl Gerontol. 2009;28:171–194. [PMC free article: PMC3121165] [PubMed: 21709757]
75.
Pekmezi DW, Neighbors CJ, Lee CS, et al. A culturally adapted physical activity intervention for Latinas: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37:495–500. [PMC free article: PMC2814545] [PubMed: 19944914]
76.
Martinson BC, Sherwood NE, Crain AL, et al. Maintaining physical activity among older adults: 24-month outcomes of the Keep Active Minnesota randomized controlled trial. Prev Med. 2010;51:37–44. [PMC free article: PMC2885533] [PubMed: 20382179]
77.
Anderson JW, Garrity TF, Wood CL, Whitis SE, Smith BM, Oeltgen PR. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of the effects of low-fat and low-fat plus high-fiber diets on serum lipid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:887–894. [PubMed: 1329482]
78.
Baron JA, Gleason R, Crowe B, Mann JI. Preliminary trial of the effect of general practice based nutritional advice. Br J Gen Pract. 1990;40:137–141. [PMC free article: PMC1371239] [PubMed: 2115348]
79.
Beresford SA, Curry SJ, Kristal AR, Lazovich D, Feng Z, Wagner EH. A dietary intervention in primary care practice: the Eating Patterns Study. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:610–616. [PMC free article: PMC1380841] [PubMed: 9146440]
80.
Bernstein A, Nelson ME, Tucker KL, et al. A home-based nutrition intervention to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods in community dwelling elders. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102:1421–1427. [PubMed: 12396159]
81.
Brekke HK, Jansson PA, Lenner RA. Long-term (1- and 2-year) effects of lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes relatives. Diabet Res Clin Pract. 2005;70:225–234. [PubMed: 15885845]
82.
Carpenter RA, Finley C, Barlow CE. Pilot test of a behavioral skill building intervention to improve overall diet quality. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2004;36:20–24. [PubMed: 14756978]
83.
Coates RJ, Bowen DJ, Kristal AR, et al. The Women’s Health Trial Feasibility Study in Minority Populations: changes in dietary intakes. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149:1104–1112. [PubMed: 10369504]
84.
Bowen D, Clifford CK, Coates R, et al. The Women’s Health Trial Feasibility Study in Minority Populations: design and baseline descriptions. Ann Epidemiol. 1996;6:507–519. [PubMed: 8978881]
85.
Hall WD, Feng Z, George VA, et al. Low-fat diet: effect on anthropometrics, blood pressure, glucose, and insulin in older women. Ethn Dis. 2003;13:337–343. [PubMed: 12894958]
86.
Fries E, Edinboro P, McClish D, et al. Randomized trial of a low-intensity dietary intervention in rural residents: the Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28:162–168. [PubMed: 15710271]
87.
Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. The Hypertension Prevention Trial: three-year effects of dietary changes on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:153–162. [PubMed: 2404477]
88.
Shah M, Jeffery RW, Laing B, Savre SG, Van NM, Strickland D. Hypertension Prevention Trial (HPT): food pattern changes resulting from intervention on sodium, potassium, and energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90:69–76. [PubMed: 2404050]
89.
Meinert CL, Borhani NO, Langford HG. Design, methods, and rationale in the Hypertension Prevention Trial. Control Clin Trials. 1989;10:1S–29S. [PubMed: 2680271]
90.
John JH, Ziebland S, Yudkin P, Roe LS, Neil HA. Oxford Fruit and Vegetable Study Group. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359:1969–1974. [PubMed: 12076551]
91.
Kristal AR, Curry SJ, Shattuck AL, Feng Z, Li S. A randomized trial of a tailored, self-help dietary intervention: the Puget Sound Eating Patterns study. Prev Med. 2000;31:380–389. [PubMed: 11006063]
92.
Lutz SF, Ammerman AS, Atwood JR, Campbell MK, DeVellis RF, Rosamond WD. Innovative newsletter interventions improve fruit and vegetable consumption in healthy adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99:705–709. [PubMed: 10361533]
93.
Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Redding C, et al. Stage-based expert systems to guide a population of primary care patients to quit smoking, eat healthier, prevent skin cancer, and receive regular mammograms. Prev Med. 2005;41:406–416. [PubMed: 15896835]
94.
Roderick P, Ruddock V, Hunt P, Miller G. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary advice by practice nurses in lowering diet-related coronary heart disease risk. Br J Gen Pract. 1997;47:7–12. [PMC free article: PMC1312885] [PubMed: 9115804]
95.
Sacerdote C, Fiorini L, Rosato R, Audenino M, Valpreda M, Vineis P. Randomized controlled trial: effect of nutritional counselling in general practice. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:409–415. [PubMed: 16157616]
96.
Stefanick ML, Mackey S, Sheehan M, Ellsworth N, Haskell WL, Wood PD. Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:12–20. [PubMed: 9647874]
97.
Stevens VJ, Glasgow RE, Toobert DJ, Karanja N, Smith KS. One-year results from a brief, computer-assisted intervention to decrease consumption of fat and increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prev Med. 2003;36:594–600. [PubMed: 12689805]
98.
The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase I. JAMA. 1992;267:1213–1220. [PubMed: 1586398]
99.
Kumanyika SK, Hebert PR, Cutler JA, et al. Feasibility and efficacy of sodium reduction in the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase I. Hypertens. 1993;22:502–512. [PubMed: 8406655]
100.
Satterfield S, Cutler JA, Langford HG, et al. Trials of hypertension prevention:p hase I design. Ann Epidemiol. 1991;1:455–471. [PubMed: 1669525]
101.
The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure: the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:657–667. [PubMed: 9080920]
102.
Hebert PR, Bolt RJ, Borhani NO, et al. Design of a multicenter trial to evaluate long-term life-style intervention in adults with high-normal blood pressure levels:the Trials of Hypertension PreventionP hase II. Ann Epidemiol. 1995;5:130–139. [PubMed: 7795831]
103.
Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, Cutler JA, et al. Sodium reduction for hypertension prevention in overweight adults: further results from the Trials of Hypertension Prevention Phase II. J Hum Hypertens. 2005;19:33–45. [PubMed: 15372064]
104.
Tinker LF, Bonds DE, Margolis KL, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of treated diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled dietary modification trial. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:1500–1511. [PubMed: 18663162]
105.
Prentice RL, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006;295:629–642. [PubMed: 16467232]
106.
Howard BV, Van HL, Hs ia J, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of CVD: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006;295:655–666. [PubMed: 16467234]
107.
Design of the Women’s Health Initiative clinical trial and observational study. Control Clin Trials. 1998;19:61–109. [PubMed: 9492970]
108.
Watanabe M, Yamaoka K, Yokotsuka M, Tango T. Randomized controlled trial of a new dietary education program to prevent type 2 diabetes in a high-risk group of Japanese male workers. Diabet Care. 2003;26:3209–3214. [PubMed: 14633803]
109.
Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E, et al. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on CVDoutcomes: observational follow-up of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) BMJ. 2007;334:885–888. [PMC free article: PMC1857760] [PubMed: 17449506]
110.
Aldana SG, Greenlaw RL, Diehl HA, et al. The behavioral and clinical effects of therapeutic lifestyle change on middle-aged adults. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3:A05. [PMC free article: PMC1500954] [PubMed: 16356358]
111.
Aldana SG, Greenlaw RL, Diehl HA, et al. Effects of an intensive diet and physical activity modification program on the health risks of adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:371–381. [PubMed: 15746824]
112.
Babazono A, Kame C, Ishihara R, Yamamoto E, Hillman AL. Patient-motivated prevention of lifestyle-related disease in Japan: arandomized, controlled clinical trial. Dis Manag Health Outcomes. 2007;15:119–126.
113.
Brekke HK, Sunesson A, Axelsen M, Lenner RA. Attitudes and barriers to dietary advice aimed at reducing risk of type 2 diabetes in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004;17:513–521. [PubMed: 15546428]
114.
Eakin EG, Bull SS, Riley KM, Reeves MM, McLaughlin P, Gutierrez S. Resources for health: a primary-care-based diet and physical activity intervention targeting urban Latinos with multiple chronic conditions. Health Psychol. 2007;26:392–400. [PubMed: 17605558]
115.
Edelman D, Oddone EZ, Liebowitz RS, et al. Multidimensional integrative medicine intervention to improve cardiovascular risk. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:728–734. [PMC free article: PMC1924710] [PubMed: 16808774]
116.
Franko DL, Cousineau TM, Trant M, et al. Motivation, self-efficacy, physical activity and nutrition in college students: randomized controlled trial of an internet-based education program. Prev Med. 2008;47:369–377. [PMC free article: PMC2926661] [PubMed: 18639581]
117.
Hardcastle S, Taylor A, Bailey M, Castle R. A randomised controlled trial on the effectiveness of a primary health care based counselling intervention on physical activity, diet and CHD risk factors. Patient Educ Couns. 2008;70:31–39. [PubMed: 17997263]
118.
Oldroyd JC, Unwin NC, White M, Mathers JC, Alberti KG. Randomised controlled trial evaluating lifestyle interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabet Res Clin Pract. 2006;72:117–127. [PubMed: 16297488]
119.
Hivert MF, Langlois MF, Bérard P, Cuerrier JP, Carpentier AC. Prevention of weight gain in young adults through a seminar-based intervention program. Int J Obes. 2007;31:1262–1269. [PubMed: 17356531]
120.
Jeffery RW, French SA. Preventing weight gain in adults: the pound of prevention study. Am J Public Health. 1999;89:747–751. [PMC free article: PMC1508711] [PubMed: 10224988]
121.
Keyserling TC, Samuel Hodge CD, Jilcott SB, et al. Randomized trial of a clinic-based, community-supported, lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet: the North Carolina enhanced WISEWOMAN project. Prev Med. 2008;46:499–510. [PubMed: 18394692]
122.
Mosca L, Mochari H, Liao M, Christian AH, Edelman DJ, Aggarwal B, Oz MC. A novel family-based intervention trial to improve heart health—FIT Heart: results of a randomized controlled trial. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2008;1:98–106. [PMC free article: PMC2801902] [PubMed: 20031796]
123.
Oldroyd JC, Unwin NC, White M, Imrie K, Mathers JC, Alberti KG. Randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to modify cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with impaired glucose tolerance: outcomes at 6 months. Diabet Res Clin Pract. 2001;52:29–43. [PubMed: 11182214]
124.
Simkin-Silverman LR, Wing RR, Boraz MA, Meilahn EN, Kuller LH. Maintenance of cardiovascular risk factor changes among middle-aged women in a lifestyle intervention trial. Womens Health. 1998;4:255–271. [PubMed: 9787651]
125.
Simkin-Silverman L, Wing RR, Hansen DH, et al. Prevention of cardiovascular risk factor elevations in healthy premenopausal women. Prev Med. 1995;24:509–517. [PubMed: 8524727]
126.
Simkin-Silverman LR, Wing RR, Boraz MA, Kuller LH. Lifestyle intervention can prevent weight gain during menopause: results from a 5-year randomized clinical trial. Ann Behav Med. 2003;26:212–220. [PubMed: 14644697]
127.
Thompson JL, Allen P, Helitzer DL, et al. Reducing diabetes risk in American Indian women. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34:192–201. [PMC free article: PMC2275812] [PubMed: 18312806]
128.
Herman C, Thompson J, Wolfe V, et al. Six-month Results From a Healthy Lifestyles Diabetes Primary Prevention Program Among Urban Native American Women. Boston: American Public Health Association 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition; 2006.
129.
Allen P, Thompson JL, Herman CJ, et al. Impact of periodic follow-up testing among urban American Indian women with impaired fasting glucose. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A76. [PMC free article: PMC2483541] [PubMed: 18558026]
130.
Vandelanotte C, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Sallis JF, Spittaels H, Brug J. Efficacy of sequential or simultaneous interactive computer-tailored interventions for increasing physical activity and decreasing fat intake. Ann Behav Med. 2005;29:138–146. [PubMed: 15823787]
131.
Wister A, Loewen N, Kennedy-Symonds H, McGowan B, McCoy B, Singer J. One-year follow-up of a therapeutic lifestyle intervention targeting CVD risk. CMAJ. 2007;177:859–865. [PMC free article: PMC1995136] [PubMed: 17923653]
132.
Kuller LH, Simkin - Silverman LR, Wing RR, Meilahn EN, Ives DG. Women’s Healthy Lifestyle Project, a randomized clinical trial: results at 54 months. Circulation. 2001;103:32–37. [PubMed: 11136682]
133.
Albert CM, Mittleman MA, Chae CU, Lee IM, Hennekens CH, Manson JE. Triggering of sudden death from cardiac causes by vigorous exertion. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1355–1361. [PubMed: 11070099]
134.
Giri S, Thompson PD, Kiernan FJ, et al. Clinical and angiographic characteristics of exertion-related acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 1999;282:1731–1736. [PubMed: 10568645]
135.
Hallqvist J, Moller J, Ahlbom A, Diderichsen F, Reuterwall C, de Faire U. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction? A case-crossover analysis nested in a population-based case-referent study. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:459–467. [PubMed: 10707914]
136.
Mittleman MA, Maclure M, Tofler GH, Sherwood JB, Goldberg RJ, Muller JE. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion: protection against triggering by regular exertion. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1677–1683. [PubMed: 8232456]
137.
Siscovick DS, Weiss NS, Fletcher RH, Lasky T. The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise. N Engl J Med. 1984;311:874–877. [PubMed: 6472399]
138.
von KS, Mittleman MA, Dockery DW, et al. Intensity of physical exertion and triggering of myocardial infarction: a case-crossover study. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1881–1888. [PubMed: 18534976]
139.
Willich SN, Lewis M, Lowel H, Arntz HR, Schubert F, Schroder R. Physical exertion as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1684–1690. [PubMed: 8232457]
140.
Anderson CA, Appel LJ. Dietary modification and CVD prevention: a matter of fat. JAMA. 2006;295:693–695. [PubMed: 16467240]
141.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.
142.
Danaei G, Ding EL, Mozaffarian D, et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000058. [PMC free article: PMC2667673] [PubMed: 19399161]
143.
Borugian MJ, Sheps SB, Kim-Sing C, et al. Waist-to-hip ratio and breast cancer mortality. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158:963–968. [PubMed: 14607804]
144.
Moore TJ, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, et al. Effect of dietary patterns on ambulatory blood pressure: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. Hypertens. 1999;34:472–477. [PubMed: 10489396]
145.
Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:3–10. [PubMed: 11136953]
146.
MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet. 1990;335:765–774. [PubMed: 1969518]
147.
Law MR, Wald NJ, Thompson SG. By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ. 1994;308:367–372. [PMC free article: PMC2539460] [PubMed: 8043072]
148.
Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al. The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:1106–1114. [PubMed: 11412050]
149.
Bazzano LA, Li TY, Joshipura KJ, Hu FB. Intake of fruit, vegetables, and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women. Diabet Care. 2008;31:1311–1317. [PMC free article: PMC2453647] [PubMed: 18390796]
150.
Durstine JL, Grandjean PW, Davis PG, Ferguson MA, Alderson NL, DuBose KD. Blood lipid and lipoprotein adaptations to exercise: a quantitative analysis. Sports Med. 2001;31:1033–1062. [PubMed: 11735685]
151.
Howard BV, Curb JD, Eaton CB, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and lipoprotein risk factors: the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:860–874. [PMC free article: PMC2844674] [PubMed: 20164311]
152.
Zaza S, Lawrence RS, Mahan CS, et al. Scope and organization of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Am J Prev Med. 2000;18:27–34. [PubMed: 10806977]
153.
Fowles ER, Sterling BS, Walker LO. Measuring dietary intake in nursing research. Can J Nurs Res. 2007;39:146–165. [PubMed: 17679590]
154.
Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2. London: Cochrane Collaboration; 2009.
155.
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7:177–188. [PubMed: 3802833]
156.
Laird RD, Studenski S, Perera S, Wallace D. Fall history is an independent predictor of adverse health outcomes and utilization in the elderly. Am J Manag Care. 2001;7:1133–1138. [PubMed: 11767299]
157.
Beresford SA, Farmer EM, Feingold L, Graves KL, Sumner SK, Baker RM. Evaluation of a self-help dietary intervention in a primary care setting. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:79–84. [PMC free article: PMC1694422] [PubMed: 1311152]
158.
Campbell MK, DeVellis BM, Strecher VJ, Ammerman AS, DeVellis RF, Sandler RS. Improving dietary behavior: the effectiveness of tailored messages in primary care settings. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:783–787. [PMC free article: PMC1615043] [PubMed: 8179049]
159.
Delichatsios HK, Hunt MK, Lobb R, Emmons K, Gillman MW. EatSmart: efficacy of a multifaceted preventive nutrition intervention in clinical practice. Prev Med. 2001;33:91–98. [PubMed: 11493041]
160.
Henderson MM, Kushi LH, Thompson DJ, et al. Feasibility of a randomized trial of a low-fat diet for the prevention of breast cancer: dietary compliance in the Women’s Health Trial Vanguard Study. Prev Med. 1990;19:115–133. [PubMed: 2193306]
161.
Keyserling TC, Ammerman AS, Davis CE, Mok MC, Garrett J, Simpson R Jr. A randomized controlled trial of a physician-directed treatment program for low-income patients with high blood cholesterol: the Southeast Cholesterol Project. Arch Fam Med. 1997;6:135–145. [PubMed: 9075448]
162.
Knutsen SF, Knutsen R. The Tromso Survey: the Family Intervention Study—the effect of intervention on some coronary risk factors and dietary habits, a 6-year follow-up. Prev Med. 1991;20:197–212. [PubMed: 2057468]
163.
Lindholm LH, Ekbom T, Dash C, Eriksson M, Tibblin G, Schersten B. The impact of health care advice given in primary care on cardiovascular risk. BMJ. 1995;310:1105–1109. [PMC free article: PMC2549500] [PubMed: 7742677]
164.
Maskarinec G, Chan CL, Meng L, Franke AA, Cooney RV. Exploring the feasibility and effects of a high fruit and vegetable diet in healthy women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:919–924. [PubMed: 10548322]
165.
Mojonnier ML, Hall Y, Berkson DM, et al. Experience in changing food habits of hyperlipidemic men and women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980;77:140–148. [PubMed: 7400495]
166.
Neaton JD, Broste S, Cohen L, Fishman EL, Kjelsberg MO, Schoenberger J. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) VII: a comparison of risk factor changes between the two study groups. Prev Med. 1981;10:519–543. [PubMed: 7027241]
167.
Ockene IS, Hebert JR, Ockene JK, Merriam PA, Hurley TG, Saperia GM. Effect of training and a structured office practice on physician-delivered nutrition counseling: the Worcester-Area Trial for Counseling in Hyperlipidemia (WATCH) Am J Prev Med. 1996;12:252–258. [PubMed: 8874688]
168.
Siero FW, Broer J, Bemelmans WJ, Meyboom-de Jong BM. Impact of group nutrition education and surplus value of Prochaska-based stage-matched information on health-related cognitions and on Mediterranean nutrition behavior. Health Educ Res. 2000;15:635–647. [PubMed: 11184222]
169.
Steptoe A, Doherty S, Rink E, Kerry S, Kendrick T, Hilton S. Behavioural counselling in general practice for the promotion of healthy behaviour among adults at increased risk of coronary heart disease: randomised trial. BMJ. 1999;319:943–947. [PMC free article: PMC28246] [PubMed: 10514155]
170.
Burton LC, Paglia MJ, German PS, Shapiro S, Damiano AM. The effect among older persons of a general preventive visit on three health behaviors: smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, and sedentary lifestyle. Prev Med. 1995;24:492–497. [PubMed: 8524724]
171.
Kerse NM, Flicker L, Jolley D, Arroll B, Young D. Improving the health behaviours of elderly people: randomised controlled trial of a general practice education programme. BMJ. 1999;319:683–687. [PMC free article: PMC28221] [PubMed: 10480825]
172.
Smith BJ, Bauman AE, Bull FC, Booth ML, Harris MF. Promoting physical activity in general practice: a controlled trial of written advice and information materials. Br J Sports Med. 2000;34:262–267. [PMC free article: PMC1724212] [PubMed: 10953898]
173.
Swinburn BA, Walter LG, Arroll B, Tilyard MW, Russell DG. The green prescription study: a randomized controlled trial of written exercise advice provided by general practitioners. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:288–291. [PMC free article: PMC1508188] [PubMed: 9491025]
174.
NIMH Multisite HIV /STD Prevention Trial for African American Couples Group. Eban health promotion intervention: conceptual basis and procedures. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;49(Suppl 1):S28–34. [PMC free article: PMC2814167] [PubMed: 18724187]
175.
Munakata M, Honma H, Akasi M, et al. Japanese study to organize proper lifestyle modifications for metabolic syndrome (J-STOP-MetS): design and method. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4:415–420. [PMC free article: PMC2496971] [PubMed: 18561516]
176.
Groeneveld IF, Proper KI, van der Beek AJ, van Duivenbooden C, van Mechelen W. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost-) effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for CVD: the Health Under Construction study. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:1. [PMC free article: PMC2254612] [PubMed: 18173844]
177.
van Keulen HM, Mesters I, Brug J, et al. Vitalum study design: RCT evaluating the efficacy of tailored print communication and telephone motivational interviewing on multiple health behaviors. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:216. [PMC free article: PMC2443140] [PubMed: 18565222]
178.
Hosper K, Deutekom M, Stronks PK. The effectiveness of “Exercise on Prescription” in stimulating physical activity among women in ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:406. [PMC free article: PMC2631485] [PubMed: 19077190]
179.
Gine-Garriga M, Martin C, Martin C, et al. Referral from primary care to a physical activity programme: establishing long-term adherence? A randomized controlled trial: rationale and study design. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:31. [PMC free article: PMC2654559] [PubMed: 19161605]
180.
Fitzsimons CF, Baker G, Wright A, et al. The “Walking for Wellbeing in the West” randomised controlled trial of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation with 12 month follow-up: rationale and study design. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:259. [PMC free article: PMC2518560] [PubMed: 18655723]
181.
Voils CI, Yancy WS Jr, Kovac S, et al. Study protocol: Couples Partnering for Lipid Enhancing Strategies (CouPLES): a randomized, controlled trial. Trials. 2009;10:10. [PMC free article: PMC2652451] [PubMed: 19200384]

Views

  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page
  • PDF version of this title (23M)

Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to PubMed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...