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Confounders

Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
18755319 Brunner 2008 Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake Yes Total Ca intake <600mg **
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? Yes * Age (continuous), age 70 years or older ** , Asian or white ethnicity **
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? Yes * Weight <127 lb **
Medical conditions History of two or more falls in past year; relative who broke bone before age 40; history of any fracture **
Medication Never used hormones **
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., seasonal variation of 25(OH)D, UV exposure, location)
Smoking and other life styles variables (e.g., physical activity, occupation, alcohol consumption) Yes * Current smoker **
Other Treatment arm in the hormone therapy and dietary modification trials
*

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

**

Fracture risk score

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

Fracture risk score

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: A-E

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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