Confounders

Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
17311057 Gale 2008 Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? Yes * age
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? no *
Medical conditions no
Medication
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., seasonal variation of 25(OH)D, UV exposure, location) Yes UVB exposure
Smoking and other life styles variables (e.g., physical activity, occupation, alcohol consumption) no *
Other
*

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: F-K

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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