Confounders

Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
17442130 Jia 2007 Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake No See the hierarchy of the planned model below
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? Yes See the hierarchy of the planned model below
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? No See the hierarchy of the planned model below
Medical conditions Yes See the hierarchy of the planned model below
Medication Yes See the hierarchy of the planned model below
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., physical activity level, occupation, sun exposure, location) Yes See the hierarchy of the planned model below
Smoking and other life styles variables Yes See the hierarchy of the planned model below
Other
*

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

Model 1: age, sex

Model 2: age, sex, (self-perceived) health status, taking 5 or more kinds of medication

Model 3: age, sex, (self-perceived) health status, taking 5 or more kinds of medication, (self-reported) heart disease, (self-reported) diabetes

Model 4: age, sex, (self-perceived) health status, taking 5 or more kinds of medication, (self-reported) heart disease, (self-reported) diabetes, sunlight exposure

Model 5: age, sex, (self-perceived) health status, taking 5 or more kinds of medication, (self-reported) heart disease, (self-reported) diabetes, Vit D supplement

Model 6: age, sex, (self-perceived) health status, taking 5 or more kinds of medication, (self-reported) heart disease, (self-reported) diabetes, sunlight exposure, Vit D supplement

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: F-K

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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