Confounders

Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
18259007 Wang 2008 Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake Yes Total energy intake; fruit, vegetable, whole grain, red meat intake
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? Yes Age, Race
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? Yes BMI
Medical conditions Yes DM, hypercholestolemia
Medication Yes randomization to aspirin, vitamin E, multivitamin use
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., seasonal variation of 25(OH)D, UV exposure, location)
Smoking and other life styles variables (e.g., physical activity, occupation, alcohol consumption) Yes Smoking, EtOH, physical activity
Other Menopausal status
*

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: R-Z

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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