Confounders

Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
19056569 Larsson 2009 Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake Total energy intake, fiber
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? Yes Age, education
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? Yes BMI, height
Medical conditions History of benign breast disease
Medication Use of oral contraceptives, use of postmenopausal hormones
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., seasonal variation of 25(OH)D, UV exposure, location)
Smoking and other life styles variables (e.g., physical activity, occupation, alcohol consumption) Yes alcohol
Other Age at first birth, age at menarche, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer
*

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: L-Q

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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