Abbreviations

ADL

Activities of daily living

AE

Adverse event

AHI

Arthritis Helplessness Index

AIMS

Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale

AL-TENS

Acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

AQoL

Assessment of quality of life instrument

ARC

Arthritis Research Campaign

AT

Assistive technology

BDI

Beck Depression Inventory

BMI

Body mass index

CES-D Scale

Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale

CI

Confidence interval (95% unless stated otherwise)

COX-2

Cyclooxegenase-2

CV

Cardio-vascular

DASS21

Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale

EQ-5D

EuroQol 5-dimensional outcomes questionnaire

FABER

Flexion, abduction, external rotation test

GDG

Guideline Development Group

GI

Gastrointestinal

HAD

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

HAQ score

Stanford health assessment questionnaire score

HR

Hazard ratio

HRG

Healthcare resource groups

HS

Harris hip score

HSS

Hospital for special surgery knee score

IRGL Pain Scale

Impact of Rheumatic Diseases on General Health and Lifestyle Pain Scale

ITT

Intention to treat analysis

KOOS

Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score

KSPS

Knee-specific Pain Scale

LASER

Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

LI

Lequesne index

MA

Meta-analysis

MACTAR

McMaster Toronto Arthritis patient preference questionnaire

MHRA

Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

MI

Myocardial infarction

NCC-CC

National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions

NHP Pain Scale

Nottingham Health Profile Pain Scale

NHS

National Health Service; this guideline is intended for use in the NHS in England and Wales

NICE

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

NNT

Number needed to treat

NPRS

Numerical Pain Rating Scale

NRS-101

Numerical Rating Scale

NS

Not significant (at the 5% level unless stated otherwise)

NSAID

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

OARSI

Osteoarthritis Research Society international assessment questionnaire

OR

Odds ratio

PASE

Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly

PEMF

Pulsed electromagnetic field

PEME

Pulsed electromagnetic energy

PPI

Proton pump inhibitor, also Present pain intensity score

PPT

Pressure pain tolerance

PSFS

Patient-specific Functional Scale

PUB

Perforation (gastric), ulceration, or bleed

QALY

Quality of life-adjusted year

QoLS

Quality of life score

QWB

Quality of Well-being Scale

RAOS

Rheumatoid and arthritis outcome score

RCT

Randomised clinical trial

ROM

Range of motion

RR

Relative risk

SDS Pain Scale

Simple Descriptive Scale

SF-12

Short Form (12 point) questionnaire

SF-36

Short Form (36 point) questionnaire

SIP

Sickness impact profile

SMD

Standardised mean difference

SNRI

Serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor

SR

Systematic review

SSRI

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SWD

Short wave diathermy

TEFR

Therapeutic education and functional re-adaptation programme

TENS

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

TJA

Total joint arthroplasty (joint replacement surgery)

TSK

Tampa scale of kinesiophobia

TTU

Transfer to utility

VAS

Visual analogue scale

WOMAC

Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index

WMD

Weighted mean differences