Evidence Table 9

Observational studies

NDrugs (mean dose); duration of treatmentDuration of treatmentEligibility CriteriaAuthor
Other population characteristicsDesignData sourcesTime period of assessmentAdverse events assessmentAuthor
Allain, 1991
Delahaye, France
20,513Zopiclone 7.5 mg for adults 18–69 years, 3.75 mg to older patients.3 weeksMen and women 18 years or older who complained of poor sleep for at least 2 weeks and who were followed as outpatients by general practitioners.Allain, 1991
Delahaye, France
62.6% women, mean age 52.3 (range 15–99), 58% had concomitant diseases (29% had cardiovascular disorders, 12.3% had anxiety and/or depressionPostmarketing surveillance surveyCase report forms completed by general practitioners6 monthsReported by the patientAllain, 1991
Delahaye, France
Neuropsychiatric adverse events, no. of AEs (%)/no. of drop-outs
Difficulty arising in the morning: 267(1.3%)/85
Sleepiness: 107(0.52%)/44
Hypersomnia: 6(0.03%)/2
Increased frequency of dreams: 38(0.19%)/6
Nightmares: 101(0.49%)/59
Headache: 61(0.30%)/27
Light headedness/heavy headedness: 11(0.05%)/3
Ebrious feeling: 53(0.26%)/32
Dizziness: 57(0.28%)/24
Fall: 8(0.04%)/5
Anxiety: 10(0.05%)/5
Agitation/excitation: 56(0.27%)/41
Irritability: 17(0.07%)/8
Aggressiveness: 4(0.02%)/2
Tremor: 12(0.06%)/9
Hallucinations: 7(0.03%)/7
Confusion: 7(0.03%)/5
Difficulty concentrating: 6(0.03%)/1
Memory complaints: 15(0.07%)/2
Reduced libido: 4(0.02%)/2
Various neuropsychiatric disorders: 15(0.07%)/12
Gastrointestinal adverse events, no. of AEs (%)/no. of drop-outs
Bitter taste: 746(3.64%)/181
Dysgeusia: 20(0.10%)/6
Dry mouth: 325(1.58%)/53
Gastric pain: 61(0.30%)/33
Nausea: 101(0.49%)/49
Vomiting: 101(0.05%)/8
Diarrhea: 3(0.01%)/2
Constipation: 6(0.03%)/1
Various GI disorders: 46(0.22%)/23

Somatic adverse events, no. of AEs (%)/no. of drop-outs
Asthenia: 38(0.19%)/6
Malaise: 14(0.07%)/8
Dyspnea: 8(0.02%)/5
Palpitation: 4(0.02%)/4
Rash: 8(0.04%)/8
Pruritus: 3(0.16%)/3
Other: 15(0.07%)/7
Not reported
Ancoli- Israel,
US and Europe
260Zaleplon 5 mg, increased to 10 mg if needed.1 yearPrimary insomnia defined by DSM-IV criteria. Admission to randomized phase was restricted to those whose symptoms lasted at least 3 months. Inclusion in the extension phase required completion of the double-blind phase and a run-out period of 7 days followed by 7 to 28 treatment-free days without adverse effects, and return to the clinic after the treatment free interval with a minimum of five daily sleep questionnaires to confirm the need for continued sleep therapy.Ancoli-Israel,
2005 US and Europe
Mean age 73.3 years (SD 5.3, range 65–86 years) in the US and 71.8 years (SD 6.8, range 59–95 years) in EuropeProspective cohort study; open label continuation phase of RCTMonthly safety assessments which included routine physical exams, laboratory determinations, vital signs including blood pressure, and electrocardiograms.7 daysTreatment emergent adverse events were defined as any adverse event that first appeared or that intensified after the initiation of open-label treatment. Discontinuation effects.Ancoli-Israel, 2005
US and Europe
Frequency of common Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs)during open-label run-out phase, number(%):
Headache- 155(27%)
Infection- 73(13%)
Backache- 58(10%)
Bronchitis/pharyngitis- 65(11%)
Rhinitis- 53(9%)
Dizziness- 43(7%)
The TEAEs most frequently associated with discontinuation, number(%):
Pain- 29(5%)
Somnolence or dizziness- 23(4%)
Gastrointestinal changes- 11(2%)
Cardiovascular changes- 8(1%)
Wyeth Research and the Research Service of Veteran Affairs Diego Healthcare System.
Bain, 2003
4,752 (687 zolpidem, 4,065 temazepam)Zolpidem or temazepamNot reportedPatients prescribed zolpidem or temazepam in one hospice practice setting.Bain, 2003
Hospice patientsRetrospective database analysis of prescribing patternsDatabase from one practice. ICD-9 codes associated with each treatment modality.6 monthsNumber of times therapy was discontinued, reasons for discontinuationBain, 2003
Use temazepam or zolpidem, discontinuation due to adverse events:
zolpidem(n=89) vs. temazepam(n=401), (%)
adverse drug reaction- 2.2% vs. 4.2%

Discontinuation due to adverse events: [use temazepam and then switch to zolpidem] vs. [use zolpidem and then switch to temazepam], (%)
adverse drug reaction or others- 10.6% vs. 7.5%

Discontinuation due to adverse events after filtering out “change in dose” as a reason for discontinuation.
Among discontinuation except “change in dose”: adverse drug reaction-4.3% vs.10.1%
Not reported
Buckley, 2004
12,063 (10,763 zopiclone, 1,300 zolpidem)Zolpidem, zopiclone, other sedative hypnotics.Not reportedFatal toxicity of anxiolytic and sedative drugs for the years 1983–1999.Buckley, 2004
Not reported.Retrospective database analysisOffice for National Statistics (England, Wales), and General Registrar’s Office (Scotland)1983–1999Total number of deaths/number of prescriptions
Zolpidem: 3/1300
Zopiclone: 23/10,763
Buckley, 2004
Fatal toxicity index: total no. of deaths
zolpidem vs. zopiclone= 3 vs. 23
Fatal toxicity index: no. of prescriptions (thousands)
zolpidem vs. zopiclone= 1300 vs. 10763
Fatal toxicity index: deaths/million prescriptions (95%CI)
zolpidem vs. zopiclone= 2.3(0.5–6.7) vs. 2.1 (1.4–3.2)
Devins, 1995
274ZopicloneNot reportedWomen who received zopiclone during pregnancy and consulted the Toronto Motherisk Program Teratogen Information Service).Devins, 1995
Indications for drug use:
depression (n=10), insomnia (n=3), anxiety depressive disorder (n=3), anxiety (n=2), bipolar disorder (n=2), and schizophrenia (n=2). 16 did not specify and 2 did not know indication.
Prospective cohort studyMailed patient questionnaireNot reportedDaytime sleepiness, anxiousness, bad taste, weakness, drowsiness/fatigue, dry mouth, poor memory, poor concentration, Rage/aggression/irritability, illness intrusiveness, depressive symptomsDevins, 1995
Adverse events: [zopiclone] vs. [lorazepam] vs. [triazolan] vs. [nitrazepam or flurazepam] vs. [temazepam], no.(%)
Daytime sleepiness: 5.6(4.71) vs. 6.1(3.91) vs. 6.6(4.28) vs. 6.4(4.3) vs. 5.5(4.7), p<0.001
Side-effects anxiousness: 45(16.4) vs. 52(19.8) vs. 33(23.15) vs. 22(18.2) vs. 39(21.7)
Bad taste: 111(40.5) vs. 35(13.3) vs. 18(12.6) vs. 22(18.2) vs. 37(20.6), p<0.0001
Weakness: 24(8.8) vs. 24(9.1) vs. 10(7.0) vs. 12(9.9) vs. 16(8.9)
Drowsiness/fatigue: 82(29.9) vs. 80(30.4) vs. 42(29.4) vs. 37(30.6) vs. 60(33.3)
Dry mouth: 93(33.9) vs. 85(32.3) vs. 34(23.8) vs. 26(21.5) vs. 60(33.3), p<0.0001
Poor memory: 90(32.8) vs. 90(34.2) vs. 43(30.1) vs. 47(38.8) vs. 67(37.2)
Poor concentration: 77(28.1) vs. 75(28.5) vs. 39(27.3) vs. 43(35.5) vs. 57(31.70)
Rage/aggression/irritability: 29(10.6) vs. 39(14.8) vs. 31(21.7) vs. 30(24.8) vs. 39(21.7), p<0.02
Illness intrusiveness: 34.7(17.64) vs. 33.7(17.14) vs. 29.6(16.11) vs. 34.4(20.11) vs. 36.1(20.10)
Depressive symptoms: 21.8(9.73) vs. 22.2(10.58) vs. 20.3(9.18) vs. 20.7(9.4) vs. 21.81(10.76)
Rhone-Poulenc Rorer and Health Canada.
Diav-Citrin, 1999
40ZopicloneNot reportedWomen who received zopiclone during pregnancy and consulted the Toronto Motherisk Program Teratogen Information Service).Diav-Citrin, 1999
Indications for drug use:
depression (n=10), insomnia (n=3), anxiety depressive disorder (n=3), anxiety (n=2), bipolar disorder (n=2), and schizophrenia (n=2). 16 did not specify and 2 did not know indication.
Prospective cohort studyFollowup by telephone interview after the expected date of delivery, using a structured questionnaire.1993–1997Pregnancy outcome.Diav-Citrin, 1999
Pregnancy outcome, zopiclone vs. control:
Pregnancy outcome: NS
Birth defects: NS
Delivery methods: NS
Mean GA (wk): 38.3±2.7 vs. 40.0±1.6, p=0.002
Preterm delivery of <37 wks: NS
Mean birth weight (g): 3245.9±676 vs. 3624.2±536, p=0.01
Birth weight by GA: NS
Meconium: NS
Fetal distress: NS
NICU admission: NS
Ganzoni, 1994
1,972Zolpidem 10 mg (5–10 mg in patients over age 65)Median duration of treatment 29.5 days; range 1– 1,095 daysMen and women aged 15 and above, complaining of insomnia and for whom a hypnotic drug treatment was prescribed by a general practitioner, internist, psychiatrist, or gerontologist.Ganzoni, 1994
64.8% male
31.6% elderly
mean age=54.6+16.5
Postmarketing surveillance surveySafety data recorded by the prescribing physician on a monitoring form.
Codification of adverse events was reviewed by two physicians of the Drug Monitoring Unit.
September 1990– December 1993CNS-related symptoms
Non-CNS-related symptoms.
CNS-related adverse events, n=1972: no. of Aes(%)/no. drop-outs(%)
Residual daytime sedation: 73(3.7)/28(1.4)
Lack of efficacy: 31(1.6)/19(1.0)
Confusion, disorientation, obsessive ideas, delirium, psychosis: 19(1.0)/15(0.8)
Nervousness, internal trembling, nervous feet, restlessness, excitation feeling: 16(0.8)/14(0.7)
Nightmares: 15(0.8)/11(0.6)
Amnesia, memory impaired: 15(0.8)/7(0.4)
Concentration impaired: 11(0.6)/4(0.2)
Anxiety: 11(0.6)/8(0.4)
Somnambulism, sleep walking, nocturnal activity, walking activity: 9(0.5)/5(0.3)
Hallucunation: 6(0.3)/4(0.2)
Dreaming increased: 6(0.3)/3(0.2)
Blurred vision, diplopia, crying, reading impaired, vision abnormal: 5(0.3)/3(0.2)
Agitation, aggressivity: 3(0.2)/2(0.1)
Speech disorder: 3(0.2)/2(0.1)
Tremor: 2(0.1)/0(0.0)
Benzodiazepine withdrawal: 1(0.1)/1(0.1)
Suspicion of drug dependence: 1(0.1)/0(0.0)
Drug misuse: 1(0.1)/0(0.0)
Total: 228(11.6)/126(6.4)
Non-CNS-related adverse events, n=1972: no. of Aes(%)/no. drop-outs(%)
Gastrointestinal: 33(1.7)/25(1.3)
Headache, head pressure: 21(1.1)/8(0.4)
Pruritus, eczema, rash, rash, urticaria, skin
papules: 10(0.5)/5(0.3)
Fall, gait abnormal, coordination impaired, muscle weakness: 9(0.5)/4(0.2)
Dyspnoea, tachypnoea, respiration regulation impaired: 7(0.4)/6(0.3)
Palpitation, tachycardia, precordialgia: 6(0.3)/4(0.2)
Malaise, weakness: 5(0.3)/5(0.3)
Eating activity, bulimia: 4(0.2)/2(0.1)
Dry mouth: 3(0.2)/0(0.0)
Bone/head contusion, skin wound: 3(0.2)/1(0.1)
Hypotension: 2(0.1)/1(0.1)
Polyuria: 2(0.1)/2(0.1)
Loss of appetite: 1(0.1)/0(0.0)
Myocardial infarction: 1(0.1)/0(0.0)
Nasal congestion: 1(0.1)/1(0.1)
Retching: 1(0.1)/1(0.1)
Total: 115(5.8)/69(3.5)
Not Reported
Hajak, 1998
16,944Zolpidem 10 mg- 20 mg (5 mg-10 mg in patients over age 65 years)3 to 4 weeks.Patients in outpatient practice with difficulties in initiating and/or maintaining sleep.Hajak, 1998
64% women, mean age 58.5 (SD 14.9)Before-after.Questionnaire3–4 weeksDiscontinuation, adverse events.Hajak, 1998
Tolerance: moderate-1.4%, poor- 0.6%
Adverse events:
no. patients/% of 268 AEs/% of 16944 treated patients/no. drop-outs
Total: 268/100/1.5/118
Nausea: 36/13.4/0.2/27
Dizziness: 35/13.1/0.2/20
Malaise: 23/8.6/0.1/10
Nightmares: 20/7.5/0.1/15
Agitation: 19/7.1/0.1/15
Headache: 18/6.7/0.1/13
Vomiting: 13/4.9/0.08/11
Somnolence: 9/3.4/0.05/4
Confusion: 8/3.0/0.05/7
Fatigue: 7/2.6/0.04/4
Dyspepsia: 7/2.6/0.04/5
Abnormal gait: 6/2.2/0.04/4
Hallucination: 5/1.9/0.03/4
Tremor: 4/1.5/0.02/2
Anxiety: 4/1.5/0.02/4
Insomnia: 4/1.5/0.02/4
Amnesia: 3/1.1/0.02/2
Asthenia: 3/1.1/0.02/2
Dry mouth: 3/1.1/0.02/3
Synthelabo Arzeimittel GmbH, Germany
Jaffe, 2003
297Zolpidem, zopiclone, other sedative hypnotics.Not reportedPatients admitted to addiction treatment centers.Jaffe, 2003
78% maleBefore-after.surveyNot reportedAbuse liabilityJaffe, 2003
Drug use pattern: zolpidem vs. zopiclone (n=297)
% subjects use: 5.8 vs. 53.7
% street purchase: 23.5 vs. 42.0
% doctor prescribed: 76.5 vs. 79.0
% not recommend by doctor: 23.5 vs. 30.6
% took to sleep: 82.3 vs. 88.5
% took to get high: 23.5 vs. 22.9
% took to make feel better: 64.7 vs. 56.7
% like the effects: 41.2 vs. 48.4
% think they need: 11.8 vs. 28
% addicted: 0 vs. 5.1
% might become addicted: 11.8 vs. 19.8
Maarek, 1992
96Zolpidem 10 mg1 year (360 days)Patients were known to be suffering from disorders involving the initiation and/or maintenance of sleep, included in the trial had to be over 40 years of age and show clear evidence of insomnia defined by at least one of the following symptoms: sleep onset latency of more than 30 min; more than two nocturnal awakenings; and total duration of sleep of less than 6 hours.Maarek, 1992
Not reported.Before-after.The general practitioner assessed patient compliance by questioning the patients at each visit6 months–12 monthsAny adverse events detected by clinical examination or reported spontaneously by the patient were recorded at each visit.Maarek, 1992
7(7.3%) of all patients withdrew because of adverse events:
1(1%) feeling of strangeness
1(1%) feeling of drunkenness
2(2.1%) anterograde amnesia
1(1%) nausea
1(1%) confusional episode
1(1%) nightmares
1(1%) malaise
4(4.2%) vertigo
2(2.1%) daytime drowsiness
1(1%) unpleasant awakening
Morishita, 2000
31 (13 zopiclone, 18 brotizolam)Zopiclone 7.5 mg to 10 mg (mean 9.42 mg);Mean 4.5 yearsElderly patients who had received brotizolam or zopiclone for insomnia in the department of psychiatry at one hospital.Morishita, 2000
Mean age 74.4 years (range 70–86 years).
Psychiatric diagnoses: depression (n=23), hypomania (n=1), hypochondriacal neurosis (n=2), paraphrenia (n=1), dementia (n=1), nonorganic insomnia (n=3).
Retrospective chart review.Medical record review.Not clear- appears to be 1999–2000Ataxia, hyperexcitability, daytime anxiety, agitation and confusion, amnesia, affective disturbance, somnambulism, or morning drowsiness.Morishita, 2000
All patients reported no adverse events, such as ataxia, hyperexcitability, daytime anxiety, agitation and confusion, amnesia, affective disturbance, somnambulism or morning drowsiness.Not reported
Peeters, 1997
1,219Zolpidem1 monthMen or women age 50 years or older, suffering from insomnia.Peeters, 1997
461 males, 751 females, not recorded.Multicenter, open label postmarketing surveillance study; before-after.sleep parameters assessed on entry and at the follow-up visit by the investigator.January 1st to May 31st, 1994Reported by the patient at the followup visit.Peeters, 1997
Adverse events reported: All patients (n=1219)/Patients <65 (n=720)/
Patients >=65 (n=495)
Autonomic nervous system: 5/4/1
Central/peripheral nervous system: 27/14/13
Gastro-intestinal system: 4/2/2
Heart rate and rhythm: 3/0/3
Musculoskeletal system: 1/0/1
Neoplasms: 2/1/1
Psychiatric system: 48/25/23
Special senses: 2/2/0
Vision: 1/0/1
Unknown: 5/5/0
Patients with at least one adverse events: 87/46/41
Reith, 2003946,013ZopicloneNot reportedDeaths from sedative and anxiolytic poisonings for New Zealand (NZ) in 2001 were identified from chemical injury cases that are routinely collected for surveillance purposes by Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) from the Coronial Services Office (CSO) in Wellington.Reith, 2003Not reported.surveillanceThe PharmHouse databaseJanuary 1, 2001 to December 31, 2001.Fatal toxicityReith, 2003Zopiclone involved in poisoning deaths no. of patients
<60 vs >=60 years: 8 vs. 4

No. of dreath: 12
Deaths/100,000 prescriptions: 5.4(2.8–9.4)
Deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 1.9(1.0–3.3)
No. of primary agent death: 3
Primary agent deaths/100,000 prescription: 1.4(0.3–4.0)
Primary agent deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0.5(0.1–1.4)
No. of dreath: 2
Deaths/100,000 prescriptions: 2.9(0.3–10.3)
Deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 1.5(0.2–5.5)
No. of primary agent death: 0
Primary agent deaths/100,000 prescription: 0(0–5.3)
Primary agent deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0(0–2.8)
No. of dreath: 0
Deaths/100,000 prescriptions: 0(0–138.0)
Deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0(0–1379.6)
No. of primary agent death: 0
Primary agent deaths/100,000 prescription: 0(0–138.0)
Primary agent deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0(0–39.9)
No. of dreath: 0
Deaths/100,000 prescriptions: 0(0–35)
Deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0(0–22.2)
No. of primary agent death: 0
Primary agent deaths/100,000 prescription: 0(0–35)
Primary agent deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0(0–22.2)
No. of death: 3
Deaths/100,000 prescriptions: 10.1(2.1–29.4)
Deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 2.8(0.6–8.2)
No. of primary agent death: 0
Primary agent deaths/100,000 prescription: 0(0–12.4)
Primary agent deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0(0–3.4)
No. of death: 5
Deaths/100,000 prescriptions: 4.4(1.4–10.3)
Deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 2.1(0.7–4.8)
No. of primary agent death: 1
Primary agent deaths/100,000 prescription: 0.9(0–4.9)
Primary agent deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0.4(0–2.2)
No. of death: 3
Deaths/100,000 prescriptions: 2.7(0.6–8.0)
Deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 1.0(0.2–2.8)
No. of primary agent death: 1
Primary agent deaths/100,000 prescription: 0.9(0–5.1)
Primary agent deaths/1,000,000 defined daily doses: 0.3(0–1.8)
Not reported
Schneeweiss, 2005
8,785Zolpidem benzodiazepineNRThe study population was restricted to persons living in communities. Of these, the study population was further restricted to Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey respondents aged 65 and older and beneficiaries with at least one medication use in 1999.Schneeweiss, 2005
Mean age = NR
41.7% 65–74 years old
58.2% >=75 years old
41.6% male
Cross-sectional survey dataMedicare Current Beneficiary Survey1 yearNRSchneeweiss, 2005
Zolpidem (n=62) vs benzodiazepine (n=567) vs none (n=6434)
Patients characteristics:
ADL score >=1 point: 54.8% vs 41.3% vs 27.3%
Cognitive impairment: 16.1% vs 15.2% vs 10.2%
Rosow-Breslau, impairments: 75.8% vs 69.5% vs 55.9%

Z vs B; Z vs None; B vs none:
Quantitative assessment of confounding bias in risk estimates
ADL score (>1 points): 10.00; 21.48; 9.96
Cognitive impairment (yes vs no): 1.19; 7.00; 5.78
Rosow-Breslau (>=1 impairments): 3.43; 10.58; 6.54
Scharf, 1994233Zolpidem 15 mg. If adverse events occurred, the investigator could reduce the nightly dose to 10 mg. Patients unable to tolerate 10-mg doses were withdrawn from the study.3 monthsMen and women ages 18 to 60 years, with a history of insomnia of at least 3 months’ duration. Patients had to satisfy one or more of the following criteria: usual duration of sleep less than 6 hours, sleep latency of at least 45 minutes on most nights, and the use of a hypnotic drug on most nights.Scharf, 1994Not reported.Before-after.Patient reports
Physician assessments
13 weeksTreatment emergent adverse events.Scharf, 1994Adverse events: zolpidem 10mg (n=33) vs. zolpidem 15mg (n=229), no.(%)
Dry mouth: 2(6.1) vs. 14(6.1)
Fatigue: 6(18.2) vs. 38(16.6)
Ataxia: 2(6.1) vs. 7(3.1)
Confusion: 2(6.1) vs. 5(2.2)
Dizziness: 2(3.1) vs. 32(14.0)
Drowsiness: 5(15.2) vs. 60(26.2)
Drugged: 0(0) vs. 12(5.2)
Headache: 7(21.2) vs. 65(28.4)
Lethargy: 1(3.0) vs. 14(6.1)
Light-headedness: 1(3.0) vs. 24(10.5)
Abdominal pain: 0(0) vs. 13(5.7)
Dyspepsia: 1(3.0) vs. 20(8.7)
Nausea: 1(3.0) vs. 28(12.2)
Arthralgia: 2(3.1) vs. 7(3.1)
Amnesia: 1(3.0) vs. 15(6.6)
Nervousness: 3(9.1) vs. 11(4.8)
Herpes simplex: 2(6.1) vs. 0(0)
Pharyngitis: 2(6.1) vs. 6(2.6)
URI: 4(12.1) vs. 38(16.6)
Schlich, 1991
107Zolpidem6 monthsOver age 40, clear evidence of insomnia defined as sleep onset latency of more than 30 minutes, number of nocturnal awakenings each night greater than two, and/or total duration of sleep each night less than 6 hours.Schlich, 1991
74 females;
mean age=63.15+1.10 years
65(60.7%) patients enrolled were aged 60 years or over and only 17(15.9%) were under 50 years of age.
Before-afterclinical examinations6 monthsmalaise
anterograde amnesia confusion
Schlich, 1991
Tolerance: no evidence
Adverse events: zolpidem vs. placebo
no. of patients- 24 vs.7
no. adverse events- 42 vs. 10

Adverse events list: 5 malaise 5 vertigo (all elderly) 5 anterograde amnesia 2 confusion (all elderly)

Withdrawal effects: 5(7.2%) withdrawal due to adverse events.
Wang, 2001
1,222 cases, 4,888 controlsZolpidem, benzodiazepines, other6 monthssubjects aged >= 65 on July 1, 1993, and have filled one or more claims for a nonprescription service between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1994 and have filled at least one prescription for any medication through the Medicaid or PAAD programs of New Jersey in each of four consecutive 6-month periods beginning January 1, 1993.Wang, 2001
Not reported.Case ControlNew Jersey Medicaid Program
New Jersey Pharmaceutical Assistance to the Aged and Disable (PAAD) Program New Jersey Medicare
6 monthsNRWang, 2001
Hip Fracture:
Adjusted OR (95% CI)- adjusted for age and gender
zolpidem: 1.95 (1.09–3.51)
benzodiazepine: 1.46 (1.21–1.76)
antipsychotic medication: 1.61 (1.29–2.01)
antidepression: 1.46 (1.22–1.75)
other psychoactive medication: 1.23 (0.90–1.68)
thiazide diuretic: 0.85 (0.71–1.02)
National Institute on drug Abuse and the National Institute on Aging.

From: Evidence Tables

Cover of Drug Class Review: Newer Drugs for Insomnia
Drug Class Review: Newer Drugs for Insomnia: Final Report Update 2 [Internet].
Carson S, McDonagh MS, Thakurta S, et al.
Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2008 Oct.
Copyright © 2008, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

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